ENGLISH REFORMATION What you?ve got to know? Tudors Act of Supremacy Elizabeth Mary Queen of Scots Spanish Armada James I Gunpowder Plot Charles I English Civil War Cromwell Restoration Charles II James II William of Orange Glorious Revolution Good Queen Anne Act of Union Overview Constitutional system of government developed in England Powers of English Kings first checked by Magna Carta back in 13th Century The Tudors (Henry?s family) took throne as a compromise after the English War of the Roses destroyed the two major rivals for the throne (Lancaster and York) Reformation changed relationship of King and Parliament Puritan revolution finally established the supremacy of Parliament over the King Henry VII Henry VII: First Tudor king who defeated Edward III in battle and took throne Strong King who broke power of English barons and sent explorer Henry Hudson to New World (Canada) To develop better relations abroad, and to avoid costly foreign wars, he had arranged for his eldest son - Arthur - to marry a Spanish princess called Catherine of Aragon. Aragon is in north-east Spain. Such political marriages were common among the children of royal families. Neither Arthur nor Catherine would have had the opportunity to say no to the marriage. The marriage lasted only five months as Arthur died. To maintain a friendship with Spain, Henry arranged for Catherine to marry his second son, Henry, the future king of England. Henry VII died before the marriage took place. Tudor family was to rule England 118 years The King?s Great Matter English humanists had been wanting reform 1509 Henry VIII became the king aged 18 Henry was strongly Catholic and had been trained as a priest The pope gave him the title Defender of the Faith Luther called him a ?lubberly ass? Henry VIII Was given special permission from Pope Julius II to marry Catherine of Aragon as Catherine had been his brother?s wife Catherine of Aragon Daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Catholic First married to Arthur, Henry?s older brother, who died Then, with the Pope?s permission, to Henry She had five daughters, only Mary survived Henry asked Pope Clement VII to grant a divorce Charles V was Catherine?s nephew Leviticus Charles V was in Rome Lutheranism Papal infallibility The ?matter? took six years Denied an annulment of marriage Henry issued The Act in Restraint of Appeals (1533), which made the king supreme head of England The Act of Submission of the Clergy (1534), clergy must submit to the monarch The Supremacy Act, (1534) made the king head of the Church of England Separated Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church Sir Thomas More Thomas More and John Fisher refused and were beheaded Catherine still remained loyal to him and the Catholic faith The king could now remarry Anne Boleyn Maid of honor to Catherine ? where she caught the King?s eye 2nd wife and most famous wife Known for her ?moles? and a sixth finger Henry had a relationship with her sister before he met her Became pregnant before marriage to Henry, but King married her to avoid problem of legitimacy Bore him a daughter - Elizabeth I In 1536, charged Anne of adultery and incest Her ?lovers? were sentenced to death, which included being hanged, cut down while still alive, drawn and quartered and disemboweled Beheaded on May 19, 1536 Jane Seymour Third wife Protestant Provided him with the male heir (Edward) he wanted, but died shortly after childbirth King Edward VI Henry dissolved the monasteries and kept the wealth Sold the land to his friends The Catholic Pilgrimage of Grace proved the whole country was not willing to change Anne of Cleves: too ugly to be queen After the divorce of Catherine, the execution of Anne and the early death of Jane, few noble women in England were willing to marry Henry. To many he appeared tainted and marriage to him seemed to come with a price. His chief minister, Cromwell, arranged wedding with German protestant Based on portrait (inaccurate) She was thin, plain, and boring He called her the ?mare of Flanders? I like her not! I like her not!" -After first meeting Anne of Cleves in 1540 Went through with the marriage, had Cromwell executed for treason and had marriage annulled It cost him 4000 pounds a year and many fine homes to pay off her family He remarried within 6 days of annulment coming through? Next wife: Catherine Howard Catherine Howard (1522-1542) was a Catholic and a cousin of Anne Boleyn She was a lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves Kind-hearted, good-natured and empty headed She was 18, he was 49 ? married the day Cromwell was executed He called her ?My rose without a thorn? and spent more on her than all his wives put together ? giving her houses, pearls and gifts Oldest daughter, Mary did not approve, as Catherine was nine years younger than her Catherine had premarital and post-marital affair with Thomas Culpepper Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer