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Founded by 9 Philly tailors & led originally by Stephens. Secret society that welcomed all current or former wage earners. Excluded bankers, doctors, lawyers, gamblers, liquor dealers, & stockbrokers. Demanded equal pay for women, to end child/convict labor, & for the cooperative employer-employee ownership of factories, mines, & other businesses. Called for a tax on all earnings—those with higher incomes pay more. Had 700,000 members & secured laws restricting convict labor.
Carnegie; the wealthy have an obligation to the poor; "The man who dies rich dies a disgrace; donated wealth to schools/libraries/etc.
Politics: Who were the democrats?
Politics: Who were the republicans?
two guys created a "railroad construction co." and issued stock to people, did not exist; speculation; gave congress free stock to look away (fraud and bribery)
during Grant; diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors
William Jennings Brian (POP) - nominated by pops and dems, embraced pop platform, major issue CURRENCY (Cross of Gold Speech).
McKinley wins, lots of workers voted for him (told to for Trickle Down system, no rich, no jobs)
1886: Chicago police shot & killed 4 strikers at the McCormick Harvester Plant on May 3. The next evening a protest rally in the city’s Haymarket Square, someone threw a bomb from a building & killed/wounded 7 policemen. The police reacted by killing 4 people with guns after the bomb thrown.
Hunting buffalo not only supplied Natives with food, clothing, & teepee covers but also created valuable buffalo robes for trade. From the 19th century & on, Natives began to kill more buffalos & settlement began to hurt buffalo lands & food. Indians helped whites kill tons of buffalo. Sun Dance was performed by the Sioux to create a good buffalo hunt by gaining spiritual power. The Indians of the Northern Plains hunted buffalo & followed their migrations with guns & horses from traders.
1874: he was sent to the Black Hills w/ troops near the Sioux Reserve. He was a Civil War Officer. Purpose: to find a place for a new fort, watch the Indians, & to find gold. His report to the NY World said region=excellent for farming & he mentioned finding gold. Led to a gold stampede & an excuse for the army to move the Indians. He lad an army of 600 to Little Bighorn Rive & attacked the Cheyenne/Sioux Indians & he & his army were wiped out, all were killed.
Wovoka promised to restore the Sioux to their original dominance on the Plains if they performed the Ghost Dance. Wearing sacred Ghost Shirts (believed to be bullet proof), the dancers moved in a circle, accelerating until they reached a trancelike state & experienced visions of the future. This spread among the Sioux in the 1890s. Sitting Bull's cabin was a rallying point for this movement. McLaughlin tried to arrest him--was shot & in turn shot Sitting Bull, caused troops to kill all Indians.
Pacific Railroad Act of 1862: authorized the construction of a new transcontinental link. It provided land grants & other subsidies to the railroads for each mile of track laid. This act made the railroads the largest landholders in the West. 9 major routes were created that ran from the South & Midwest to the West. It accelerated the transformation of life West of the Mississippi River. Turned to immigrants for labor like the Chinese & Irish. Troops protected workers from Indian attack.
It offered 160 acres of land to any individual who would pay a $10 registration fee, live on the land for 5 years, & cultivate & improve it. It attracted immigrants to the United States during the 1870s-1880s among them the English, Irish, Germans, Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, & Czechs. 400,000 families claimed land under this act but it did not work as well due to speculators filing false claims & railroads/state govs. Gained tons of land.
Farmers did this with the lack of rainfall. Farmers plowed deeply to stimulate the capillary action of the soils & harrowing lightly to raise a covering of dirt that would retain precious moisture after a rainfall.
There was racism, everyone was out there for “all or nothing,” it was hard labor, the West depended hugely on the East, & it was a very dull & boring place. Everyone was out there to make a name for them selves & to just explore all the “excitement” of cowboys, gold, & battles. Many people went home only after a few years for they found nothing out there & nothing interesting.
1853: Henry Comstock, an illiterate prospector, stumbled on the rich Comstock Lode along Nevada’s Carson River. This contained a ton of gold. The Comstock Lode led to the boom of speculation & building in Virginia City, Nevada. By 1873: it was a metropolis of 20,000 people with mansions, a six-story hotel, an opera house, 131 saloons, & 4 banks. There were 3 men for every 1 women.
Efficient steel plows, spring-tooth harrows, wheat planters, grain binders, threshers, & windmills all helped Great Plain farmers. Barbed wire protected crops. Dry farming & specialization for farming & crops.
Wyoming’s tiny legislature enfranchised women in 1869 in the belief that the vote would give women equal political rights & would make them more effective moral caretakers on the rowdy frontier.
In 1889: Congress transferred to the fed. Owned public domain nearly 2 million acres in the Center of the Oklahoma Territory that had not been assigned to any Indian tribe. Thousands of people came in wagons & buggies into the new lands to stake out homesteads (Sooners had illegally arrived early & already began plowing). Tent communities had risen at Ok. City & Guthrie near stations at the Santa Fe Railroad. 6,000 homestead claims after 9 weeks.
