AGE OF METTERNICH 1815 to 1848 (Fall of Napoleon to Revolutions of 1848) Growth and Suppression of Democracy NAME DATE The Unit Organizer BIGGER PICTURE LAST UNIT /Experience CURRENT UNIT NEXT UNIT /Experience UNIT SELF-TEST QUESTIONS is about... UNIT RELATIONSHIPS UNIT SCHEDULE Age of Metternich UNIT MAP CURRENT UNIT 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 Industrial Revolution Unification of Germany/Italy Growth Of Democracy Suppression of Democracy Congress of Vienna Crimean War Revolutions of 1848 Lecture Threes Autopsy Debate Quiz M/C Test Essay FR caused Reaction was Controlled by First break was Led to end To what extent and in what ways did the ideas and promises of the French Revolution lead to the spread of democracy following the Fall of Napoleon? Compare and contrast the growth and suppression of democracy in England, France, and Russia Dream Journal Fr. Impressionism What happened after Napoleon Got to know Isms ? conservatism, nationalism, romanticism, socialism, Marxism, liberalism Congress of Vienna tries to maintain order ? How GB maintained order How France came apart once again Russia?s reforms and revolts Austria?s conservative approach fails and breaks up into Austria-Hungarian Empire Age of ?isms? Nationalism, liberalism, republicanism, socialism, communism and conservatism Congress of Vienna restored order from Napoleonic Wars Brought stability to the European state system and guarantee that emerging concepts of liberalism would remain mere ideas But each country had political groups inspired by the French Revolution and anxious for change. Response: Confronted with demands for social and political reform after 1815, most leaders reinstate conservative or traditional means of governmental control. Europe in 1812 Put things back together again After FR and 25 years of Napoleonic Wars, great powers met in Vienna Goal was to rebuild stable diplomatic order Meeting interrupted when Napoleon escaped Elba, 100 days and Battle of Waterloo Key Players at Vienna The ?Host? Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (Fr.) 3 guiding principles Legitmacy ? restore rightful monarchs Compensation ? for the winners Balance of Power ? create strong ?buffer? states to make sure France didn?t rise again All 3 goals were achieved as the great powers set up a collective security system with alliances and treaties Shaped political and diplomatic climate for 19th Century Prevented major wars until 1914 Congress System Several times the great powers invoked the collective security system Congress of Aix La Chapelle, 1818 ? removed occupying army from France Congress of Troppau, 1820 ? put down revolts in Italy and Spain Congress of Verona ? put down 2nd revolt in Spain ? but GB stopped intervention in Latin America To the left is Count Metternich Austrian Prince and diplomat who served the Hapsburg Empire (Austria) Forged alliance of Throne, Land and Altar (Rulers, Aristocracy and Church) This is foundation of Conservatism His Problem: recognition of any political group or representative government (Constitutionalism and Nationalism) would mean the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Remember: Austrians had married into most royal families, and controlled Hungary, Italy, and the 39 states of the German Confederation (former Holy Roman Empire destroyed by Napoleon) Governor Schwarzenegger who married into a famous American family, the Kennedy family Europe After the Congress of Vienna What was the legacy of the Congress of Vienna? Winners receive compensation in land and money Collective security maintained until Crimean War (considered a minor conflict) and until WWI in 1914 Revolutions in Europe (Spain) were suppressed Strong states created around France as a buffer (Netherlands/Holland) Great Britain decided it was not interested in suppressing revolutionary movements or revolts in Latin America, which it wished to exploit Challenges to the ?Concert? System: The 1820s-1830 Revolutions Argentina, Spain?s colony, revolts in 1816 and Spain fails to retake ? other colonies soon followed ? a revolt follows in Spain in 1820 Count Metternich is horrified France, Prussia Austria and Russia meet at Congress of Troppau They decide that states that experience a revolution can be excluded from European affairs if they ?threaten other states? and that the ?threat? can be removed by joint action The French army, supported by her allies moved into Spain and violently restored the monarchy 1823 President Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine against European involvement in America to stop any invasion of South America to restore order Monroe Doctrine enforced by British navy Revolution in Spain and its Empire 19c Latin American Independence Movements Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19c Independence Movements in the Balkans Wallachia & Moldavia Belgian Independence - 1830 The Decembrist Uprising in Russia- 1825 Decembrist Revolt 1825 Russia had small middle class and autocratic tradition Napoleon?s invasion although unsuccessful, changed equation When