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A&P2 Test 4
A&P2 Test 4
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Select the correct statement about tissue grafts
xenografts are between different species
Graft rejection may be caused by ____
failure to use immunosuppressive drugs
which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
allergic contact dermatitis
select the correct statement about immunodeficiency
the causative agent is acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins
which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?
they involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils
which of the following is NOT an autoimmune disease?
type 2 diabetes
which of the following is NOT a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?
a 2nd exposure to an allergen
Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the
upper respiratory tract
functions of the nasal cavity include all of the following except
acting as a damping chamber when coughing
the common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the
the vocal cords are located within the
the elastic cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the
the order in which air passes thru
1 - secondary bronchioles
2 - bronchioles
3 - aveolar ducts
4 - primary bronchus
5 - respiratory bronchiole
6 - aveoli
7 - terminal bronchiole
the actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are
the respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of
simple squamous epithelium
boyle's law states that gas volume is
inversely proportional to pressure
when the diaphram and external intercostal muscles contract
the volume of the thorax increases
the function of pulmonary ventilation is to
maintain adequate aveolar ventilation
henry's law states that
the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure
the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
100 mm Hg
the process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluid is
most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
bound to hemoglobin
most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
the most important chemical regulator of respiration is
10% increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
increase the rate of breathing
the hering-breuer reflex
protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation
during a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the ____ bronchus due to its large diameter and steeper angle
quiet breathing is to ___ as shallow breathing is to ___
eupnea; costal breathing
the statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ____
with the bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a _____
decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
decomposition sickness is a painful condition that develops whena person is exposed to a sudden drop in atmospheric pressure. Bubbles of _____ gas are responsible for the problem.
an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways
under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ____ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs
external respiration involves the
diffusion of gases between the aveoli and the circulating blood
____ equals the respiratory rate * (tidal volume - anatomic dead space)
aveolar ventilation rate
carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
increase the partial pressure of oxygen
which of the following is greater
the partial pressure of oxygen in atmospheric air at sea level
which of the following would be greater
hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when BPG level is high
if the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
a person would stop breathing
tidal volume is air
exchanged during normal breathing
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control
the pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration
which of the following is characterized by the destruction of the walls of aveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation
when we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called
the sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ____
from the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same 4 basic layers. arrange them in order from lumen
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
peristalic waves are
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
which of the following does NOT influence hemoglobin saturation
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