Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Became paralyzed. Nominated Al Smith for president in 1928. Became governor of NY.
-was understanding of the disadvantaged b/c of being paralyzed.
-devoted herself to caring for her hubby.
-she also encouraged him to go back to politics despite his mother encouraging otherwise.
-became active in the NY Democratic party and with social issues. - she edited the Dems. newsletter for women in NY. She was very shy but forced herself to make speeches.
-elected in 1932 amidst depression.
-his administration set the the national political agenda for a generation. loved by some and regarded by others as a possible dictator.
New Deal: Profound effect on ideas about government as it defined a more expansive view of the role of the state in promoting economic and social welfare.
Also, response of American people to the Depression.
In Sep. 1928 and Sept. 1929-tried to slow down speculation by raising the interest rate on federal reserve notes.
-they also warned banks to have tighter lending policies.
-but speculators were willing to pay high interest to buy more stock and institutions lent more freely. Stock prices zoomed higher. BASED ON NOTHING.
-Prices fell and some stocks had no buyers at all. stocks became worthless.
-$3 billion lost.
On Tuesday, oct. 29, a record 16 million stocks changed hands in frantic trading.
-intially confronted crisis boldly, based on his progressive reform experience in the past and head of US food admin. in WW1. His approach also reflected his belief in localism and private initiative.
-He urged business leaders to maintain wages and employment. He saw unemployment as a local issue and advised municipal and stage govs. to create public-works projects. In Oct. 1930 he set up an Emergency Committee for Employment to coordinate voluntary relief efforts.
-economists look at the structural probs of the 1920s unstable prosperity.
agriculture sector remained depressed through the 1920s
-increased industrial prosperity did not generate fully equal wage increases, but rather higher corporate profits in 1920s
-With lower wages, less cosumer purchasing power. assembly lines encouraged though overproduction. by 1929, auto, houseing, tire and other industries were very overextended.
-viewd them as acts of nature- you couldn't do much except ride it out.
-President hoover dissagreed.
This measures did not help much. Crisis worsened and joblessness increased. Public opinion was against Hoover. In the 1930 midterm elections, the Republicans lost the House of Rep and gave up 8 Senate seats.
-In 1931, he called for a tax increasing, as he dreaded a deficit. This angered hard-pressed Americans.
-he was for "self-help" and local initiative and saw "prosperity just around the corner." his relations with the news media went down. He appointed a new press secretary White House journalists did not like.
-his administration is ending in bitterness and failure.
-sleeping on park benches, waited in breadlines, trudged the streets, and rode freigh trains from city to city seeking work. big psychological blow to the americans who believed in self-support and who were not able to find jobs.
-Family savings vanished as the banks failed.
-radical novelists/communists of the early 30s attacked the capitalist system by encouraging fiction through writers' clubs and contests for wrkng-class writers.
-Jack Conroy's The Disinherited, talked about life in the Missouri Coal fields and gained force from the fact that Conroy's brother had died in a mine disaster.
-from Hoover years and remained active during New Deal. Under its chairman, Jess H. Jones, a Houston banker, the RFC lent billions of dollars to banks, insurance companies, and even new business ventures, making the RFC a potent financial resource for corporate America. The early New Deal had thus a strong probusiness flavor.
In his speeches of 1933-1935 FDR always inclded business as a key player in the "all-American team" fighting the depression.
Emergency Relief Appropriation Act- $5 billion, in April 1935.
FDR set pu WPA- and put Harry Hopkins in charge.- over 8 yrs, WPA employed more than 8 million Americans, pumped $11 billion into the economy, constructed/improved 650,000 miles of roads, build or repaired 124,000 bridges, and erected 125,000 schools, hospitals, post offices, etc.
more geared to the needs of poor, workers, and disadvantaged. Franci Perkins and Eleanor R helped shape/advocate for them in this program.
FDR's political advisor were scared that the followers of Coughlin, Townsend, and Long would lost him enough votes to have him loose the election. This worried FDR and affected his '35 political agenda.
FDR dominated the politics of '30s so that Americanas began to expect pres to offeres "programs," address national issues, and shape the terms of pubilc debate. .changd balance of power b/w WH and Congress. Redefined exec brnch & social role of th state.