Czar died, liberals wanted Constantine, the liberal son to take over and backed a revolt Other son, Nicholas was a conservative, and he crushed the revolt His motto: ?Autocracy, Orthodoxy and National Unity? Became Nicholas I ? Europe?s most reactionary (conservative) monarch Used secret police, informers, religious uniformity (Russian Orthodox) and imposed Russian language and culture (many ethnic groups in Russia) Intellectuals ? called the ?intelligentsia? called out for change But there were no uprisings in Russia unlike other European countries Alexander II Alexander II succeeded Nicholas I Began as a reformer and ended as a reactionary Fearing Revolution he instituted reforms Emancipated (freed) serfs in 1861, ending serfdom, which bound peasants to the land But Poles revolted in 1863 and assassination attempted Sold Alaska to US in 1867 Radicals blew him up in his royal carriage by a bomb in 1881 Assassination carried out by ?The People?s Will, a group inspired by writings of Karl Marx Succeeded by Alexander III, who imposed ?get tough? policy of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and National Unity? Europe in 1830 Sturm und drang (Storm and Stress) In Germany during the 1770s and 80s they were called the ?Sturm und Drang? (storm and stress) group, because of their emotional intensity They rejected materialism and were enchanted by nature which was awesome Sturm und drang #2 Von Schiller ?it is only through beauty that man makes his way to freedom? Swooning and fainting became very popular John Constable, ?nature is spirit visible? They saw modern industry as ugly and the work of Satan Fascinated by colors and diversity, they turned towards writing history History was the art of change over time Literature Britain was the first country were romanticism flowered Wordsworth, ?Daffodils?; Coleridge, and Scott, Byron, Shelley and Keats Wordsworth and Coleridge used the language of everyday people Walter Scott, Ivanhoe, influenced by German romanticist von Goethe ?Faust Mary Shelley - Frankenstein Viewed things in nature with emotion not detachment In France, Victor Hugo, Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Miserables championed romantic tenets Hugo equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society He was the opposite of Wordsworth who started as a youthful radical became cautious with middle age Amandine Dupin (George Sand) wrote over 80 romantic novels Autobiographical Lelia dealt with the quest for sexual freedom Greatest Russian romantic was the poet Pushkin Our concept of the Hunchback has changed over the years Chopin, Beethoven, Schubert, and Schumann transformed the small orchestra adding wind, percussion, and more brass and strings But the greatest composer was Ludwig van Beethoven who used contrasting themes and tones to reduce conflict and inspire resolution Beethoven lost his hearing but still composed ?I will take fate by the throat? He never heard much of his greatest work the Ninth Symphony Naples and Sicily also revolted in 1820 Revolutionaries were known as Carbonari (Charcoal burners) and they were fighting the Austrians This is root of Italian reunification movement (risorgimento) 1822 Castlereagh commits suicide Principle ideas were liberty and equality had been successful in America and France - challenged conservatism Based on rising industrial economies and growth of middle class Demanded a representative government like France or Britain - by 1815 Freedom of speech, assembly, press, from arbitrary arrest ?Classical? liberalism govt. should not be involved in social or economic affairs What is Liberalism? What liberals thought? Laissez-faire economics - unrestricted private enterprise with no govt interference Guru: Adam Smith - Inquiry into the Nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations Competition was the best economic strategy labor unions should be outlawed because they restricted free competition Economists, Malthus and Ricardo made economic liberalism an ideology of business If workers were poor it was their own fault! (social Darwinism) Not every man could vote! Early nineteenth-century liberals wanted a representative govt. but with property requirements for voting rights. Many intellectuals felt liberalism did not go far enough Some called for universal suffrage - at least for all males many wanted a republican form of govt. they detested the power and wealth of the monarchy and upper class Nationalism 1. Real or imagined cultural unity ie. language, history, or territory 2. Tried to turn cultural identity into a political reality - especially in eastern Europe after 1815 3. Had its origins in the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars Between 1815 and 1850 many liberals were also nationalists - they saw people as the source of power Early nationalists believed every nation had a right to exist French historian Jules Michelet in The People in 1846, each citizen ?learns to recognize his country . . . as a note in the grand concert? Thus liberty equated to love of a free nation But nationalism also