Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Navigation Act of 1696 by William and Mary, forced colonial governors to enforce Navigation Acts which allowed customs officials to use "write of assistance":
General search warrant that did not have to specify the place to be searched.
Also known as 'Seven Year's War'
1754: Brits to Ohio to see land, French Angry, French and Indians V. British. Colonists did not want to pay for the war. British won.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the US Constitution.
most active in the debates (Constitutional Convention) and ablest political philosopher in the group
Drafted the proposals that came to be called the Virgina Plan, presented may 29th 1787.
Plan called for seperate legislative, executive, and judicial branches, & a truly national gov. whose laws would be binding upon individual citizens as well as states. Congress divided into two houses, lower house: choosen by popular vote and
upper house: senators elected by the state legislatures.
Clamored for war in defense of national honor, and demanded an invasion of Canada.
main men involved:Henery Clay,Richard Mantor Johnson,Felix Grundy and John C. Calhoun.
-John Randoph of Roanoke christened these "new boys" the war hawks.
- got neither canada or florida
British fleet w/ 8k soldiers under general Sir Edward Pakenham took positions on a plain near the Mississippi River just around of the city.
-Ordered frontal assault @ dawn on Jan 8th 1815, befor British withdrew, 2k had beenkilled or wounded. including Pakenham himself, whose body pickled in a barrel of rum was returned to a ship where his wife awaited news of the batttle.
-John Calhoun said the states could use this if they felt that a law was unconstitutional
-At President B-day Dinner of 1830, Van Buren convinced Jackson to give a toast denoouncing this principle.
President James Monroe's declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would be thenceforth closed to colonization but that the United States would honor existing colonies of European nations.
States Missouri enters union as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
Establishes, no slavery north of latitude 36,30' within Louisiana Territory
-1st case that supreme court asserted its right to declare an act of congress unconstitutional.
-Adam signed and appointest William Marbury as justice of Peace days befor leaving office. Jefferson told Madison to withhold letter of appointment. Marbury sued, for court order directing Madison to deliever his commission.
-Cheif Justice John Marshall and court ruled according to federal Judiciary act of 1789, court had original jurisdiction only in cases involving abassadors or states.
in 1803, The Louisiana Purchase was bought from Napoleon, and doubled the U.S.'s size, now owning entire Mississippi River Valley West of the rver itself .
-Was Bought for 15million
Pickering had scheme involving V.P. Burr to link N.Y. and New England. Hamilton opposed and said "Burr is a dangerous man, one who ought to be trusted w/ the rein's of government"
-led to duel between Burr and Hamilton. Burr shot Hamilton through the heart.
-Burr conspiracy originated when burr met with general James Wilkinson. Wilkinson died of cold feet. Burr almost trialed for treason, but didnt have suffiecient witnesses. Burr was released
Represented the climax of New England's disaffection with "mr.madison's law"
-December 15th 1814, Hartford Convention assembed w/delagates from Massachusett's,Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire.
-Proposed 7 constitutional amendments,designed to limit republican influence.
-Carried unmistakable, threat of succession, if it demands were ignored.
-Greatest Compromiser, supported American System, involved w/ Missouri Compromise of 1820, and Compromise of 1850.
-Played roll in debate over the national bank
-long opposed central national bank, later asserted that new circumstances made one unavoidable.
-Whig party leader, Kentucky congressman and senator, Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams and an unsuccessful candidate for the Presidency in 1824, 1832, and 1844.
-Supported national Bank.
-Advanced American system economic program
-Proposed the Missouri Compromise
A leading attorney who argued many famous cases in the Supreme Court. Congressman from New Hampshire and senator representing Massachusetts.
-opposed National bank in the 1816 Vote for the National Bank
General Harrison gathered 1k troops by Shawnee's Capital on Tippecanoe River while indian leader was away. Shawnee people attacked Harrison's encampment. One Quater of Harrison's troops were lost or wounded. but Shawnee's still lost.
