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Similar to racism, comprised of americans who were against the immigration of "aliens" because they feared an imbalance in power (catholic church, selling votes, workforce, etc.)
The Native American Party and other nativist groups worked for banning catholics/aliens from taking office, more restrictive naturalization laws, literacy tests before voting. Became known as "know nothings", formed American Party, shortly successful
Canal built between Hudson River and Lake Erie, made shipping of agriculture much easier on farmers from west, contributed to loss of agriculture in eastern states. Increased white settlement in NW
First American RR, 13 mile stretch of tracks. Following the footsteps of England's Stockton and Darlington RR
Professor with interest in electricity, developed "language" with measured electric pulses through wiring to send signals/communicate
Corporations began to increase rapidly after a legal obstacle was removed. Corps could combine resources with limited liability (individuals not responsible for losses of entire company)
System of recruiting a workforce made up of girls and women mostly in their teen or young adult years. Women finish out contract then return to regular life
Immigrants replaced women in workforce, worked for less, did hard labor under worse conditions as well
America no longer needed skilled artisans and often they were displaced if they couldn’t find a place to work in factories, couldn’t transition or compete
State supreme court declared that unions were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon. Craft unions had little power but acted as mutual aid
white aristocracy domination, caused the south to be known as a society dominated by wealthy slave-owning planters
Grey areas of slave codes, lot of variety within slave system, not very harshly enforced
Stereotypical slave: shuffling, grinning, deferential. Usually a façade assumed in the presence of whites
Gathered 1000 rebellious slaves in Virginia to revolt, but 2 of the slaves gave the plan away and militia stopped the uprising before it began. Executed
Blacks developed their own version of Christianity, incorporating it into their previous African religions. Often more emotional than white religion
Through spirituals, Africans lamented their bondage and expressed their religious faith and continued to hope for freedom
People who were "enchanted" with the idea of a completely equal society in which everything is shared
New beliefs, communities would "shake" themselves free of sin. All women celibate, no one born into religion, it was a choice. Endorsed the idea of sexual equality, escaping traditional gender roles/society
Joseph Smith published Book of Mormon, claimed it was the translated script of golden tablets shown to him by god. Basically made everyone want to be "saved"
Orson and Lorenzo Fowler founded Phrenology, the belief that the shape of an individuals head could determine their character, talents, and even occupations. No scientific value at all.
Abolitionist sisters who were fed up with the limitations of their involvement bc of their gender. Claimed that men and women were created equal
Convention to discuss the matter of women's rights. "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" states that all women and men are equal. Most feminists were quakers
ACS proposed the gradual freeing of slaves, with masters receiving compensation. Slaves transported to Liberia, independent Black republic
WL founded newspaper "The Liberator".
Philosophy: opponents of slavery should talk about damage to blacks, not white society. Demanded immediate abolition and equal rights to blacks as Americans
Sam Houston lead his small army into San Jacinto and defeated the Mexican army stationed there, forcing them to sign a treaty giving Texas independence
A 2,000 mile trail connecting Iowa/Missouri to Oregon. Settlers would migrate either north into Oregon or south into California. Moved for the opportunity, westward expansion
Polk was a southern democrat who ran for office and won by appealing heavily to the expansionists of the north and south.
The Mexicans claimed that the Nueces River was the border between Texas and Mexico once it had been turned into a state. Station for Polk's army to assure there were no Mexican invasions
Polk tried to buy off Mexican territory, they refused offer and polk sent in stationed army. US began to capture cities of north mexico (monterrey, santa fe)
Colonel led small army into Sante Fe and captured it with no opposition.
Officials could apprehend unemployed blacks, charge them for vagrancy and hire them out to employers to satisfy fines. Also forbade blacks to take any other job than slave jobs
Congress passes act, declares blacks as US citizens, gives federal gov power to intervene in state affairs to protect rights of citizens. Johnson tries to veto, overruled by congress
Forbade states or fed gov to deny suffrage to any citizen bc of race, color, or previous servitude
Country stores had customers who relied on credit for purchases, w/o competition they placed interest rates as high as 50-60%. Farmers would merchant a "lien" or claim on their crops as collateral for loans
Multiple political scandals involving chief members of Grant's office that induced the idea that "Grantism" was a rampantly corrupt governing system
Disputed election, 20 electoral votes returned. Constitution hadn't addressed validity of returns. Congress made special electoral commission: 5 senators, 5 reps, and 5 justices of the supreme court. Cong Delegation=5 repub, 5 demo
Democrats acquiesced to Hayes' election and Hayes accepted end of military occupation of the South
Members of a powerful conservative oligarchy that controlled most of the South. Constituted a genuinely new ruling class of merchants, industrialists, RR developers, financiers
White mobs lynched blacks who they believed had committed crimes. Most occurred in the South, was the white populations means of controlling the blacks w/terror and intimidation
New york newspaper photographer/Danish immigrant shocked middle class americans with descriptions and pictures in his book of tenement life
Mostly fires and diseases, no sanitation b/c of imporper sewage disposal and water contamination. Typhoid fever and cholera epidemics, sewers dumping into streams
offered a wider array of goods at lower prices than the small local stores
Lead by Florence Kelly, league of women fought for consumers to force retailers to improve wages and working conditions. Encouraged women to only buy "white label"
Went from the idea of "sloth" and laziness, to something valuable. Became accustomed to spare time, began looking for new activities to suit desires
DWG carried motion picture into new era with his silent films. Notoriously racist. TBN, one of his great films. Serious plots and elaborate productions
