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Greek culture after the time of Alexander the Great mixed with that of the cultures of various eastern nations, this mixed Greek culture is today called?
the ruler of a vast empire that extended from Macedonia to India in the 300s B.C.E
The first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity. Legally sanction Christian worship.
ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other work ascribed to Homer. The poem is fundamental to the modern Western canon, and is the second oldest extant work of Western literature, the Iliad being the oldest. Scholars believe it was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia.
Eastern Roman/Byzantine emperor between 527-565 CE; tried to restore unity of old Roman empire. issued most famous compilation of Roman laws
6-th century Byzantine emperor; failed to reconquer the western portions of the empire; revuilt Constantinople; codified Roman law.
future buddhas; beings who have experienced enlightenment but motivated by compassion, stop short of entering nirvana so as to help others achieve it;
payment made annually under Islamic law on certain kinds of property and used for charity/religions
led a rebellion against the Umayyads. brought with him a group of converts who were dissatisfied with Umayyad rule. Establishes abbasid Dynasty. abbisid dynasty founder
midevil, middle ages
the period that had gradual recovery from the shock of Rome's collapse and growing interaction with other societies.
the system of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers.
people who lived on self-sufficient agricultural estates who were in the manorial system
a third of land was left implanted each year to regain fertility
(holy Roman) emperors
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian.
One of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of western Europe; commanded in north Africa and Italy.
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople.
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014.
Artistic representation, usually of a religious figure.
Cyril and Methodius
Along with Methodius, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkan; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity.
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments.
Last of great Kievan monarchs; issued legal codification based on formal codes developed in Byzantium.
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe.
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact.
Religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons; literary 'breaking of images'; after long struggle, icon veneration was restored
Seljuk Turk victory in 1071 over Byzantium; resulted in loss of the empire's rich Anatolian territory.
Eastern portion of the Roman Empire which survived beyond the collapse of the Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam.
The wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt. Was seen as being overambitious, and power hungry by the public.
a large peninsula in southeastern Europe containing the Balkan Mountain Range, , including Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia
Movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that eneded with the outbreak of World War I.
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France; first English parliament met in 1265. Three groups represented by parliaments: church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Benard of Clairvaux
A church reformer, adviser to rulers, and conservative intellectual who opposed the wide application of logic.
900- 1168 CE
The Toltecs were the people who came to power in MesoAmerica after fall of Teotihuacan - they dominated the Aztecs and were powerful in the MesoAmerican area of Central Mexico.
Aztec capital that Cortes captured. Now site of Mexico City
-Start ruling when dad (8th Inca King) fled from Cuzco but he stayed and was victorious to defend empire
-Built largest ancient empire in Americas
-Conquered empires when local rulers say "No" to join empire; if say "Yes", he gives them respect and rights
a knotted string used by incan government officials and traders for record keeping
Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. Greatly worshiped the sun god. Polytheistic.
common misnomer created by clomubus for the natives of America
A general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief toward a rational, scientific orientation, a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of separation of church and state
Chinggis Khan’s Great grandson, Kabul Khan, led a Mongol alliance that won glory by defeating an army sent against them by Qin of north China.
Soon after, Kabul Khan became ill and died.
