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1. Different civilizations in pre-Columbian America that each had their own cultures and ways of living.
2. These societies occupied America before it was discovered by the Europeans.
3. Examples of tribal societies are the Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs.
1. An ancient civilization located in Central America and on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico that created a sophisticated culture with a written language, a numerical system, an accurate calendar, and an advanced agricultural system.
2. They occupied the Americas before Columbus arrived.
3. They were settled in America before it was discovered by the Europeans.
1. An ancient civilization that ruled over much of central and southern Mexico and are known for their advanced administrative, educational, and medical systems and their religion that involved human sacrifice.
2. They succeeded the Mayans and ruled about the late 13th century, before Columbus discovered the Americas.
3. They occupied the Americas before the Europeans discovered them and are recognized for their impressive accomplishments.
1. A major city that was inhabited by the Cahokia Indians that was located near present-day St. Louis and emerged as a result of trade and contained a great complex of large earthen mounds.
2. It was a city before Columbus discovered the Americas.
3. This city was an example of the substantial permanent settlements and the large trading networks that existed in the Americas before the Europeans discovered the continents.
1. A form of farming in which the products are used to fulfill the needs of one's self/family, and rarely for profit.
2. This form of farming was prominent in Europe in the Middle Ages (about 500-1500 A.D.).
3. The fact that subsistence farming was very common in Europe in the Middle Ages demonstrates how it was a not an adventurous civilization and commerce was limited.
1. An eagerness for advancements/independence in one's country.
2. Nationalism was prominent about a century and a half after the catastrophic epidemic of the bubonic plague in Europe, as the population rebounded, commerce "reawakened", and strong new monarchs emerged.
3. The ambitious new European monarchs were eager to enhance the commercial growth of their nations, a desire which later lead to the voyages of exploration.
1. An explorer who sailed for Spain that believed, and tried to prove, that it was possible to reach Asia by going west instead of east.
2. He embarked on his first journey in 1492.
3. Columbus was the first explorer to discover the Americas, and his initiative partly resulted in Spain devoting greater resources and energy to maritime exploration, eventually causing them to replace Portugal as the leading seafaring nation.
1. A disease that the Conquistadores brought to the New World.
2. Hernando Cortes first exposed the Aztecs to smallpox in 1518, when he and his army tried to attack the Aztec capital.
3. The Aztecs were not immune to the disease like the Spainiards, and a smallpox epidemic decimated the population and made it possible for the Spanish to conquer the natives.
1. Early Spanish colonists that tried to enslave the Indians and find gold.
2. The conquistadors conquered native populations in the New World in the 1500s.
3. The conquistadors destroyed many native populations, making the creation of a vast Spanish empire in the New World possible.
1. Spainiards sent to the New World to convert the natives to Catholicism.
2. Missionaries started emigrating to America after the era of the conquistadors ended in the 1540s.
3. Because of the work of missionaries, Catholicism extended throughout South and Central America, Mexico, and into the SOuth and Southwest of the present U.S.
1. A native tribe whose land in present-day New Mexico was claimed by the Spanish.
2. The Spaniards claimed the Pueblos land in 1598, and the Pueblos' big revolt took place in 1680.
3. Through revolts, the Pueblo forced the Spanish to permit their people to own land, to stop commandeering Indian labor, and to tolerate their practice of tribal religious rituals
1. One of the largest empires in the history of the world.
2. It reached this peak by the end of the 16th century.
3. Strict and inflexible policies by the Spanish government prevented the economic development of the Spanish areas if the New World, and the majority of the population of the Spanish empire consisted of natives.
1. A huge market based on the trading and selling of slaves from Africa.
2. It began as early as the 8th century, but in the 16th century the market for slaves grew dramatically.
3. The dramatic increase in the demand for slaves resulted from the rising European demand for sugar cane.
1. A Dutch company that established a series of permanent trading posts on the Hudson, Delaware, and Conneticut Rivers.
2. These were established in 1624.
3. The company actively encouraged the settlement of the region.
1. The movement of landowners in England turning their land into enclosures for sheep because of the worldwide demand for wool.
2. This took place before England started colonizing in the New World.
3. The enclosure movement caused many farmers to lose their jobs and to become poor, and the increase in sheep enclosures and the decrease in cultivation limited England's ability to feed its population.
1. A concept that helped England create a domestic cloth industry.
2. Merchant capitalism was a significant force during the enclosure movement in England.
3. Merchant capitalists benefitted from the expansion of foreign trade, and they formed charter companies.
1. The economic concept that a nation as a whole was the principal actor in the economy, not the individuals within it.
2. The principles of mercantilism guided the economic policies of virtually all the European nation-states in the 16th and 17th centuries.
3. One result of mercantilism in England was that it increased the attractiveness of acquiring colonies.
1. An Augustinian monk and ordained priest that challenged the Roman Catholic Church.
2. Because of him, the Protestant Reformation began in Germany in 1517.
3. Luther's challenge quickly won him a large following, and he began to lead his followers out of the Catholic Church entirely.