stressed differences German pastor Johann Herder believed all people were unique. But only by comparing could you find the uniqueness (us and them) The ?we-they? outlook also contributed to a) a sense of national mission b) national superiority Marxism ?The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!? Karl Marx Marxism Marx's approach to history and politics is indicated by the opening line of the first chapter of The Communist Manifesto (1848): ?The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles?. Marx argued that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, will produce internal tensions which will lead to its destruction Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, capitalism itself will be displaced by communism, a stateless, classless society which emerges after a transitional period, the 'dictatorship of the proletariat' German Jew (not Russian), worked in England, after being kicked out of France Not a popular leader or orator, but a scholar Philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary - most influential socialist thinker to emerge in the 19th century. Published The Communist Manifesto in 1848 Roots were in Sir Thomas More?s Utopia, where private property had been abolished and $ was not necessary Writing partner was Frederich Engels, a former factory manager, with whom he wrote his 3 volume masterpiece Das Kapital His social, economic and political ideas gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death in 1883. Until quite recently almost half the population of the world lived under regimes that claim to be Marxist. KARL MARX Marx for Dummies Communist Manifesto calls for radical solutions to the dilemma of mass poverty in the industrialized world Das Kapital offers an analysis of capitalism Society is a reflection of economics. History progressed from agrarian communalism to slave-holding to feudalism to bourgeois commercialism to capitalism to socialism and finally to communism Communism = a classless society in which the workers own the means of production and government is unnecessary Class struggle= the dominant class in every society (slaveholders, feudal lords, capitalists) is opposed by slaves, serfs and workers, who will overthorw the old order Proletariat = workers Inevitable revolution = the capitalists will lover the workers? wages for labor to the point that the proletariat cannot afford to consume the products of manufacture. Economic depression occurs and lays hardship on the working class until it carries out a revolution Dictatorship of the proletariat = will establish a socialist government to wipe out capitalism Communism = a ?withering away of the state? will follow, whereby private property will cease to exist, economic exploitation will stop, ending crime, vice and injustice, and Utopia (a perfect society) will result Reforms and Revolutions Greece Anarchists Fabians and Socialists Great Britain France Why was the Age of Metternich ending? The Conservative era was ending mainly because of economic discontent (hunger) The 1840s were known as the ?hungry forties? Yet the revolutionaries were not the poor or lower class, they were middle class liberals who wanted: a) constitutional monarchies b) guaranteed civil liberties c) limited monarchy By 1848 social, political, and economic pressure caused explosions in three countries: Greece, Great Britain, and France Greece Since 15th century the Greeks had been under Ottoman control They had survived as a culture through language and their Greek Orthodox religion Young Greek patriots revolt Turks hang head of Greek Church for failing to stop the revolt Eugene Delacroix and Lord Byron inspired by Greek Revolution. Lord Byron went to Greece to help but died of a fever France and Great Britain reluctant to help though because they saw revolution as a dangerous thing Europeans saw the Greek?s struggle as a Holy struggle Massacre at Chios by Eugene Delacroix Story of Ottoman massacre of 20,000 Greeks REVOLUTION IN GREECE Finally, in 1827 Great Britain, France, and Russia responded to popular pressure by calling for Turkey to agree to an armistice - The Treaty of London When the Turks refused their navy was destroyed at Navarino by the British, French, and Russian fleets.(the last major battle involving wooden ships) Russia declared war on Turkey and took over much of Rumania 1832 - Greece gained her independence * Ironically, the Congress of Vienna had actually supported a nationalist movement Anarchism Anarchism emerged in 19th C. as byproduct of Industrial Revolution Anarchism argues there should be no private ownership of property or authority, which can only be attained through enlightened individualism Leaders ? William Godwin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Proudhon wrote: What is Property? (1840) ?Property is theft!? (La propriété, c'est le vol! , he wrote Mikhail Bakunin, a Russian stated that violent, terrorist actions were necessary to move people to revolt against oppressors Variation in France was called Syndicalism ? involved action of sabotage and strike