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
introduced movable type to western europe in the 15th century; greatly expanded the availability of printed materials
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David
Italian Renaissance artist that painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, he was also an engineer, architect, sculptor, and scientist
(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet
1469-1527 Niccolo, most important writer on POLITICS in the Renaissance. In The Prince rejected the Christian idea that state subject to divine law. Adopted SECULAR and AMORAL view of POLITICS. State existed for its own sake. Ruler should be concerned with preservation of power. Ends justified means. Yet most successful states of time were not in Italy but the New Monarchies. Politics in Italy was about virtu not involving loyalty as in New Monarchies
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517
In the Catholic religion these are those things one might do to earn salvation (e.g. obey ten commandments, receive sarcaments, have contact with relics) -- Most Protestants believe that these actions do not make one more deserving of salvation, which may only be obtained through faith alone
A division from the Catholic church that brought up a reformation within Western Christianity. They protested against the established Roman Catholic Church. It began in earnest when Martin Luther called in 1517 for a reopening of the debate on the sale of indulgences and the authority to absolve sin and remit one from purgatory. The reformers made use of inexpensive pamphlets because of the printing press which was still relatively new. This caused a swift movement of both ideas and documents, including The 95 Theses .In 1524,they Erupted into revolt and as they grew more violent they were denounced by Luther. With his support, the nobles suppressed the rebellion, killing tens of thousands of people and leaving thousands more homeless. The followers were also called Lutherans
16th Century. Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholic authorities undertook an enormous refor effort within their own church. To some extent their efforts represented a reaction to Protestant success. Roman Catholic authorities sought to define points of doctrine so as to clarify the differences between the Roman and Protestant churches. They also attempted to persuade the Protestants to return to the Catholic church
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state
16th century German monk and professor who is considered to be the person who started the Protestant Reformation; he began by criticizing Church practices (mainly indulgences) and ultimately broke with the Catholic Church to form his own new religious faith
the pope who excommunicated Martin Luther and who in 1521 bestowed on Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith (1475-1521)
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
15th century Bohemian clergyman, follower of John Wycliffe, who was burned at the stake for his criticism of Church doctrine
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization
(1519-1556) - Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands
1473-1543. Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution
A German astronomer from 1571-1630 who formulated three laws of how the planets revolve around the sun
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life
(1514-1564) A Flemish scientist who challenged traditional anatomy with his text "On the Construction of the Human Body." Created with numerous illustrations of public dissections
(1578-1657) An Englishman who used dissection to examine the circulation of blood throughout the body and how the heart worked as a pump. He insisted the heart and its valves were a piece of machinery that obeyed mechanical laws
(1642-1727) An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and optics. Published Principia Mathematica and discovered the law of universal gravitation
Roundheads, those in support of Parliament, and Royalists/Cavaliers, those in support of the King, battled. This occurred after a series of divine right monarchs tried to take power from parliament. This led to the rule of Oliver Cromwell.
After the civil war. marked by the development of Tories, (conservatives), and Whigs (favored parliament and religious toleration) as the main political parties.
fleet sent by Philip II of Spain as a religious crusade against Protestantism and the English but was defeated. 1588. Out of 130+ ships, only about 65 made it back home to Spain. One of most decisive battles in world history, led the Spanish to rebuild their navy
Powerful conservative oligarchy whose members were known also as "Redeemers". Controlled South after the war
strengthened rule like in France. persecuted non-Anglicans. controlled Parliament. English Monarchy
17th century, Calvinist. First Stuart king of England/ kind of Scotland. Succeeded Elizabeth, son of Mary Queen of Scots. Asserted divine right of kings. Generally hostile to Puritans for opposition to head of Church. Although supported new Bible translation (KJV)
1650-1702. Ruled the Netherlands. Wanted the Netherlands to have freedom from Spain.. Became the King of England after the "Glorious Revolution"
Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church.
Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires; based in part on continuity of Orthodox church in Russia following fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed.
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
one of first Western inspired radicals;
sought abolition of serfdom and more liberal political rule;
vigorously harassed by Catherine the Great's police;
his writings were banned
division of Poland among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795;
eliminated Poland as independent state;
part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe;
significant because before this, Poland was one of the largest nation-states in eastern Europe apart from Russia
Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain.
16th-century Spanish Dominican priest, writer and the first resident Bishop of Chiapas.
most important of early Portuguese trading factories in the forest zone of Africa
Portuguese trading factory established in 1520s south of Kongo;
became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola
chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants;
supplied African slaves to colonies Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia
term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade;
referred to the value of an adult male slave
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile Valley;
established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central Africa;
center at Bunyoro
a brilliant military tactician who reformed the loose forces into regiments organized by lineage and age;
became leader of the Nguni people in 1818
wars of the 19th century in southern Africa;
created by Zulu expansion under Shaka;
revolutionized political organization of southern Africa
new African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom;
sothern African state that survived mfecane;
not based on Zulu model;
less emphasis on military government, less authoritarian government
slaves transported from Africa;
almost invariably black
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particulary among the Yoruba people
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire. Made new city which was opened to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds, called it Istanbul.
Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear.
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan.
A high official in a Muslim government (especially in the Ottoman Empire).
Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530. First sultan.
Spiritual leaders of Shi'ah Islam, said to be direct descendents of Muhammad.
Founded by a Turkic nomad family with Shi'a Islamic beliefs; established a kingdom in Iran and ruled until 1722; family originated in Sufi mystic group.
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism.
Army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815
Devised a steam engine in the 1770s that could be used for production in many industries; a key step in the Industrial Revolution