1. A Swiss theologian that was the most influential reformer and went even further than Luther had in rejecting Catholic beliefs.
2. He was a reformer during the Protestant Reformation.
3. Calvinism created a strong incentive to lead virtuous, productive lives.
1. The King of England who severed England's ties with the Catholic Church because the pope wouldn't allow him to divorce his wife.
2. He broke these ties in 1529.
3. The English Reformation began because of his political dispute.
1. A period in which England broke away from the Catholic Church.
2. It began after King Henry VIII's political dispute with the pope.
3. When the king's daughter Mary became Queen, she restored England's allegiance with the Catholic Church, and executed many Protestants.
1. Christians who followed Calvin's beliefs and pushed for reforms that would "purify" the church.
2. Calvinist Puritans showed up in England under the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
3. Some Puritans took extreme forms as Separatists.
1. The Church of England satisfied the political objectives of Queen Elizabeth, but not the religious desires of English Christians.
2. During Queen Elizabeth's reign.
3. The church began incorporating some of the tenets of Calvinism, but never enough to satisfy its critics.
1. Puritans that, by the standards of the time, took radical positions.
2. Separatists showed up under Queen Elizabeth's reign.
3. They were determined to worship as they pleased in their own independent congregations, and that determination flew in the face of English law which outlawed this.
1. The Queen of England that once again severed England's ties with the Catholic Church.
2. She took the throne after her half-sister Mary died.
3. Many English Christians were unhappy with her reformation of the Church of England.
1. A Scotsman and the first of the Stuarts to reign over England.
2. He took the throne after Queen Elizabeth died.
3. The religious discontent he caused created more incentives for colonization.
1. England's method of colonization that involved "plantations," transplantations of English society in a foreign land.
2. This method was established when England attempted to colonize in Ireland.
3. England would take this concept to the New World.
1. An Indian/French enterprise that became one of the underpinnings of the French colonial economy.
2. It took place in the early 1600s after France founded its first permanent settlement in America at Quebec.
3. The fur trade helped open the way for other elements of the French presence in North America.
1. One of the largest military fleets in the history of warfare.
2. The English ended the Spanish Armada's domination of the Atlantic when it attempted to invade England 1588.
3. The English now felt much freer to establish themselves in the New World.
1. An attempt at colonization in the New World by England that was coined as the "Lost Colony" because the colonists had mysteriously vanished.
2. The Roanoke Colony was established in the late 1500s under Queen Elizabeth's rule.
3. This disaster marked the end of Raleigh's involvement in the English colonization of the New World.
· Thequestion of who would hold authority was one of America’s first problems, didnot want one sovereign ruler because of experiences with Britain, had to find acompletely new system
· Questionarose after the Revolution, remained until the Constitution was written
· Decided,by James Madison and colleagues, that the government would derive its powerfrom the people
Taxes enforced by the US gov't in the early 19th century to protect American industry. These tariffs limited foreign industrial competition by placing huge taxes on goods imported from other countries, inclining Americans to choose to buy American-made goods.
1. An important Supreme Court decision in 1832 in which concluded Georgia's laws that attempted to regulate access by U.S. citizens to Cherokee country were invalid, claiming only the federal government had the right to do that.
2. This decision did something that even the Constitution could not: it defined a place for Indian tribes within the American political system, stating they had basic property rights and were sovereign entities not subject to state authority, but to the federal government.
6. Eli Whitney and the cotton gin
In the early 19th century, Marbury applied to the Supreme Court for an order that forced James Madison to perform his official duty and deliver Marbury's commision. The court ruled that Marbury had the right to his commision, but that they could not order Madison to deliver it. This case established the principle of judicial review.
Tensions in Europe that eventually turned into a full scale conflict as both Britain and France tried to prevent the US from trading with/assisting the other in the early 19th century. This was one of the events that drew the US into the War of 1812.
