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Anauthoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and socialorganization
The proliferation of theavailability of information and the accompanying changes in its storage anddissemination owing to the use of computers
(1869-1948)Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gainhis country’s freedom from the British Empire.
Russianfounder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first headof the USSR (1870-1924)
British stateswoman; first woman to serve as Prime Minister (born in1925)
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War andwhose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
An Egyptian militaryand political leader of the twentieth century. Nasser overthrew King Farouk ofEgypt in the early 1950s and soon became president.
SouthAfrican statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's firstdemocratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
Leaderand a founder of Chinese Communist Party; first Chairman of Chinese People'sRepublic.
was a Japanese businessman and co-founder of Sony Corporation along with MasaruIbuka.
Theannexation of Austria by Germany in 1938. Hitler had forced the resignation ofthe Austrian chancellor by demanding that he admit Nazis into his Cabinet. Thenew chancellor, a pro-Nazi, invited German troops to enter the country on thepretext of restoring law and order
pacify:cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of; "She managedto mollify the angry customer"
an association of nations consisting of the United Kingdom and severalformer British colonies that are now sovereign states but still pay allegianceto the British Crown
led tothe eventual takeover of Africa and imperialism
The alliance of Germany, Austria–Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria during World War I
a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depressionand mass unemployment
was asystem of racial segregation enforcedthrough legislation by the National Partygovernments, who were the ruling party from 1948 to 1994, of South Africa, under which therights of the majority white inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained.Developed after WWII until 1990. Racism in their own land and governmentapproved.
Themass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime during the period 1941–45.More than 6 million European Jews, as well as members of other persecutedgroups, such as gypsies and homosexuals, were murdered at concentration campssuch as Auschwitz
An association of countries established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versaillesto promote international cooperation and achieve international peace andsecurity. It was powerless to stop Italian, German, and Japanese expansionismleading to World War II and was replaced by the United Nations in 1945
thelargest South African ethnic group, withan estimated 10–11 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Zulu people wereclassed as third-class citizens and suffered from state-sanctioneddiscrimination.
19th-century movement that recognized acommon ethnic background among the various Slav peoples of eastern and eastcentral Europe and sought to unite those peoples for the achievement of commoncultural and political goals.
A meeting held in Potsdam in the summerof 1945 among US, Soviet, and British leaders that established principles forthe Allied occupation of Germany following the end of World War II
Apolicy in Russia to make all of the peoples under their control conform toRussian culture and language. It was used in both the Russian Empire and later,in the Soviet Union.
A policy in Russia to make all of the peoples under their control conform toRussian culture and language. It was used in both the Russian Empire and later in the Soviet Union.
asystem of trade between the Americas Europe and Africa. Europe would tradeweapons for slaves in Africa, slaves were for crops and crops went back toEurope. Resulted in the mass movement of a very large percentage of Africanmales, which harmed African society.
sugarproduction was such a highly important business that slaves were shipped fromAfrica (natives were dying) in order to work to the death for sugar plantation.The great demand kept the treatment of slaves low and the shipment of themhigh.
The conflict (1936–39) betweenNationalist forces (including monarchists and members of the Falange Party) andRepublicans (including socialists, communists, and Catalan and Basqueseparatists) in Spain
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was apeace treaty signed on March 3, 1918 at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus)between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and theCentral Powers marking Russia's exit from World War I.
1485 -1547 was a SpanishConquistador who ledan expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empireand brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the endof World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
An international organization of countries set up in 1945, in succession to theLeague of Nations, to promote international peace, security, and cooperation
Patrioticfeeling, principles, or efforts
A meeting between the Allied leaders Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin inFebruary 1945 at Yalta, a Crimean port on the Black Sea. The leaders plannedthe final stages of World War II and agreed on the subsequent territorialdivision of Europe
– onewho follows Sikhism and believe in the equality of humankind, the concept ofuniversal brotherhood of man and One Supreme God
Thebelief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain astrong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend orpromote national interests
belongingor relating to white people of South Africa whose ancestors were Dutch or totheir language; "an Afrikaans couple"; "Afrikaner support"
nov 41618 – march 3 1707 a notableexpansionist and was also among the wealthiest of the previous Mughal rulerswith an annual yearly tribute of £38,624,680 (in the year 1690), during hislifetime victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 1.25million square miles, he ruled over more than 150 million subjects,constituting nearly one fourth of the world's population.
The Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) initiated by U.S.President John F. Kennedy in 1961 aimed to establish economic cooperationbetween North and South America.