gave Henry evidence that Catherine was having an affair because he feared Catholic power Henry was brokenhearted and cried? She confessed her affair and that she had not been a virgin when married and begged forgiveness but Henry would not relent Both the man who had taken her virginity, Culpepper and Catherine were executed Last one: Katherine Parr She outlived him He was obese, jaundiced, had gout and ulcerated leg Looked far older than 54 She was the model wife ? age 31 her strength of character and noted dignity, as well as her later religious convictions, greatly influenced her stepdaughter, Elizabeth. After an argument with her about religion, Henry ordered her arrested but then withdrew the arrest warrant after she locked herself in her bedroom crying Henry went to France, and died at the age of 55 Edward VI Only son of Henry His mother died of child bed fever Became king at nine Book of Common Prayer published Catholic Mass is banned Puritans emerge ? wanted to purify Church of any Catholic references by simplifying Church services Had been tutored by Protestants Died from several sicknesses in 1553 Lady Jane Grey Edward names Lady Jane as his successor over his two half-sisters Lady Jane becomes Queen for 9 days Reason: Duke of Northumberland plotted to gain throne after death of Edward by marrying his son to Lady Jane Marched to arrest Princess Mary Instead army deserted Lady Jane refuses to become a Catholic and she and her husband are executed Mary Tudor Sad childhood: Henry wouldn?t allow her to see her mother and declared illegitimate by Act of Parliament People are horrified when she announces she will marry her cousin, Philip II of Spain, because a Spaniard might become King of England Devoted Catholic, like her mother Protestants revolted and she had many executed ?300 burned at stake Princess Eliz. Blamed and imprisoned Philip left her to become King of Spain, and never saw her again Died at age 42 of dropsy Nicknamed ?Bloody Mary? Very unpopular QUEEN MARY (BLOODY MARY) No kids, no love, no husband? Elizabeth of York (Like a Virgin) Another sad childhood: mother beheaded, big sister put her in prison, brave, level headed-sharp witted; Pope told her to resign because she was illegitimate Instead established Anglican Church with 39 Articles Surrounded by handsome men all her life Became queen of England in 1558 Protestant, but tolerant ?Elizabethan Settlement? required conformity Last and greatest of Tudor monarchs Population betw. 3-4 million France 16 million; Spain 9 million Eng. Govt balanced between .monarchy and parliament Wealth came from rich land, commerce and trade Interests of nobles, gentry and middle class represented in Parliament To avoid Civil War she was tolerant of all faiths Elizabethan Age Religion: repealed Mary?s pro-Catholic legislation Reinstated Act of Supremacy 39 Articles (1563) followed Protestant doctrine but vague enough to accommodate most of the English except Puritans (English Calvinists) who wanted to ?purify English church of its Catholic influences Scotland Did not follow the English model Mary Queen of Scots allied with the French Scottish nobles supported the Protestants and John Knox Knox persuaded Parliament to end papal supremacy in Scotland Established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland No foreign husband would be popular but she teased them all to keep the peace Most famous suitor was Sir Walter Raleigh, explorer and colonizer of North America; named Virginia for her Tall, handsome, witty and extremely courteous(spread cape across puddle) Showered him with property, money and honors and played leading role in defeating the Spanish Armada Started trend of smoking at court But had affair with Queen?s Lady in waiting and was banished and eventually executed Other suitors: Earl of Essex ? he was 20, she was 61 and so ugly she had all the mirrors in the palace removed Kissing Cousins Mary Queen of Scots Cousin to Elizabeth She was married to French King and Catholic King died, returned to Scotland and married her cousin Had affair with her secretary (Italian Stallion) Husband had him murdered She was pregnant, but baby was Italian?s She took new lover and had her husband murdered Married her new lover Scandal! Forced to resign as Queen Fled to England Because Philip II, the Spanish King and Holy Roman Emperor was conspiring to put Mary on England?s throne, Elizabeth had Mary imprisoned for 19 years Finally beheaded for conspiracy She left her claim to the English throne not to her son, but to Philip II of Spain Her son, James eventually became the English King Phillip II is angry He send 130 ships, 20,000 soldiers and 10,000 sailors to invade England English tactic: launch midnight attack with fireships Spanish ships collided with panic and escaped but lost their formation and sailed into gale force winds, many ships wrecked ?11,000 lost at sea Defining moment in English history, as a small