Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
found in amino acids i.e. glycine
--N--H (*which is connected to something else)
(RCO2H) have an --R group and an --OH group attached to the carbonyl group
-carries information about the production of particle proteins in the sequence of its nucleotide bases
Large molecules made up from smaller building blocks. There are 4 types.1) Carbohydrates 2) Lipids
Excise or Sales tax: Taxes on commodities (excise) or on purchases (Sales)
State finances primarily rely on Excise and Sales taxes. Including State personal income tax and Corporate Income tax.
Local finances (counties, municipalities, townships, and school districts). Rely heavily on property taxes.
1789 free slave living in great Britain. Wrote his account of his experience in captivity. Recounted his seizure in the Gambia region of Africa and his transportation on a slave ship to British Caribbean. Because of him we know how African slave trade life was and the horrors and inhumane treatment among the western civilization. Involved in british movement toward abolition of the slave trade.
Court of Record
Judge or Jury
*Courts of Appeal(13)
3 Judge Panel
No new evidence
*US Supreme Court
writ of cert
rule of 4
FINAL ARBITER OF ALL FED LAW
(1751-1836); 4th president of the U.S.; 1809-1817; Anti-Federalist
The meeting of delegates from five states in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786 to consider a common policy for trade among the American states that resulted in a recommendation for a constitutional convention the following year.
A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange". Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat."
Burr was a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and acquitted for treason involving a plan to separate the US and combine with Spain. John Marshall found him not guilty of treason because he wanted to upset thomas jefferson who wanted aaron burr killed.
1756–1836, vice president of the U.S. 1801–05; killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel during his vice presidency; vice president to Thomas Jefferson in his first term
Wanting loose construction (as of a stature or constitution) specifically one favoring a liberal construction of the Constitution of the United States to give broader powers to the federal government
Refers to a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts judicial interpretation
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The commissions were signed by President Adams and sealed by acting Secretary of State John Marshall (who later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and author of this opinion), but they were not delivered before the expiration of Adams’s term as president. Thomas Jefferson refused to honor the commissions, claiming that they were invalid because they had not been delivered by the end of Adams’s term.William Marbury (P) was an intended recipient of an appointment as justice of the peace. Marbury applied directly to the Supreme Court of the United States for a writ of mandamus to compel Jefferson’s Secretary of State, James Madison (D), to deliver the commissions. The Judiciary Act of 1789 had granted the Supreme Court original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus “…to any courts appointed, or persons holding office, under the authority of the United States.”
(1755-1835), U.S. jurist and statesman: Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1801-1835
Pirate ships and crews from the North African states of Tripoli, Tunis, Morocco, and Algiers (the Barbary Coast). Ruthless, unconventional foes are not new to the United States of America. More than two hundred years ago the newly established United States made its first attempt to fight an overseas battle to protect its private citizens by building an international coalition against an unconventional enemy. Then the enemies were pirates and piracy.
A treaty signed with France in 1803 by which the U.S. purchased for $15,000,000 the land extending from the Mississippi River to the rocky Mountains and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico
A political party in the United States that was opposed to the Federalist Party and was founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792 and dissolved in 1828
An expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States; led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark; traveled from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River from 1803 to 1806
("Bird Woman" ) 1787?–1812? Shoshone guide and interpreter: accompanied Lewis and Clark expedition 1804–05
The embargo was imposed in response to violations of U.S. neutrality, in which American merchantmen and their cargo were seized as contraband of war by the European navies
The War between the United States and Great Britain from 1812 to 1815
A Shawnee chief, who vowed to stop the loss of Native American land. He attempted to unite the Native American tribes against the U.S.
(1768?-1813), American Indian chief of the Shawnee tribe, great warrior, Americans learned some tactics from him
(February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was the ninth President of the United States (1841), an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office. He was 68 years, 23 days old when inaugurated, the oldest president to take office until Ronald Reagan in 1981, and last President to be born before the United States Declaration of Independence. Harrison died on his 32nd day in office[a] of complications from pneumonia, serving the shortest tenure in United States presidential history. His death sparked a brief constitutional crisis, but that crisis ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment.