to control industry Does this sound in any way like the Occupy Movement of the 21st C.? Symbol of Anarchy Proudhon (above) Bakunin (below) Fabians and Socialists Fabians were a group of Brits sympathetic to Marx but did not accept inevitable revolution ? instead wanted gradual evolution using democratic institutions, like the right to vote Wanted welfare state, clear slums, national healthcare, national educational system Eventually became the Labour Party Social Democrats were Germans who became largest political party in Germany who thought similarly French socialists, led by Jean Jaures agreed ? all were pacifists Marxists rejected them all? Socialist Flag Why no revolution in GB? GB avoided revolutionary upheaval because of ability to adapt to challenge of Liberalism New industrial bourgeoisie provided orderly process of representation for new cities and increased number of people allowed to vote Got rid of Corn Laws and reformed work rules and controlled child labor Great Britain 18th century British society had been stable and yet flexible It was dominated by the land owning aristocracy(Tory Party) Civil rights were balanced with deference to one?s superiors Parliament was manipulated by the king while the population could vote for a representative govt. The French Revolution changed everything The Tory party ? (conservatives) the aristocracy - became very fearful The govt passed the Corn laws in 1815 to regulate foreign grain - which caused shortages The landowners profited from the shortages by inflating prices New regulations prohibited the import of corn unless domestic prices rose above 80 shillings a ton This led to protests and demonstrations by middle and working classes ?anti-Corn League Benjamin Disraeli, first and only Jewish Prime Minister of Great Britain, defended the Corn Laws A quote: There are three kinds of lies: Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics!? In 1817 the govt. suspended the traditional right of assembly and habeas corpus 1819 govt. passed the Six Acts govt. controlled a heavily taxed press and eliminated all mass meetings The new commercial and industrial classes also wanted to be seen as equals of the old aristocracy Many people called for liberal reforms Inspired by the new wealthy the middle class became more determined The ?Battle of Peterloo? 1820, demonstrated the govt. intent to stand firm Why change occurred in Great Britain From 1750 to 1832, no political changes of any note took place. Britain was ruled in the following way : only men with money and property rights could vote no women regardless of their wealth could vote the House of Lords could overrule any law passed by the House of Commons only men could be in the Houses of Commons and Lords _Peterloo Masssacre 1819 mass meeting in Manchester England Held at St Peter's Field Speeches demanded parliamentary reform. Event was non-violent Local judges declared meeting illegal and sent cavalry in to break it up. Cavalry charged the crowd. 11 killed and 400 wounded. Called "Peterloo" in mocking tones of the British victory at Waterloo. Other Revolts Cato Street Conspiracy of 1820 to kill government ministers, place their heads on poles and parade around London - But gang had been infiltrated by police spies, five were sentenced to death and duly executed while another five were transported to Australia for life. Swing Riots of 1830: men attacked machinery fearing they would lose their jobs; nine men classed as machine wreckers were hanged. Those in power were unwilling to show any signs of weakness. Those considered to be trouble makers were transported to Australia. What were the corn laws? Corn Laws kept the price of corn artificially high helping rich English landholders In force between 1689 and 1846 Abolished in 1846 because they increased industrial costs The change was a significant showing the emergence of a new political power in the English middle class George IV of Great Britain ? very conservative Playboy King ? illegally married a Catholic and had to remarry; had many mistresses, spent extravagantly and partied up a storm What was a rotten borough? A rotten borough was a voting district which had declined in size but still elected members to Parliament Some of the ?rotten boroughs? had only 14 actual houses with 20 residents, yet they elected the same number of MP?s as those districts with a million voters These districts kept the Tories (King?s party) in power and the Whigs out Britain?s fast growing industrial towns had little or no representation in Parliament Great Reform Act This was a moderate reform which the Tories agreed to in order to stop a revolution as had occurred in France. 