-Shawnee's town was burned
-Tecumseh's dream of of an indian confederacy went up in smoke.
-Tecumseh sought British protction in Canada
The 7th President of the United States. He represented Tennessee as a Congressman and Senator, and as a major-general
- Defeated the British at New Orleans in the War of 1812.
-served as Commander of the War Hawks War,
-Served on active duty,longer then any man in american history
Known as " old fuss and feathers" and/ or " the grand old man of the army"
Published in NY newspapers between 1787-88. 85 articles total, 30 by James Madison, 50 by Hamilton, and 5 by John Jay. (Published under “Publius”)
Federalists They were written to promote state ratification of the Constitution and they defended the principle of a supreme national authority but sought to reassure doubters that there was little reason to fear tyranny by the new government.
Collection of esaays originally published in the N.Y. papers between 1787 and 1788, initiated by Alexander Hamilton, written to romote state ratification of the constitution
-defended principle of supreme national authority but sought to reassure doubters that there was little reason to fear tyranny by the new gorvernment.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Wherever Indian titles had been extinguished, the NW was to be surveyed and 6-mile square townships established along east-west and north-south lines. Each township was in turn to be divided into 36 sections, each one mile or 640 acres.
The 640 acre sections were to be auctioned for no less that a dollar per acre ($640). Such terms favored land speculators since few common folk had that much money or were able to work that much land. Delegates believed this system would raise needed funds.
The New Jersey Plan
William Patterson, kept existing equal representation of states in a unicameral Congress but gave the Congress power to levy taxes, regulate commerce, and name a plural executive (with no veto) and a supreme court.
Kept existing equal representation of states in a unicameral congress, but gave congress power to levy taxes, regulate commerce, and name a plural executive and supreme court.
plans presented convention with 2 major issues.
-whether to amend the articles of confederation or draft an entirely new document and
-whether to apportion congressional representation by population or by state.
a 4 MONTH CONVENTION; government derives its just powers from the consent of the people but that society must be protected from the tyranny of the majority; that the people at large must have a voice in their government but that checks and balances must be provided to keep any one group from dominating; stronger central authority was essential BUT all power is subject to abuse. Government could NOT be founded on trust in goodwill and virtue.
29 Delagates in Philadelphia signed constitution.
most were planters, merchants, lawyers, judges and bankers.
washington was the preciding officer
-Benjamin Franklin was oldest delegate
-James Madison was ablest political philosopher in the group
“The Critical Period”
United States struggled to establish themselves as a new nation.
The Northwest Ordinance
Abandoned the commitment to early self-government in the territories. Because of the trouble that might be expected from squatters who were clamoring for free land, the Northwest Ordinance transition required a period of colonial. At first the territory fell subject to a governor, a secretary, and 3 judges, all chosen by Congress.
When any territory in the region had a population of 5000 free male adults, it could choose an assemble, and Congress would name a governing council. The governor would have a veto, and so would Congress. Statehood = 60000 free inhabitants. At that point a convention can be called to draft a state constitution.
There was a bill of rights (religious freedom, habeus corpus, proportional rep, trial by jury, common law) Ordinance excluded slavery from the NorthWest. REPRESENTED SHARP BREAK WITH THE IMPERIALISTIC ASSUMPTION BEHIND EUROPEAN EXPANSION INTO THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.
Shay’s Rebellion - Proof that the country was on the brink of anarchy. The taxes created to pay off the war debt fell heavily on beleaguered farmers the the poor in general. When the legislature adjourned in 1786 without providing paper money or any other relied from taxes and debts 3 western agricultural counties revolted.
Armed bands closed the courts and prevented foreclosures, and a ragtag “army” of some 1200 disgruntled farmers led by Captain Daniel Shays, a destitute farmer and war veteran, advanced upon the federal arsenal at Springfield in 1787. Shays and his followers sought a more flexible monetary policy, laws allowing them to use corn and wheat as money, and the right to postpone paying taxes until the depression lifted.