Fought on November 7, 1811, between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and Native American warriors associated with the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa (commonly known as "The Prophet") were leaders of a confederacy of Native Americans from various tribes that opposed U.S. expansion into Native territory. As tensions and violence increased, Governor Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the confederacy's headquarters at Prophetstown, near the confluence of the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers
(1777-1852), U.S. statesman and orator, as well as a lawyer that represented Kentucky in both the Senate and in the House of representatives
United States Navy Commodore. He served in the War of 1812 against Britain. Perry supervised the building of a fleet at Erie, Pennsylvania, at the age of 27. He earned the title "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie, receiving a Congressional Gold Medal and the Thanks of Congress
Sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, in Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812. Nine vessels of the United States Navy defeated and captured six vessels of British Royal Navy. This ensured American control of the lake for the rest of the war, which in turn allowed the Americans to recover Detroit and win the Battle of the Thames to break the Indian confederation of Tecumseh. It was one of the biggest naval battles of the War of 1812
Engagement fought on the Thames River near Chatham, Ont. (Oct. 5, 1813), in the War of 1812 War of 1812, armed conflict between the United States and Great Britain, 1812–15. It followed a period of great stress between the two nations as a result of the treatment of neutral countries by both France and England during the French Revolutionary and Gen. William H. Harrison Harrison, William Henry, 1773–1841, 9th President of the United States (Mar. 4–Apr. 4, 1841), b. "Berkeley," Charles City co., Va.; son of Benjamin Harrison (1726?–1791) and grandfather of Benjamin Harrison (1833–1901). led an American force of about 3,000 against a British army of approximately 400 regulars commanded by Gen. Henry A. Procter, reinforced by 1,000 Native Americans under Tecumseh Tecumseh , 1768?–1813, chief of the Shawnee, b. probably in Clark co., Ohio. Among his people he became distinguished for his prowess in battle, but he opposed the practice of torturing prisoners. After the British were driven from Detroit, Harrison followed their retreating army into Ontario and up the Thames River until General Procter was forced to give battle. A cavalry charge broke the British ranks, and the Native Americans offered the only real resistance. Tecumseh was slain in battle, thus completely destroying the native confederacy he had raised against the United States. By the battle of the Thames, U.S. control in the Northwest was restored
Battle between the U.S. and Britain during the War of 1812. Late in 1814 a British fleet of more than 50 ships commanded by Gen. Edward Pakenham (1778–1815) sailed into the Gulf of Mexico and prepared to attack New Orleans. Gen. Andrew Jackson, commander of the U.S. Army of the Southwest, which consisted chiefly of militiamen and volunteers, fought the British regulars who stormed their position on Jan. 8, 1815. His troops were so effectively entrenched behind earthworks and the British troops so exposed that the fighting was brief, ending in a decisive U.S. victory, a British withdrawal, and the death of Gen. Pakenham. The battle was without military value, since the Treaty of Ghent ending the war had been signed in December, but the news had been slow to arrive. The victory nevertheless raised national morale, enhancing Jackson's reputation as a hero and preparing his way to the presidency.
In the War of 1812 it was bombarded (Sept. 13–14, 1814) by a British fleet under Sir Alexander Cochrane, but the fort, commanded by Maj. George Armistead, resisted the attack. Its defense inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner."
Poet that wrote "The Star Spangled Banner" in 1814 during the War of 1812. Written while watching Americans defend Fort McHenry. The poem has become an important part of American identity.