· Taxto be paid on particular goods, American manufacturers wanted a uniformnational tax, not different fees for every state
· 1780s,after disapproval for the Articles of Confederation started brewing
· Economicswas one of the main issues the Articles were virtually powerless over, nationwas divided and many opinions about the monetary system rose up
· NYlawyer, considered political genius, was once George Washington’s protégé,unhappy with the Articles, with the help of James Madison, called together ameeting of delegates to discuss changing the Articles
· Delegatesfrom 5 states met in Annapolis in 1786, agreed to meet next year
· Wasone of the most significant and effective reformers of the Constitution
· Brilliant,revolutionary political thinker, proposed the Virginia Plan, called “The Fatherof the Constitution”
· Madesignificant contributions to the formation of the government in the late 1700s
· Madea large contribution to the Constitution, help answer the question ofsovereignty, and even introduced the idea of checks and balances
· Reformthat proposed two legislative houses, one lower house according to statepopulation, while the members of the upper house would be voted on byrepresentatives of the lower house
· Presentedto Constitutional Convention in 1787
· Opposedby the smaller states who might not have equal representation, but was thefirst proposal that suggested completely replacing the Articles
· Systemused in the Constitution in which the 3 branches (executive, legislative,judiciary) would have powers to balance each other, keep equal authority incheck. No branch could ever dominate, the other 2 could be there to unseat itspower
· September1787, included in the Constitution
· Wouldbe the most unique, effective, and generally agreed upon, element of the newAmerican Constitution
· Federalistssupported Constitution, Anti-Federalists did not, created a deep political riftwithin the country, both wanted a more effective central gov’t, but did notagree on how to get there
· Bothfeared the ability of man to handle power (Federalists feared power of themasses, Anti-Federalists feared concentrated power within a gov’t). Would beconsidered first political parties of America
· Seriesof essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. Explainedthe benefits of the Constitution and provided a strong basis for the Federalistbeliefs
· Late1780s, began being published in newspapers and pamphlets
· Consideredone of the greatest additions to American political theory
· Waspresident of the Constitutional Convention, most delegates already assumed thathe would be the first president, considered a peacemaker, all looked up to him
· Inauguratedon April 30, 1789
· Servedfor two terms, kept the country from splitting off into factions from the start,US was generally united, Washington was greatly respected
· Formedthe court system of the US, one Supreme Court (would have 6 justices, oneserving as chief justice), 13 district courts, and 3 courts of appeal
· Establishedin 1789
· Alsogave judiciary branch the authority to determine the constitutionality of statelaws, primary job would be to interpret laws from Congress
· Writtenby newly appointed secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton, discussingthe implementation of new economic systems within the US. Implemented new taxesthat would increase gov’t revenue, which would help pay off the war debt thenew government had inherited
· Writtenin 1791
· Formeda “healthy manufacturing base” for America and sped up the growth of industry
· America’ssecond presidential election, George Washington was (reluctantly) convinced toserve a second term
· Re-electedin 1792
· Washington’ssecond term would reveal a country beginning to divide (even his own allegiancewas quietly with the Federalists), the two new parties constantly clashing
· WesternPennsylvania farmers refused to pay whiskey tax, began attacking tax collectorsin Pennsylvania. Under Constitution, Washington led a large force of militiamento abruptly end the rebellion
· Supportedthe benefits of the new federal gov’t, could provide aid (unlike Shay’srebellion, where Massachusetts was left alone), gained loyalty throughintimidation, gov’t now had some power
· Unclearwhether Natives had control of their land, Constitution did not clearly specifywhat rights the Natives would have in the new country
· 1784-1787,new land ordinances began causing conflict with the Natives
· Nativeand American relationship depended on makeshift treaties, mutual agreements,and judicial action. Weren’t considered a part of the country, but not cast outeither.
· Chiefjustice John Jay sent to negotiate a treaty with Britain, wanted to be repaidfor recent damages to US shipping, get rid of British forces on American ports,and establish new commercial agreement
· Negotiatedin 1794
· EnsuredAmerican dominance in the northwest and settled a conflict with Britain thatcould have started another war
· Spainfeared that new British and American friendship would threaten landholdings inAmerica, conceded to treaty proposed by Thomas Pinckney
· Signedin 1795
· GaveAmericans the right to travel on the Mississippi, adjusted Florida boundary,provided Spanish protection from any Native raids across the border of Florida
· Washingtonretired, Federalists and Republicans in fierce conflict. Thomas Jefferson ranfor Republic party, John Adams for Federalists. Federalist Party was divided atthe time.
· 1796,divisions between political parties heightened
· WithoutWashington as peacemaker, political rifts began to grow, John Adams was electedpresident but leadership was not very effective
· Letterwritten by Washington announcing retirement, criticized Republican attempts atsabotaging Federalist diplomacy, published in Philadelphia newsletter
· Washingtonretired in 1979
· ExpressedWashington’s dislike of established political factions, should have served as awarning to cease the formation of political parties, or at least the negativeeffects that came with the different ideas
· SucceededWashington, became the 2nd president of the United States by 3electoral votes
· Wonthe election of 1796
· Cameto power in the midst of a divided, constantly bickering Federalist party,conflict with Republicans, was not an effective enough leader to resolvepolitical issues. Alexander Hamilton remained the most authoritative figure ingov’t, good leadership was critical at this time period
· Congresscreated Department of the Navy, development of first navy of the US, allowedthem to seize armed French ships on the ocean, for the duration of the war thenavy was able to capture 85 ships
· Createdin 1798 by President Adams and Congress
· Veryhelpful against French forces, used some gov’t funds to begin improvingwarships and navy technology
· RepublicanParty’s attempt at abolishing the Alien and Sedition Acts, used John Locke’sidea that state governments had power to deny a law passed by Congress whenthey felt Congress was over-exceeding its powers
· Releasedin 1798-1799, written by Jefferson and Madison
· Onlyeffective in Virginia and Kentucky legislations, but did push political partyconflict to its peak, divisions were worst in American history
1. He was an American author and another leading transcendentalist, further repudiating the repressive forces of society, believing they produced "lives of quiet desperation."
2. He was a huge part of the transcendentalist movement, along with Ralph Waldo Emerson.