(inSouth Africa) A policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds ofrace
A Shiite religious leader in Iran
was aconqueror from Central Asia who, following aseries of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in Indian Subcontinent andbecame the first Mughal emperor. he waslargely responsible for the fostering of Persian culture by his descendants,and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, withbrilliant literary,artistic, andhistoriographical results
is a term for thehistorical period following World War II. This period of Cold War was marked by theabsence of major wars between the great powers, the USA and theUSSR.USA is leading superpower in this time period adjusting to the lack ofcompetition
A fortified and heavily guarded wall built onthe boundary between East and West Berlin in 1961 by the communist authorities,chiefly to curb the flow of East Germans to the West. It was opened in November1989 after the collapse of the communist regime in East Germany andsubsequently was dismantled
The art or practice of pursuing a dangerouspolicy to the limits of safety before stopping, typically in politics
An alliance for combined action, esp. atemporary alliance of political parties forming a government or of states
○ Formallydivided the State church of the Roman Empire into Easter (Greek) and Western(Latin) branches.
○ Resultedfrom the return of the papacy to Rome under Gregory XI in 1373.
Four Noble Truths UNIT 1
(460 BC)The foundation of buddhism thought; (1) life is pain, (2) pain is caused by desire, (3) elimination of desire will bring an end to pain, (4) living a life based on the Noble Eightfold Path will eliminate desire.
Eightfold Path UNIT 1
(460 BC)The path to nirvana, comprising eight aspects in which an aspirant must become practiced: right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration
A state of political hostility betweencountries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short ofopen warfare, in particular
characterized by the principle of ownership bythe state or the people of the means of production
The action of keeping something harmful undercontrol or within limits
○ Themale head of a family; a person regarded as the father or founder of an order,class etc.
○ Exercisesautocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family.
○ Thebody of several churches within the larger communion of Eastern OrthodoxChristianity.
○ Has acultural tradition whose liturgy is also traditionally conducted in KoineGreek, the original language of the New Testament.
○ World’slargest Christian church, with more than one billion members.
○ Teachesthat it is the one true Church founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops arethe successors of Christ’s apostles and that the Pope is the sole successor toSaint Peter.
An international crisis inOctober 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the USand the Soviet Union. When the US discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba,President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockadeof the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the US demands a week later
A political upheaval in China1966–76 intended to bring about a return to revolutionary Maoist beliefs.Largely carried forward by the Red Guard, it resulted in attacks onintellectuals, a large-scale purge in party posts, and the appearance of apersonality cult around Mao Zedong. It led to considerable economic dislocationand was gradually brought to a halt by premier Zhou Enlai
○ ABantu language widely used as a lingua franca in East Africa and havingofficial status in several countries.
○ It isa Bantu language that serves as a second language to various groupstraditionally inhabiting parts of the East African coast.
○ Alegal system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during thecolonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor.
○ Aprotection of the natives from warring tribes.
○ Afinal blessed state free from ignorance, desire and suffering.
○ Itputs someone at ease when said to be enlightened.
(in the former Soviet Union)The policy or practice of more open consultative government and widerdissemination of information, initiated by leader Mikhail Gorbachev from 1985
The Government of India Act1935 was passed during the "Interwar Period" and was the lastpre-independent constitution of India.
is theprophesied redeemer of Islamwho will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years before the Day of Judgmentand will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny. It is a majorbeliefe in one of the world’s most prominent religions
a Turkish nationalist reform party in theearly twentieth century, favoring reformation of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire. They ruled theformer Ottoman empire from 1908 until the end of World War I in November 1918.The term has come to mean any group or persons inside an organization who seekprominence and power
An unsuccessful attempt madeunder Mao Zedong in China 1958–60 to hasten the process of industrializationand improve agricultural production by reorganizing the population into largerural collectives and adopting labor-intensive industrial methods
Kuomintang: the political party founded in 1911by Sun Yat-sen; it governed China under Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until 1949when the Communists took power and subsequently was the official ruling partyof Taiwan
The notional barrier separating the formerSoviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of communism that followed thepolitical events in eastern Europe in 1989
(460 BC)Indian kshatriya who achieved enlightenment and became known as the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.
Nirvana UNIT 1
(460 BC)Buddhist concept of a state of a spiritual perfection and enlightenment in which distracting passions are eliminated.
The Korean War (1950–1953) was a militaryconflict between the Republic of Korea, supported by the United Nations, andthe Democratic People's Republic of Korea and People's Republic of China (PRC),with air support from the Soviet Union
A peasant in Russia wealthy enough to own afarm and hire labor. Emerging after the emancipation of serfs in the 19thcentury, the kulaks resistedStalin's forced collectivization, but millions were arrested, exiled, or killed
A program of financial aid and other initiatives,sponsored by the US, designed to boost the economies of western Europeancountries after World War II. It was originally advocated by Secretary of StateGeorge C. Marshall and passed by Congress in 1948
○ Ageneral assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the nobility,the church, and the common people.- Special rights for nobleswas ended and the power and abuse of the Catholic Church was a thing of thepast.
○ Thename of the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of EnglishParliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau.
○ Itestablished a constitutional monarchy in England.
○ Aformer Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, and now a museum inIstanbul, Turkey.
○ It wasthe Holiest site for Eastern Orthodox Christianity until the Ottoman turksconverted the church into a mosque.
The May Fourth Movement wasan anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of studentdemonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919 protesting the Chinese government'sweak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially the Shandong Problem.