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812; the poem was later set to music and entitled `The Star-Spangled Banner' (1779-1843)
Signed on 24 December 1814 in the Flemish city of Ghent, was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The treaty restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum - that is, it restored the borders of the two countries to the line before the commencement of hostilities
The convention discussed removing the three-fifths compromise which gave slave states more power in Congress and requiring a two-thirds supermajority in Congress for the admission of new states, declarations of war, and laws restricting trade. The Federalists also discussed their grievances with the Louisiana Purchase and the Embargo of 1807. However, weeks after the convention's end, news of Major General Andrew Jackson's overwhelming victory in New Orleans swept over the Northeast, discrediting and disgracing the Federalists, resulting in their elimination as a major national political force
The War of 1812 is also called “Mr. Madison’s War” because the people were not happy about the war, in fact it was one of the most hated wars in history
The power of a court to adjudicate the constitutionality of the laws of a government or the acts of a government official
The Act regulates commerce between Native Americans and non-Indians. The most notable provisions of the Act regulate the inalienability of aboriginal title in the United States, a continuing source of litigation for almost 200 years
Became law in the United States on May 14, 1810, was intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. This bill was for the British to stop stealing from the Americans and keep them out of the United States. This bill was a revision of the original bill by Representative Nathaniel Macon, known as Macon's Bill Number 1. The law lifted all embargoes with Britain and France (for three months). If either one of the two countries ceased attacks upon American shipping, the United States would end trade with the other, unless that other country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well
The national anthem of the United States of America, written by Francis Scott Key in inspiration of the Battle of Fort McHenry
Leading American statesman during the Antebellum Period; leader of the Whig Party, opposed Jackson and the Democratic Party; spokesman for modernization, banking,, and industry; served in the House of Representatives, Senate, and Secretary of State for 3 presidents; successful lawyer; member of the Great Triumvirate with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
A protective tariff designed to help American industries. It taxed imports so Americans would buy U.S. goods. Protective tariff enforced between 1816-1824; formed the basis of the Compromise of 1833, ending the Nullification Crisis in which South Carolina had threatened secession from the US; Introduced by Secretary of Treasury Alexander J. Dallas and advocated by Speaker of the House Henry Clay; Daniel Webster and John Randolph strongly opposed.
Road that stretched 800 miles from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois.
Also called the Cumberland Road, which was the first highway in the United States
The first highway built by the federal government. It stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West
President during the Era of Good Feelings. Last president tied to the Revolution. Issues the Monroe Doctrine
Disarms the Great Lakes. War ships were taken out and they were used solely for trade
one of many American steps toward national self-sufficiency that followed the War of 1812. An effort to regain the lucrative West Indian trade, which the British had closed after the war, this act stated that all cargo between American ports must only be carried in ships entirely owned by American citizens or belonging to West Indian merchants. Tonnage duties on vessels licensed for coastwise trade were set at six cents a ton on vessels manned by Americans and fifty cents for others
Transcontinental Treaty of 1819; settled a border dispute in North America between the US and Spain; treaty was a result of increasing tension between the US and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power; the treaty ceded Florida to the US, settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River, and firmly established the boundary of the US territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the US paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5 million and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase
The only Indian tribe in America who never signed a peace treaty; in West Florida
The U.S. Bank decided to tighten its credit; not loan so much money. Now people can’t pay loans back. Many smaller banks close and unemployment rises
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states than free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri, 36’30’, saying that except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states
First case in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional
States that any attempt to colonize South America would be viewed as an act of war by the United States; did not want any more Europeans in the New World
6th president form 1825-1829; served in the Senate and House of Representatives; son of President John Adams; helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State; lost his re-election to Andrew Jackson; viewed as one of the greatest diplomats in American history
John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson (and William H. Crawford and Henry Clay); John Quincy is elected by decision of the House of Representatives; only election in which the presidency had to be decided by the House because no candidate received a majority of electoral college votes and the only election in which the president with the most electoral votes was not elected president
Election of 1824- No president received a majority of electoral votes leaving the House of Representatives to select the next president; the House selected John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson even though Jackson had received much more votes in the regular election; widely believed that Speaker of the House Henry Clay convinced Congress to elect Adams who then made Clay his Secretary of State
Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams; John C. Calhoun is Jackson's Vice and also served as Quincy Adams' Vice; Jackson won in a "landslide."
The border was established between the American states and territories and Canada. It also established laws to allow American fishermen to use Canadian waters
New solid support for the Democratic party from both southerners, immigrants, and African Americans; Jackson supporters, 1st national, well organized party that used slogans, canvassing and campaigning
He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system
Making all of the main offices of government representatives only from his own party, taking people from the other party out of the system/office
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
John Eaton married Peggy and Jackson defended her, even though she had had a lot of suitors, after his own wife’s death due to slander (she was accused of many affairs)
Each state could decide by themselves if a law was legal or illegal; major issues of the nullification crisis were Cherokee Indians in Georgia and the Tariff of Abomination
John C. Calhoun’s name for an 1828 tariff increase that seemed to Southerners to be enriching the North at their expense
Calhoun anonymously wrote this widely circulated book which he spelled out his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that aggrieved states therefore had the right to nullify the law within their border; a response to the South calling the Nullification Crisis the Tariff of Abominations
Slaves got guns for a revolution, but they were not successful because someone ratted them out
Hayne (for the West) wanted to divide the government lands so that it was cheap land for everyone; Webster argued for the East, saying it would drive away their labor and raise wages, he defended the East by denying that they had ever shown a restrictive policy toward the West; Webster changed the subject suddenly to the Nullification Crisis, completely drawing all attention away from the original topic
Bill passed by the Congress in 1833 that allowed the U.S. president to use the Army and the Navy to collect federal tariff duties.