The Virginia Plan
Drafted by James Madison in 1787; called for separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches and a truly national government whose laws would be binding upon individual citizens as well as states. Congress would be divided into two houses: a lower house to be chosen by popular vote and an upper house of senators elected by the state legislatures. Congress could disallow state laws under the plan and would itself define the extent of its and the states’ authority.
Against a strong central government, noted the absence of a bill of rights to protect individuals and states, and they found the ratification process highly irregular, which it was.
Drafted the New Jersey Plan
Anti-Federalist leader, chief spokesman for backcountry farmers who feared the powers of the new government, but wavering delegates were won over by a proposal that the convention should recommend a bill of rights.
Leader of Anti-Federalist along with Luther Martin, Richard Henry Lee, George Clinton, Samuel Adams and Elbridge Cerry.
-He became a spokesperson for backcountry farmers who feared poers of the new. gov.
self trained lawyer adept at negotiating compromises. Drafted Great Compromise (In House of Representatives, apportionment would be by population and in the Senate it would be equal representation.)
Secretary of state Under Madison.
-Joined army at 16, was wounded at Trenton, became lieutanant befor war ended.
-last revolutionary generation to serve white house.
-last president to wear 'old dress'
Judicial nationalist leader,
-Virginian veteran of the revolution
-Cheif of justice for supreme court
- served as secretary for John Adams
-served for 34 years and est. power of supreme court by force of mind and determination.
-affirmed principle of Judicial Review of Legislative acts
McCulloch v. Maryland
John Quincy Adams wins election (choosen by house of reps.) symbol of forces divide political structure into two parties.
-Democratic party is born.
1st intended to protext isdustry againt foreign competition, than to raise money.
-Calhoun leader of S. voted for tariff, bt would later turn against tariff.
-tariff would becomme sectional issues, manufaturers and food growers favored high taxes.
-cotton & tobacco planters and shipping interests want lower taxes.
-Jackson's secretary of state, held most advantage vs. Calhoun in becoming Jackson's succesor due to skill in timing and tactic.
-Jackson leaned on Buren for advice and help to sooth the 'ruffled feathers' of rejected office seekers
Jackson's Attorney general.
-In 1831 says, that Blacks are a seperate and degraded people'
Was Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson after McLane was fired and was ordered by Jackson to stop putting government money in the Bank. Instead he deposited federal money in state banks. He eventually was appointed by Jackson as Chief Justice, and ruled over the Dread Scott case
Issue of nullification was intnsely debated.
Hayne believed the nullification gave states a way to lawfully pretest againt federal legislation.
Webster Argued that the U.S. was not a pact among independent states, and that the welfare of the nation should override that of one individual state.
1832 Black Hawk War erupted, under cheif Black Hawk, bands of suak and fox, sought to occupy land that they had abandoned the previous year.
-Facing famine and hostile sioux they were simply seeking a place to riase a crop of corn.
-Illinois militia mobilized to expel them, chased them to Wisconsin territor, Black Hawk surrendered,
War was known not for what happened to Indians, bt for 2 Kentuckians who participated, later to be pitted against eachother. Jefferson Davis & Abraham Lincoln
Proposed by the first secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton.
-Opened in 1791 and operated until 1811 to issue a uniform currency, make business loans, and collect tax monies.
-The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816, but was not renewed by President Andrew Jackson twenty years later.
South Carolina congressman, senator, vice president under John Quincy Adams as well as Andrew Jackson. At first a nationalist, he later became a defender of states rights.
-Supported national bank.
-Wrote South Carolina exposition and Protest.
First federal interstate road, built between 1811 and 1838 and stretching from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois.
-Originally called the Cumberland Rd.
Presbyterian minister, American Temperance Society co-founder and leader, He is credited as a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States.
Application of Charles darwin’s theory of natural selection to society, used the concept of the “survival of the fittest” to justify class distinctions and to explain poverty
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!