By Brian Rodriguez Renaissance Italy was a vibrant society with real people living real lives surrounded by great art and new ideas What would have been your role, your job, your place in that world? What you need to know? Guilds Perspective Classicism Masaccio Isabella D?Este Sfumato Chiarascurro Filippo Brunelleschi Vitruvian Man Renaissance Man Da Vinci Michelangelo Donatello Raphael Boticelli Savanarola Venus of Urbino Mannerism Sack of Rome Art and Patronage Italians were willing to spend a lot of money on art. Art communicated social, political, and spiritual values. Italian banking & international trade interests had the money. Public art in Florence was organized and supported by guilds. Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status! 1. Realism & Expression Expulsion from the Garden Masaccio 1427 First nudes since classical times. 2. Perspective Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! First use of linear perspective! Perspective! Perspective! The Trinity Masaccio 1427 What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become. 3. Classicism Greco-Roman influence. Secularism. Humanism. Individualism ? free standing figures. Symmetry/Balance The ?Classical Pose? Medici ?Venus? (1c) 4. Empasis on Individualism Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466. Isabella d?Este ? da Vinci, 1499 1474-1539 ?First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.? Great patroness of the arts in Mantua. Known during her time as ?First Lady of the World!? 5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate Leonardo da Vinci 1469 The figure as architecture! 6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Chiaroscuro Sfumato Chiaroscuro: Italian for ?light-dark? used in paintings to mimic 3-dimensions by using highlights of light and shadow Sfumato: Italian for ?vanishing in smoke? Overlaying translucent layers of color to add perceptions of depth, volume and form 7. Artists as Personalities/Celebrities Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects Giorgio Vasari 1550 Renaissance Florence The Wool Factory by Mirabello Cavalori, 1570 1252 ? first gold florins minted Florentine lion: symbol of St. Mark Lorenzo the Magnificent 1478 - 1521 Cosimo de Medici 1517 - 1574 Florence Under the Medici Medici Chapel The Medici Palace Filippo Brunelleschi 1377 - 1436 Architect Cuppolo of St. Maria del Fiore Filippo Brunelleschi Commissioned to build the cathedral dome. Used unique architectural concepts. He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome. Used ribs for support. Brunelleschi?s ?Secret? Brunelleschi?s Dome Dome Comparisons Il Duomo St. Peter?s St. Paul?s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington) The Ideal City Piero della Francesca, 1470 A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral: Sacrifice of Isaac Panels Brunelleschi Ghiberti Ghiberti ? Gates of Paradise Baptistry Door, Florence ? 1425 - 1452 The Winner! David by Donatello 1430 First free-form bronze since Roman times! The Liberation of Sculpture David Verrocchio 1473 - 1475 The Baptism of Christ Verrocchio, 1472 - 1475 Leonardo da Vinci Vitruvian Man Leonardo da Vinci 1492 The L?uomo universale The Renaissance ?Man? Broad knowledge about many things in different fields. Deep knowledge/skill in one area. Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge. The Greek ideal of the ?well-rounded man? was at the heart of Renaissance education. 1. Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512 1452 - 1519 Artist Sculptor Architect Scientist Engineer Inventor Leonardo, the Artist The Virgin of the Rocks Leonardo da Vinci 1483-1486 Leonardo, the Artist: From hisNotebooks of over 5000 pages (1508-1519) Mona Lisa ? da Vinci, 1503-4 A Macaroni Mona A Picasso Mona An Andy Warhol Mona A ?Mona?ca Lewinsky Mona Lisa OR da Vinci?? The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 & Geometry Refractory Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan horizontal vertical Perspective! The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 Detail of Jesus The Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci 1498 Deterioration A Da Vinci ?Code?: St. John or Mary Magdalene? Leonardo, the Sculptor An Equestrian Statue 1516-1518 Leonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook Study of a central church. 1488 Leonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook Plan of the city of Imola, 1502. Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature. Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his Notebook Man Can Fly? A study of siege defenses. Studies of water-lifting devices. Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook Leonardo da Vinci?. O investigator, do not flatter yourself that you know the things nature performs for herself, but rejoice in knowing that purpose of those things designed by your own mind. Comparing Domes 2. Michelangelo Buonorrati 1475 ? 1564 He represented the body in three dimensions of sculpture. David Michelangelo Buonarotti 1504 Marble ?15c 16c? What a difference a century makes! The Pieta Michelangelo Buonarroti 1499 marble The Popes as Patrons of the Arts The Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512 The Sistine Chapel?s Ceiling Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512 The Sistine Chapel Details The Creation of the Heavens The Sistine Chapel Details Creation of Man A Modern ?Adaptation? Joe Gallo in the New York Daily News, 2004 The Sistine Chapel Details The Fall from Grace The Sistine Chapel Details The Last Judgment 3. Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520) Self-Portrait, 1506 Portrait of the Artist with a Friend, 1518 Baldassare Castiglione by Raphael, 1514-1515 Castiglione represented the humanist ?gentleman? as a man of refinement and self-control. Perspective! Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael 1504 Raphael?s Canagiani Madonna, 1507 Raphael?s Madonnas (1) Sistine Madonna Cowpepper Madonna Madonna della Sedia Alba Madonna Raphael?s Madonnas (2) The School of Athens ? Raphael, 1510 -11 One point perspective. All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included ? all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts! A great variety of poses. Located in the papal apartments library. Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel. No Christian themes here. The School of Athens ? Raphael, 1510 -11 Raphael Da Vinci Michelangelo Aristotle: looks to this earth [the here and now]. Plato: looks to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm]. The School of Athens ? Raphael, details Averroes Hypatia Pythagoras Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid The Liberation of St. Peter by Raphael, 1514 Portrait of Pope Julius II by Raphael, 1511-1512 More concerned with politics than with theology. The ?Warrior Pope.? Great patron of Renaissance artists, especially Raphael & Michelangelo. Died in 1513 Pope Leo X with Cardinal Giulio deMedici and Luigi De Rossi by Raphael, 1518-1519 A Medici Pope. He went through the Vatican treasury in a year! His extravagances offended even some cardinals [as well as Martin Luther!]. Started selling indulgences. Birth of Venus ? Botticelli, 1485 An attempt to depict perfect beauty. Botticelli?s Venus Motif. 10¢ Italian Euro coin. 2002 Euro Coin Primavera ? Botticelli, 1482 Depicted classical gods as almost naked and life-size. A Portrait of Savonarola By Fra Bartolomeo, 1498. Dominican friar who decried money and power. Anti-humanist ? he saw humanism as too secular, hedonistic, and corrupting. The ?Bonfire of the Vanities,? 1497. Burned books, artwork, jewelry, and other luxury goods in public. Even Botticelli put some of his paintings on the fire!! The Execution of Savonarola, 1452 The Doge, Leonardo Loredon Berlini, 1501 Venus of Urbino ? Titian, 1558 Write your own description of this painting Include the following - What humanistic principles How did this reflect Renaissance society? Painting styles? Perspective? Views of women? Mark Twain?s description of that painting? You enter [the Uffizi] and proceed to that most-visited little gallery that exists in the world --the Tribune-- and there, against the wall, without obstructing rap or leaf, you may look your fill upon the foulest, the vilest, the obscenest picture the world possesses -- Titian's Venus. It isn't that she is naked and stretched out on a bed --no, it is the attitude of one of her arms and hand. If I ventured to describe that attitude there would be a fine howl --but there the Venus lies for anybody to gloat over that wants to --and there she has a right to lie, for she is a work of art, and art has its privileges. I saw a young girl stealing furtive glances at her; I saw young men gazing long and absorbedly at her, I saw aged infirm men hang upon her charms with a pathetic interest. How I should like to describe her --just to see what a holy indignation I could stir up in the world...yet the world is willing to let its sons and its daughters and itself look at Titian's beast, but won't stand a description of it in words....There are pictures of nude women which suggest no impure thought -- I am well aware of that. I am not railing at such. What I am trying to emphasize is the fact that Titian's Venus is very far from being one of that sort. Without any question it was painted for a bagnio and it was probably refused because it was a trifle too strong. In truth, it is a trifle too strong for any place but a public art gallery. A literal description A male description of what appears to be the main object of the picture: a naked young woman looks frankly at the beholder; her chestnut tresses fall over her naked shoulders; her nipples are erect; with her left hand she only half covers her pudenda --she almost toys with them-- while the shadow around them suggests her pubic hair. She is completely naked except for the ring on her little finger and the bracelet around her wrist. The sensuality of the representation is plain. The Penitent Mary Magdalene by Titian, 1533 By the mid-16c, High Renaissance art was declining. Mannerism became more popular. This painting is a good example of this new artistic style. Mannerism 16th Century: A style of painting which arose after the Sack of Rome in 1527, which shook Renaissance confidence, humanism and rationality to its foundations From Italian ?maneria? for style or artistic touch Different from ?High Renaissance? painters because in Mannerism, artists might deliberately distort dimensions for emotional and artistic effect End of the Renaissance ? The Sack of Rome Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, waged war against Pope Clement VII, and his French allies Charles V won, but was unable to pay his troops His troops ?sacked? or attacked Rome, pillaging and taking loot for a month! A famous incident in the attack on Rome was the massacre of 189 members of the Swiss Guard on the steps of the Vatican, as they covered the escape of the Pope in a secret passage which still exists there today. Art of the Italian Renaissance Main Idea #1 Main Idea #2 Main Idea #3 Due to the fact that The result was In addition to Because Which resulted in Furthermore, since So What? (What?s important about this? This is why While Which meant that Is about
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