The New Economic Policy (NEP)was an economic policy proposed by Vladimir Lenin to prevent the Russianeconomy from collapsing
Not aligned with either side in aconflict of power, especially power politics (during the Cold War, the nonalignedstates were those that chose not to side with either the United States or theSoviet Union).
–mountainous region of southeastern Europe. Many linguistic families meet in the region, including the Slavic, Romance, Hellenic, Albanian, and Turkic language families,while the main religions are Orthodox Christianity,Roman Catholicism and Sunni Islam.
a warfought between two or more tribes in africa. Causes tensions that are still deep when all tribe are combined in imperialism
Anassociation of European and North American countries, formed in 1949 for thedefense of Europe and the North Atlantic against the perceived threat of Sovietaggression. By 2005, the alliance consisted of 26 countries, including severaleastern European nations. NATO's purpose is to safeguard member countries bypolitical and military means.
(in the former Soviet Union) The policy orpractice of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system. Firstproposed by Leonid Brezhnev in 1979 and actively promoted by MikhailGorbachev, perestroika originallyreferred to increased automation and labor efficiency, but came to entailgreater awareness of economic markets and the ending of central planning
A brief period of liberalization inCzechoslovakia, ending in August 1968, during which a program of political,economic, and cultural reform was initiated
○ InfantryMusketeer units that formed the Ottoman sultan’s household troops andbodyguards.
○ Theywere discipline, moral and professionalism which made them the strongest unitedarmy in Europe at that time.
○ A term used in early medieval Europeto denote either a gold coin, a wight of gold of 4.25g or a unit of account ofthirty silver pence.- After its firstappearances, use of the term mancus quickly spread across northern and centralItaly, and went over Gaul to reach England.
○ Theeconomic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is a paramountimportance for ensuring the prosperity and military security of the state.
○ Demandsa positive balance of trade.
Any of various radical or socialist groups, inparticular a militant youth movement in China (1966–76) that carried outattacks on intellectuals and other disfavored groups as part of Mao Zedong'sCultural Revolution
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrewthe Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted toinstall a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by theContras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990.
A war, June 5–10, 1967, in which Israeloccupied Sinai, the Old City of Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Golan Heightsand defeated an Egyptian, Jordanian, and Syrian alliance
A square in the center ofBeijing adjacent to the Forbidden City, the largest public open space in theworld. Tiananmen Square protests were here.
Openedin November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows transportation by water between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. It gave certain European countries advantages in globaltrade in the Indian ocean.
○ A termtraditionally used in Latin America and Spain for people of mixed heritage ordescent.
○ Theterm was used as a racial category in the Casta system that was in use duringthe Spanish empire’s control of their American colonies.
○ Animperial power from the Indian Subcontinent.
○ Theyincorporated their new Indian territory with the Muslim empires of the MiddleEast, and those who had trade with the Chinese Empire so trade could flowthroughout all Eurasia.
○ Refers to industrial and financialbusiness conglomerates.
○ Wordestablishes the power and control over japanese economy
The principle that the US should give supportto countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection.First expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seekingaid for Greece and Turkey, the doctrine was seen by the communists as an opendeclaration of the Cold War
○ Processof converting fibre into yarn, then fabric, and then textiles.
○ Faster production of clothes and other goods.
○ Conflictbetween different classes; classes were determined by the relationship to themeans of production.
○ Violencewould erupt from conflicts and inequality in society.
○ Theright to vote and to run for office.
○ Itgives people the choice to vote and qualified people to run for office.
amilitary genius for his reforms and innovations, and condemned for thebrutality of his reign. (1787 - 1828)
- Afrikaners are a Germanic ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from Dutch (including Flemish), French andGerman settlers. Boers are a subgroup.
(518 AD)a large peninsula in southeastern Europe containing the Balkan Mountain Range.
○ Thediverse data coming from ethnography, history, law and social statistics,establish that the human family is an institution and not a biological factfounded on the natural relationship of consanguinity.
○ Familyis based on other factors besides biological.
○ Machinethat quickly separates the cotton from the seeds.
○ Speedsthe production that would be a lot slower if done by hand.
○ Reform-orientedjournalists who wrote largely for popular magazines, continued a tradition ofinvestigative journalism reporting.
○ Journalists that reported truthfully on “today’s topics” and important events.
of1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during theNew Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as animperial power. Formalized the scramblefor Africa
therace between European countries to take over parts of Africa and imperializeit. Led to the imperialized state ofAfrica and the effects of that
○ Aninstitution in an inner-city area providing educational, recreational, andother social services to the community.
○ Used for immigrants to have the same amenities as more privileged people.
most sacred site for Islam even until this day
· builtby Abraham and Ishmael
· pilgrimagehere required by one of the Five Pillars of Islam
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
· religious was a way of life to be devoted
· the new being/ideas in Europe
· change in how people thought
· art history
· devoting for visual arts in italy
· states of the church
· 17th century
· in the power of the pope