56 rotten boroughs were removed as constituencies 30 small constituencies which retuned two MP's now only returned one the large industrial cities were given more MP's in keeping with their size and importance in general, the middle class was given the right to vote the number of those who could vote rose from 435,000 to 652,000 But for all these improvements there were still three major weaknesses No women could vote only one in seven men could vote there was no secret ballot which would allow people to vote in secret Although not part of the Reform Act, slavery was abolished in Great Britain in 1833 There were actually 4 Reform Acts, and the secret ballot was used in 1872 Women over 30 got the right to vote in 1918 (men over 21) Chartism movement Chartism was a working class movement from 1839 to 1848 which wanted sweeping changes to the political system of Britain and above all it wanted it Six Points Every man over 21 to have the right to vote A secret ballot to be introduced A MP did not have to own property of a certain value or above to become a MP All MP's to be paid to allow working men to serve in Parliament All constituencies to be equal in terms of population size Elections to Parliament to be held every year so that MP's would have to answer to their voters if they had not performed well But the chartist movement failed despite 5 million signatures on their last petition The Whig party, although also aristocratic, had always been more acceptable to the commercial and industrial class The Reform Bill of 1832 was passed by the House of Commons but defeated in the House of Lords The Whigs got the king to agree to make enough lords until it passed The House of Commons now had the political power ? and became more important than the House of Lords Old ?rotten boroughs? were eliminated and new industrial areas gained political voice *What you saw was political competition between aristocracy and middle class Today the Whig Party is called the Liberal Democrats in Great Britain The King was forced to marry Caroline of Brunswick to pay off his debts. Caroline was short, fat, ugly,never changed her undergarments, and rarely washed! Her body odor was so overwhelming that the King needed a drink after embracing her. The number of voters increased by 50% Major reform was achieved without revolution or war In 1838 the ?People?s Charter? demanded universal suffrage for all males Thousands of people signed petitions in 1839, 1842, and 1848, all were rejected by parliament many working class people joined with the middle class to create the Anti-Corn League More and more demanded no tariffs on corn With the potato famine in Ireland Britain faced serious problems Robert Peel, a Tory leader instituted many reforms in Great Britain, including the use of a police force named ?Peelers,? or ?Bobbies? In 1846, 1848, and 1851 the Irish potato crop failed again. The result was the Great famine Potato was main Irish crop Potato blight caused by fungus Eating rotten potatoes would make Irish ill Other Irish food was exported to England, which paid higher prices Protestant landlords evicted 100,000s of tenants Over 1 million fled Ireland (primarily to the U.S.) another 1.5 million died Population dropped by 3 million The Irish who couldn?t pay rent were forced off their land So many died in route to America ships were called ?coffin ships? Convinced Irish of need to form own country Great Irish Potato Famine France The Bourbon Restoration 4th son of Louis XV Louis XVIII gained throne after Napoleon was removed But had to flee during 100 Days (Napoleon?s return) but then returned after Waterloo His Constitutional Charter of 1814 was basically a liberal constitution (Napoleonic Code) and he ruled as a Constitutional Monarchy a) economic and social gains gained during the revolution were protected - free press, religion b) intellectual and artistic freedom was permitted c) real Parliament was created But his government was really very conservative ? and all freedoms were taken back one by one Louis? successor, brother Charles X tried to bring back the Ancien Regime He enacted a law in 1825 indemnified the émigrés (those nobles who left France during Revolution) for lands confiscated during the Revolution. He enacted measures that increased the power of the clergy that met with particular disapproval. His dissolution in March 1830 of the liberal chamber of deputies and his drastic July Ordinances, that established rigid control of the press, resulted in the July Revolution of 1830. Revolution of 1830 (July Revolution) Triggered when Charles X dissolved Chamber of Deputies and they refused to disband Barricades went up around Paris ? took 3 days Charles X abdicated and fled to England This ended line of Bourbons which started with Henry IV This is the revolution which occurs in Les Miserables Charles fled and Louis Philippe I (cousin) was placed on the throne Ruled for 18 years Louis Philippe accepted the Constitutional Charter, the red, white, and blue flag, and admitted he was merely ?king of the French people? Revolutions of 1848 What is the name of this painting? Who is the painter? Answer: Liberty Leading the People by Eugene Delacroix FRANCE In France, 1840-1 Republicans asked for reforms of corrupt government of Louis Philippe Street riots erupted when there were food shortages Conservatives called out the Army Soldiers refused to disperse the crowd February Days Feb 22, 1848 barricades went up in Paris and riots break out (February Days) Louis abdicated in favor of his grandson - but the people were tired of a monarchy The Chamber of Deputies formed a Provisional Govt. and declared the Second Republic Government formed national workshops (ateliers) to provide work and relief for thousands of unemployed June Days (23-26, 1848) But new conservative government closed workshops and workers rioted June Days ? unlike any other riot as it was class warfare with workers calling for a redistribution of property Foreshadowed great social revolutions of 20th C. Rioters put down by conservatives Louis Napoleon After three terrible ?June Days? with thousands of deaths the republican army was victorious The revolution had been a spectacular failure, press was censored, clubs outlawed, and the right to assembly was removed But all adult males given right to vote Louis Napoleon (nephew of Bonaparte) was elected in Dec. 1848 Only won because of popularity of ?Napoleon? name His name and desire for peace at any cost allowed him to win the election However, was later declared himself ?Emperor? in doomed attempt to recover ?glory? of France Wars mostly disastrous - invaded Mexico, Crimean War and Franco-Prussian War Up close and personal with Napoleon III Napoleon III ruled by bribery, trickery, and press censorship Tolerated widespread corruption and had many mistresses Wife (Empress Eugenie) was Spanish, very bossy and disliked by husband and French France led in industrial growth Financed and built Suez Canal (1869) Rebuilt Paris (wide straight boulevards) France?s failed attempt to take Mexico Mexican liberals led by Benito Juarez, defeat conservatives in Civil War in 1861 and declare end of foreign debt Great Britain, Spain and France object and land military forces during American Civil War (1861-1865) Great Britain and Spain settle with Mexicans, but Mexican Conservatives ally with France (Napoleon III) who attempt to impose 2nd French Empire French are initially defeated at the Battle of Puebla (Cinco de Mayo) but go on to take over country 1864: Younger brother of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria (Maximillian) appointed Emperor of Mexico during American Civil War America warns French to get out after Civil War ends 1867: Maximillian captured and executed by Mexican Army Austria 1848 Habsburg Dynasty ruled Austria from 1246 to WWI (over 500 years) Expanded power through land purchases and marriage (notice how many royal brides and grooms were Austrian) Became Holy Roman Empire, until destroyed by Napoleon at Battle of Austerlitz Capital was Vienna, known for music and Baroque art Austria was a polyglot of different cultures, languages, peoples More non-Germans than Germans Strangled by serfdom Had few liberals, but they did want political change Especially Hungarians and Czechs Nobody really opposed the Habsburg rule just the Habsburg autocracy Can you think of any reason why Austrian empire might have problems based on the map? Austrian students and liberals rushed to the streets to ask for reform and took over Vienna Metternich flees country in disguise to save his life But Emperor Ferdinand restores order with his army The monarchy was forced to abolish serfdom ? called the robot - Austria was overwhelmingly agricultural Vienna recaptured but Emperor abdicates in favor of nephew, Franz Joseph Hungarians Louis Kossuth was Hungarian nationalist who wanted independence Hungary has population of 12 million Hungarians also called Magyars March 1848 Hungarians organized army but eventually defeated with help of Russians Russians come in to help Slavs (Russians are also Slavs) Hungary does not become independent until 1866 Czechs Nationalist feelings among Czechs (Bohemia) arose Met June 1848 to unite all Slavic people Instead, Austrian army attacked Prague, bombarding it into surrender Imposed military dictatorship Crushed revolutionary groups Liberalism halted in Germany Prussia is largest of German states although their were 38 others 1848 revolution in France caused series of liberal and nationalistic demonstrations in German states Rulers promised reforms Liberals wanted constitutional government and formation of labor unions and universal health benefits and pensions They were to fail Prussia and the Foundations of Modern Germany Burschenschafen - members of student fraternities wanted a united Germany Metternich persuaded Prussian ruler William III to issue the Carlsbad Decrees which a) abolished free press b) outlawed fraternities This allowed Austria to control Germany Prussia was different because there was the additional goal of unifying the 38 states of the confederation (created by Napoleon) Therefore the events were actually on two separate levels After Austria, Prussia was the most influential German kingdom The fall of Louis Philippe encouraged the Germans to seek liberal reforms When these were not granted a social war exploded King tried to defuse it by parading through streets in national German colors Frederick William IV was a ?romantic? reactionary on the throne. Frankfurt Assembly met to determine how Germany