FDR=confident w/ 2nd New D in place. Repub candidate= Gov. Alfred Landon of Kansas- a fiscal conservative who also thought gov should address social issues
Landon= Not a good campaigner. Repubs blasted FDR's social security and he said tht only the selfish and greedy opposed him. FDR carried EVERY STATE but Maine and Vermont. Pennsylvania went Dem for first time since 1856. Also was a Socialist, Norman Thomas, and a Communist in election.
1. farmers 2. union members 3. northern blacks 4. women
Midwest repub. farmrs like the agricultural progs. in New Deal. Oranized labor voted for him too. Northern balcks' unemploymet was HUGE. New Deal progs. really helped them. BUT, there was some racis discrim. in New Deal. FDR did not help NAACP make lynching a fed. crime.
clearly slowed after 1935. Reflectd in part the rise of an anti-New D congressional coalition of Repubs and conservative southrn Dems. In 1937, this alliance teamed up to kill FDR's proposal for a major reorganization of the exec. branch. The plan made administrative sense, but peps warned of a WHITE HOUSE TAKEOVER/DICTATORSHIP.
very affected and forgotten. their jobless rate was @ 20% for much of the decade. women who really wanted to get back to work had to get lower paying jobs. competition from male workers greatly affected them. They were sometimes accusd of taking jobs frm men.
Also faced wage discrimination- earned 20% less than guys.
Women's unions= ineffective b/c male bosses and union leaders opposed them.
goes from 20% growth to 7% as less people have kids in depression plus birth control and reduced immigration.
divorce rate hit all time high in 1940- men became psychologically devaseted whn they could not support their fam.
did not want to compromise w/ CIO. Workers in 27 of these plants walked off the job in may 1937. Girdler, a union hater, has put together a bunch of guns and tear gas. On Memorial Day, a mass of strikers approached over 250 police guarding the factory. when someone threw a stick at them, they killed 4 strikers and left others wounded. Finally in '41 the little steel accptd the CIO.
emerged from a strike of grape workrs in El Monte, California. more strikes errupted.
won some stuff lke raising the price of cotton.
Mex= one of America's most horribly treated groups.
the husband-and-wife team George Burns and Gracie Allen attracted millions.
The Plow That Broke the Plains- abt the origins of the dust bowl
The River- dealing w/ soil erosion and floods in the Mississippi valley evoked the human and environmental toll of westward expansion.
had close ties with the Roosevelt administration and made a series of movies celebrating the New Deal.
In Mr. Deeds Goes to Town and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington director Frank Capra, the son of Italian immigrants offered the idealistic message that "the people would ultimately triumph over entrenched interests."
drew inspiration from gangsters like Al Capone and John Dillinger.
Little Caesar and The Public Enemy-offered images of urban America- skyscrapers, lonely bus depots, and gangs. Movie gangsters played by Edward G. Robinson and James Cagney represented variants of the Horatio Alger hero struggling upward agst adversity. They appealed to depression people who were going agst adversity too.
offered clownish movies.
Animal Crackers and Duck Soup- these men of German-Jewish immigrant origins created an anachic world that made fun of authority, and defied logic. B/c of the widespread cynicism abt the economy & social order that had collapsed in '29, Marx mockery matched Americ. mood.
-based on stereotypes. Hollywood confined black performers to roles such as the scatterbrained maid played by Butterfly McQueen in Gone with the Wind and the house servant played by tap dancer Bill Robinson and patronized by Shirley Temple in The Little Colonel
Under screen name Stepin Fetchit, black actor Lincoln Perry played the slow-witted but of humor in many movies.
Thornton Wilder's play Our Town portrayed a New England town in which everyday events becom, in memory, infinitely precious.
William Saroyan's The time of Your Life affectionately celebrated the weaknesses and virtues of a colorful collection of American "types" gather in a San Fran. waterfront bar.
Billy the Kid, Aaron Copland drew on Amer. legends and folk melodies.
Porgy and Bess, George Gershwin, adapted from a play by Dubose and Dorothy Heyward portrayed black street life in Charleston.
surged in popularity thanks to swing, a flowing, danceable style originated by the pianist Fletcher Henderson and popularized by the big bands of Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, and others.
Basie Band started at Kansas City's Reno Club, Basie helped launch the wing era when he moved the NYC in '36.
Oct. 31, 1938, CBS. directed by Orson Wells.Said that there was a spacship that landed in NJ, aliens, going to NYC. sparked a panic. Beneath the terror lay a more well-founded fear: of approaching war.
For a decade, international situation had become worse. by oct. '38, radio new bulletins warned of impending war b/w Germany and England.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!