Buffalo Bill: “King of the Border Men” was a dime novel based on real-life William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody. The response to this book went well & Cody was inspired in 1883 to start his Wild West Show. It was a very popular show & it presented a mock battle between army scouts & Indians. Presented morality dramas of good vs. evil & virtue always triumphed in the end.
Wisconsin historian who delivered a lecture called “The Significance of the Frontier in American History.” He believed the frontier was gone & that the 1st period of American history was done. This was inaccurate. He linked economic opportunity with the transformation of the West—launched new research on the U.S. frontier. This was his “frontier thesis” & scholars see this & his omission of Indians claims to the land, as inaccurate. He idealized the West.
1887: A 5 member Interstate Commerce Commission was created to oversee the practices of interstate railroads. It banned monopolistic activity like pooling, rebates, & discriminatory short-distance rates. This was created based off of Senator Cullom’s study. The HepBurn Act in 1906: strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission by empowering it to set rates.
He was born in Scotland, immigrated to America. Took a job as a bobbin boy in a textile mill, learned book-keeping, then became Pitt’s fastest telegraph operator, & was hired by the Penn Railroad & became head of the W. division. Opened the Carnegie Steel Mill, & was the first to know the production cost of each ton of steel. Lowered his production costs & mass-produced steel. Gave $300 million to libraries, universities, & peace causes. 1900: had world’s largest industrial corp.
1890: Outlawed trusts & any other monopolies that fixed prices in restraint of trade & slapped violators with fines up to $5,000 & a year in jail. It failed to define clearly trust & restraint of trade. Only 18 antitrust suits were held from 1890-1904.
South had a lack of capital & was devastated by the Civil War. Had only 2% of all banks & it was hard to establish a new bank. Labor was in short supply since many farmers were trapped in cash crop growing, fed policies = for the North not South, high tariffs raised prices of machines from abroad & high railroad rates = expensive to ship goods. They had a shortage of funds, few educated people to run high positions in business/industry. Money paid Civil War veterans.
Children entered the coal mines & cotton mills at age 8 or 9. They were prone to injury since they fooled around & played games/pranks. In the coal industry: kids were hired as slate pickers & they removed pieces of slate/impurities from the coal which made them vulnerable to black lung disease from all the smoke & dust that could turn into tuberculosis. In the cotton mills: kids were likely to get brown lung disease from the dust. Helped support their families & worked for low wages.
Will Sylvis was the president of the Iron Molders’ International Union & then called a convention in Baltimore that formed the National Labor Union. This union endorsed the 8-8-8 hour day, called for an end to convict labor, the establishment of a Fed. Dep. of Labor, & for currency & banking reform. Wanted to restrict immigration, supported working women, & urged black workers to organize. Had 300,000 members but vanished when Sylvis died in 1869.
He became the leader of the Knights of Labor & attracted many members to the group. He was a Pennsylvania machinist of Irish-Catholic immigrant origins. He hated strikes & organized producer/consumer cooperations. He urged temperance, advocated admission of blacks, & welcomed women. He supported immigrantion restriction & permanently banning Chinese immigration.
He was an immigrant cigar maker who was the head of the American Federation of Labor & he led it from its first day all the way until its end in 1924. He wanted higher wages & believed it was necessary for families to live decently & he wanted to reduce their hours of work. He organized the AFL as a federation of trade unions.
Employers had laborers sign these contracts in which they promised not to strike or join a union. These were used after railroad strikes of 1877.
Came in the 1890s from Europe & replaced the Germans/Irish in Philly, French Canadians went to the NE in the textile mills, & Chinese to West Coast & worked as miners, canners, & on railroads. They lived in boardinghouses, worked 84 hour weeks, & made $15 a month. They had a hard time adjusting to factories speed & schedules. They were discriminated against for not being white (native-born) could have wages cut, be evicted, put into Sunday school or temperance groups for bad behavior.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's answer to the country's demands for action during the Great Depression was an ambitious program of relief and reform.
The Great Depression's most prominent victim. His repeated assertion that prosperity was just around the corner bred cynicism and mistrust. He blamed the depression on foreign causes, especially unstable European banks. Along with the president, this person believed in voluntary efforts to relieve the human suffering brought about by the depression. As the depression deepened, Hoover reluctantly began to move beyond voluntarism to undertake more sweeping government measures.
Loaned money to aid cooperatives and bought up surplus crops in the open market in vain effort to raise farm prices.
proposed by Hoover and established by Congress, this corporation loaned government money to financial institutions to save them from bankruptcy.
This ragged group of some twenty-two thousand World War I veterans had come to Washington in the summer to lobby Congress to pay immediately a bonus for military service that was due them. After the Senate rejected the bonus bill, some of the veterans stayed in Washington, living in ramshackle huts in Anacostia Flats along the Potomac. Mounted troops drove these people out of the capital, blinding the veterans with tear gas and burning their shacks.
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