The bill passed with the Tariff of 1833; gave Jackson the power to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties
Proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the Tariff of 1816; this compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years
Authorized Jackson to give Indians federal land west of the Mississippi River and to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi
The forced movement of Cherokee Indians in 1838 to the land west of Mississippi River by the US; lasted 116 days and was 1000 miles long, many Indians died; march of the Cherokees to Indian territory, so called because thousands died from disease, starvation, and the difficulties of relocation
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank
This party eventually became known as the Whig Party; it was led by Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams and was one of the two new political parties that emerged in the late 1820s to challenge the Jackson’s supporters; like the Federalists, this party found its core support in the industrial Northeast
Applied Jackson’s hard-money conviction to the sale of public lands; law signed by President Jackson requiring lands in the west be paid for with gold of silver; a primary cause of the Panic of 1837
Party that wanted expanding power of federal government, encouraged industrial and commercial development, and was cautious about westward expansion because they feared it would produce instability; encouraged rising to commercial and manufacturing power and was found favorable to the merchants and manufacturers of the Northeast, the wealthy planters of the South, and the farmers of the West
The Whigs tried to eat the Democrats’ national organization with an array of sectional candidates, hoping to throw the election into the House of Representatives, but the strategy failed; Martin Van Buren, with significant support in every section of the country, defeated the three Whig candidates combined
A financial panic that was caused by Jackson’s presidential order for specie circular (gold/silver or securely backed paper money, that was sparked by a preceding speculation boom) in all governmental transactions, which was sparked by his desire to curb speculation
Van Buren believed that the government should stop risking its deposits in shaky state banks and set up an Independent Treasury; under this plan, the government would keep its funds in its own vaults and do business entirely in hard money
Originally Vice President with William Henry Harrison, 1790-1862, 10th president of the U.S. 1841-1845
Campaign slogan for William Henry Harrison and John Tyler during the “Log Cabin and Hard Cider” Campaign
Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill of the Second Bank of the United States on July 10, 1832, which was a blow against monopoly, aristocratic parasites, and foreign domination, as well as great victory for labor. Instead, Jackson created pet banks and destabilized the national currency and aid
Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri, 36’30’, saying that except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states
The nickname given to Andrew Jackson over the abusive power he holds
Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court lacked jurisdiction in the issue because the Cherokees were a “domestic dependent nation” rather than a foreign state
A strategy used by the Whig party in election of 1840 to make Harrison look like the common man who drinks cider and lives in a log cabin even though it was a false image; the Whigs had no platform, so the log cabin technique was used to gain support for Harrison
This invention radically changed the transportation structure, rivers were now two-way streets and the South and West would benefit greatly from the steamboat
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed Northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West
Networks of iron rails on which steam locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century.