owner of 9 newspapers and 2 magazines during the time of journalism boom
WJ- harvard psychologist, prominent publicist of theory
Pragmatism- the belief that modern society should rely on the test of scientific inquiry for guidance, not inherited ideals and moral principles
Treaty w/Spain securing US navigation through Mississippi river to trade w/New Orleans, they would fix the north boundary of Florida and command its authorities to prevent Indians in florida from launching raids north
1794, corporation constructed toll roads from Phil-Penn with a hard packed surface to provide good year round surface w/good drainage (roads btwn towns)
Supreme court declared "midnight appointments" unconstitutional in MvM. MA signed Marbury as judge but hadn't delivered letter, Jefferson came into rule and Madison refused to hand over letter. Brought forth diff. reasoning in court
Chief justice during ruling MvM, federalist and Virginia lawyer, first to actually fail to deliver Marbury's commission. Est. judiciary as equal to exec and leg
Expedition to cross pacific ocean, gather geographical facts, and investigate prospects of trade with Indians. Both men had prior experience with Indians and had Sacagawea as interpreter
Bill passed to open free trade again, including with the French and british, but if they were to continue violating neutral shipping, the trading would stop
Veteran indian fighter, responsible for Harrison Land Law, making it easier for settlers to acquire public land. Was cruel and forced or tricked Indians out of their lands. Also led battle of Tippecanoe
Religious leader who experienced "mystical awakening, inspiring many Indians. Spoke of superiority of Indians and encouraged them to band together against the Americans
While Tecumseh was away, Gov. Harrison lead 1000 troops into prophetstown and provoked war with Indians. Both suffered loses but whites drove Indians out and burned town
Monroe's secretary of state, from Mass, meaning imminent end of Virginia Dynasty. Also son of second president. Dedicated nationalist set on promotion of American expansion
chartered in response to the large number of state banks creating a variety of confusing currency/counterfeit problems. This bank kept the others in order
Passed to effectively limit competition on a wide range of manufactured goods
Madison's secretary of state and following president, Republican, easy election, third in "Virginia Dynasty"
Missouri and Maine both applying to be part of Union, possibly upsetting balance. Put proposals onto one bill, making Maine a free state and Missouri a slave state
New Hamp state gov't repubs wanted to convert Dartmouth from private college into state u. Webster said charter was inviolable contract protected by court, winning Dartmouth case. Placed restrictions on state gov't over corps
Constitutionality of US bank questioned. Could congress charter bank? could indv. states tax or ban it? Webster said bank came within clauses of Constitution and that taxation power would let states tax banks to death
NY let steamboat company carry ppl over Hudson river. Owner gave ogden right to carry ppl btwn NY & NJ. Competed w/ gibbons for ferry traffic. Went to supreme court, put ogdens' state monopoly against gibbons' congress granted license. Gave congress ability to regulate over interstate commerce. G wins
Illinois, Sauk & Fox Indians fought under Black Hawk, 1831-1832. Goal to overturn removal of Indians. Known for its viciousness. Even after Indians surrendered whites made them retreat and slaughtered them
Ran the bank in 1823 and made it prosperous. Pushed to get bank chartered with help of Webster and Clay
Wanted more fed. power & industrial development. Fearful of western expansion; rapid growth = instability. Rich people of North & South. Divided alliance between Clay, Webster & Calhoun.
Couldn't agree on 1 candidate, election of 1836: democrats (Van Buren) won
1829- Jackson's secretary of state; chosen by Jackson to succeed him. Didn't do as well as Jackson as President. Did little to help the depression
Newspapers carried news and advertisement of the election. Help to spread the world of the campaign. The papers sold for a penny; New York Sun.
Constriction Act in the South: All men 18-35 years old had to serve in the army for three years.
September 17th, Union victory but McClellan gave up a huge opp. to destroy confederates
Grant withheld food from town of Vicksburg, surrendered 6 weeks later. Same time, Confed strong point in Louisiana surrendered, successfully splitting the Confederacy, cutting off Lou, Ark, TX, turning pnt
Union General. Took army through Georgia, 60 mile wide desolation. Cut of Confed's war materials and RR communications. Broke will of southern people, burned everything
Small cities until miners found gold/silver, new people came to mine and make profit. As soon as amount declined the population did too
Paintings of the new west on grandiose canvases
-Inspiration of mystical visions, images of the retreat of whites from the plains and restoration of the great buffalo herds.
-US Indian battle in South D, turned into Indian massacre, taken down with white's new machine guns
Pendleton Act, first national civil service act passed by Congress, requiring that certain jobs be filled by competitive written examinations rather than by patronage
Republicans thought protection of tariffs won them election, given highest protection ever passed by congress, voters saw it as enriching producers/starving consumers. Turned voters/congress against reps, beat in election of 1890
Banned discrimination in rates btwn long and short hauls, required that RRs publish their rate schedules and file them w/gov. All interstate rates must be "reasonable and just"
Farm organization in west, persuaded several state legislatures to pass regulatory legislation on RR regulation. 1886 Wabash case, supreme court ruled a Granger Law unconstitutional, stated attempt to control interstate commerce
CAUSE: courts limited powers of states to regulate commerce even within their own boundaries, fed gov responsible
-Depression began when RR declared bankruptcy. Nat. Cordage Company failed too, both corp. failures triggered market/bank collapse
-March of the unemployed who were fighting for congress to create work programs
WJB addressed convention for gold standard debate, later nominated for president. Gave "cross of gold" speech, bringing people to the free silver side, adopted pro-silver platform
Under McKinley, Republicans enacted the GSA, committing the nation to the gold standard
Committees of correspondence*
Governer of New York, was elected in the election of 1928 against Herbert Hoover. Smith's main support came from the urban immigrants. But many voters opposed Smith because he was Catholic, and were afraid he might hand control of the U.S. to the pope of Rome.
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