might be united When William was offered the crown of a united Germany by the Frankfurt Assembly, he turned it down, saying he would not ?accept it from the gutter? (because he was a divine right guy) Attempted to unify with German speaking provinces of Austria Austria and Russia stopped this plan His advisor, Otto Von Bismarck, stated that to unify Germany, what was needed was not speeches and resolutions, but a policy of ?blood and iron.? Eventually went mad and resigned in favor of brother All the revolutions failed Why did 1848 Revolutions fail? Lost support as people lost enthusiasm Superior force smashed them Conservative rural peasants did not support them Revolutionaries were divided and inexperienced in how to lead Radicals were feared Needed moderates to succeed Results were not all negative Universal male suffrage in France (right to vote) Serfdom abolished in Austria (robot) Parliaments established in many German states and Austria Crimean War 1854-56 GB, France and Ottoman Empire (Turks) against Russia for right to control the Holy Land (Palestine) GTK ? Charge of Light Brigade, Thin Red Line, Florence Nightingale, Russian resentment against Austrians War breaks out in Europe for the first time since Napoleon The Crimea is in Russia In the years 1854 to 1856, Britain fought its only European war between the ending of the Napoleonic conflict in 1815 and the opening of the Great War in 1914. Although eventually victorious,the British and their French allies pursued the war with little skill and it became a byword for poor generalship and logistical incompetence. The Crimean War How the war began? The war began because of a dispute between Russian holy men and French holy men over control of churches in Jerusalem and Nazareth. Russia moved troops into Ottoman Empire territory and attacked the Turks Britain then moved to protect its interests in the Middle East and the Mediterranean by moving troops into the Balkans Napoleon III, eager for a new French empire, allied with the Brits. British commander at Battle of Balaclava stated: ?There is no retreat from here men, You must die where you stand.? A British war correspondent described it as a ?thin Red line? Describes British stoic and heroic attitude in battle. How war was fought Fr. And Brits land 50,000 troops in Crimea to capture city of Sebastopol More casualties from disease and weather than combat When Czar Nicholas I died, new Czar, Alexander II made peace terms after Austrians sided with Brits and French Russians felt betrayed by Austrians, which would lead in part to WWI Florence Nightingale Famous pioneer of nursing More soldiers died from typhus, typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle Founded first nursing schools and insisted on sanitary conditions ? reduced death rates Model of early feminism as rejected marriage and instead chose a career Probably one of the stupidest charges of all time, and one of the most famous, the Charge of the British Light Brigade led to the slaughter of 500 horses and men, as the Russians poured fire in on three sides ? despite that, the poet Alfred Lord Tennyson, immortalized the charge in a poem The Charge of the Light Brigade Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. 'Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns!' he said: Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. 'Forward, the Light Brigade!' Was there a man dismay'd ? Not tho' the soldier knew Some one had blunder'd: Their's not to make reply, Their's not to reason why, Their's but to do and die: Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volley'd and thunder'd; Storm'd at with shot and shell, Boldly they rode and well, Into the jaws of Death, Into the mouth of Hell Rode the six hundred. Flash'd all their sabres bare, Flash'd as they turn'd in air Sabring the gunners there, Charging an army, while All the world wonder'd: Plunged in the battery-smoke Right thro' the line they broke; Cossack and Russian Reel'd from the sabre-stroke Shatter'd and sunder'd. Then they rode back, but not Not the six hundred. Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon behind them Volley'd and thunder'd; Storm'd at with shot and shell, While horse and hero fell, They that had fought so well Came thro' the jaws of Death, Back from the mouth of Hell, All that was left of them, Left of six hundred. When can their glory fade? O the wild charge they made! All the world wonder'd. Honour the charge they made! Honour the Light Brigade, Noble six hundred! Can you hear The rhythm of the charge? Issues Why did Great Britain escape revolution but France did not? Were you paying attention? Name 6 ?isms? Years of revolution (2) Sturm und drang 3 things about Metternich 3 things about the 1848 Revolutions 3 issues in Spain 3 issues in Austria 3 issues in Greece 3 reforms in Great Britain 3 things about Russia What was the Bourbon Restoration? 3 things about Napoleon III 3 issues about Prussia 3 things about Karl Marx 3 things about anarchy 3 facts about the Crimean War
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