American boats, built during the 1840s in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers
The sewing machine was invented by Howe but mastered by Isaac Singer, and it became the foundation of the ready-made, clothing industry
Mastered the technique of the sewing machine that was built by Elias Howe
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England form about 1750 to about 1850
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to American. He made our first cotton spinning machine
Boston merchant who had an idea to combine spinning and weaving under one roof. He formed the Boston Associates. They built a textile mill in Massachusetts. Had all machines needed to turn raw cotton into cloth
Young, single women form New England farms that had experience for the textile industry and were cheaper to hire than males. Lived in company-owned boardinghouses where older women acted as chaperones
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
Leader of the Lane Theological Seminary and father of many famous individuals (Harriet, Catharine, and Henry Ward Beecher)
The spin-off of Puritanism of the early 1800s that held that God only existed in one person, not the Trinity
The movement that arose in the early 1800s in reaction to the growing liberalism in religion
The religious scene in upstate New York, particularly the western and central regions of the state, in the early 19th century, which was repeatedly “burned over” by religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening
The Greatest of the revival preachers of the 1830s who eventually became the president of Oberlin College
Founded by pious New Englanders in Ohio-s Western Reserve, from the start Oberlin radiated a spirit of reform predicted on faith; it was the first college in American to admit either women or blacks, and it was a hotbed of antislavery doctrine
Official name is Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints; church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from Illinois to Utah
The person who led the Mormons from Illinois to their home in the West
The philosophical movement of the early 1800s that emphasized individualism, self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline
The Salem, Massachusetts reared writer of the early 1800s whose Calvinist-centered writings culminated in 1850 with the masterpiece The Scarlet Letter
This orphaned and ill-educated New Yorker went to sea as a youth; he wrote charming tales of the South Seas, but his masterpiece was published in 1851; he was the author of the epic novel Moby Dick
Known as the “Poet Laureate of Democracy,” he wrote of his love for the masses; this 19th century author caught the exuberant spirit of an expanding American in his most famous piece, Leaves of Grass
A poet and a recluse who resided in Amherst, MA; only 2 of her almost 1800 poems were published before her death; she was the most original and powerful New England poet; she focused her writings on her own shifting psychological state
This Virginia-reared, eccentric genius of the early 1800s suffered tragedy, hunger, cold, poverty, and debt and authored “The Raven” and The Fall of the House of Usher”
The brilliant and idealistic Brown University graduate who led the campaign to reform education in the mid-1800s
William H. McGuffey; 1800-1873; U.S. educator: editor of the Eclectic Readers, a series of school readers
Reform movement begun in the 1800s that fought to ban alcohol in the U.S.; this movement led to the passage of the 18th Amendment in 1920
The mayor of Portland, Maine who, in 1851, sponsored a law that helped earn his nickname “Father of Prohibition”
American temperance leader; a Pennsylvania lawyer, he was active in state and national temperance work; his plan for a National Publication House was adopted by the National Temperance convention
The 19th century New England teacher and authoress who traveled for eight years and 60,000 miles to assemble her damning report on the treatment of the insane
Written by Catharine Esther Beecher, was the first American work to deal with all facets of domestic life; helped to standardize domestic practices and reinforce domestic values, arguing that woman’s proper role was in the home
The sprightly Quaker leader of the women’s rights movement whose ire had been aroused when she and her fellow female delegates to the London Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840 were not recognized
The mother of seven of the 1840s who insisted on leaving “obey” out of her marriage ceremony; she shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women
Took place in upstate New York in 1848; women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women; there, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments
The Quaker-reared woman’s rights movement leader who, in 1872, was arrested, found guilty, and fined for voting
The political orientation of a person who believes in impossibly idealistic schemes social perfection
One of the largest and longest-lived communal societies whose 1840 membership of 6,000 dwindled to extinction because they opposed marriage and free love
The radical communal experiment founded in New York in 1848 that had trouble with the law over its marriage practices
The communal experiment in Massachusetts in 1841 which ended in fire and financial failure
New York abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
The most prominent black abolitionist leader; he was an escaped slave who fought to end slavery through political action
Abolitionist newspaper started by Frederick Douglass in Rochester, New York
United States author of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists’ cause (1811-1896), wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin
American abolitionist; born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom
Prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer; editor of radical abolitionist newspaper “The Liberator”; one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society; burned the Constitution as “a covenant with death and an agreement with hell”
William Lloyd Garrison’s fervent abolitionist newspaper that preached an immediate end to slavery
53 Africans were kidnapped from West Africa and sold into the transatlantic slave trade; they were then purchased illegally by Spanish planters Jose Ruiz and Pedro Montez
The sisters who spoke at anti-slavery gatherings and aroused the ire of conservatives of the mid-1800s
Visionary black preacher whose bloody slave rebellion in 1831 tightened the reins of slavery in the South; he was also considered something of a prophet
The mid-19th century woman who objected to the long skirts of her day and took to wearing a shorter skirt with Turkish trousers