island nation defeats largest army and navy of its day Queen Elizabeth?s speech to her troops At age 55, Queen put on armor and said: ?I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a King! Stuart Time Elizabeth dies childless Bequeathed throne to James, son of Mary Queen of Scots He became James I Some thought him mad; tongue was too big for his mouth, causing him to drool incessantly; so fat, his legs would not support him; so he would lean on his courtiers or be carried in a chair; he was bisexual with 9 children and many male lovers He once wrote the Earl of Buckingham calling him his ?wife? and signed it your ?husband.? James I ?The Wisest Fool? The Gunpowder Plot James published King James version of Bible But annoyed Protestants because he opposed changing church ceremonies The Catholics hated James because he fined them if they didn?t go to church Plotted to blow him up on Nov. 5, 1605 Explosives expert Guy Fawkes with 12 co-conspirators dug a tunnel under the House of Lords placing there 36 barrels of gunpower One of conspirators tipped off his brother-in-law who told King Fawkes arrested; stated he ?wanted to blow the Scots back to Scotland.? Put on rack for so long he could not walk to gallows for execution Celebrated as Guy Fawkes Day: firecrackers and fires and Halloween ?Remember, remember the 5th of November? James I Charles I is son of James Marries a Catholic (makes country suspicious) Needs Parliament to raise $ for foreign wars against Spain and France Agrees to Petition of Rights which rejects divine right of kings, illegal to force civilians to house army; illegal to use military force during peacetime or tax and imprison people for political crimes Charles ignores Petition however and Parliament refuses to release funds Charles goes to nobles for money ?they resent it Persecutes Puritans, who leave for New World Tries to force Scots to use Book of Common Prayer ? they rebel in Bishops Wars Result: everyone?s mad at him! James I The Wisest Fool Charles I Civil War James calls and then dissolves Parliament 3 times Eventually they strip him of much of his power Charles attempts to have Parliament?s leaders arrested and arrives with 400 troops at door Leaders escape King leaves London and Civil War starts Cavaliers (King?s men) vs. Roundheads (Puritans) Oliver Cromwell, leader of Puritans New Model Army defeats Charles Charles escapes to Scotland, but Scots turn him over to Parliament Charles is tried and executed but son escapes to France Cromwell rules as Lord Protector (not King) Trial and execution of Charles I Charles was found guilty, and sentenced to death on 26 Jan. On January 30, 1639, he was lead from St. James' Palace to Whitehall to be executed. At 1.00pm he was beheaded in front of a crowd kept back by thick ranks of soldiers. His last words, printed and sold on that very day, were: "I have delivered my conscience; I pray God you do take those courses that are best for the good of the kingdom and your own salvation." A contempory diarist wrote that when his head was held up "...there was such a groan by the thousands then present...", since none were happy to see him dead. Oliver Cromwell Cromwell, a Puritan, rules as Lord Protector New Constitution Defeats Scots and Irish, and wages successful wars against Spain and Holland Very religious; attempted to ban Christmas, and other ?Catholic? holidays Thousands of Catholic churches defaced by Puritans After his death his son was unable to maintain control Paved way for Restoration (Return of the Monarchy) Restoration: Charles II the Merry Monarch Charles II restores monarchy Digs up Cromwell and puts him on trial Catholic Parliament persecutes Puritans Marries Catherine, Catholic daughter of King of Portugal Keeps 13 mistresses sleeps with 2 and 3 at a time 1665 Bubonic plague hits London; 100,000 die in 3 months 1666 Great Fire of London; 4/5 of city is destroyed Puritans thought England was being punished by God for their persecution Still conflicts with Parliament Political parties emerge; Whigs (limit royal powers) and Tories (King) Parliament passes Exclusion Bill forbidding Charles? Catholic brother becoming King Great Fire of London on Sunday morning, the 2nd September 1666, the destruction of medieval London began. Within 5 days the city was 80% destroyed by fire. An area of one and a half miles by half a mile lay in ashes; 373 acres inside the city walls and 63 acres outside, 87 churches destroyed (including St. Paul's Cathedral) and 13,200 houses. Charles II had the famous architect, Christopher Wren, redesign and rebuild city James II 51 when he took the throne As King:Impossible-dull, obstinate, rigid, brusque, suspicious, blind to public opinion, determined to have his way whatever the consequences Practiced Catholicism, openly-but- bigoted in religion -determined to force Catholicism on England. Acted as tyrant, brushing established law and custom aside Unsuccessful Protestant rebellion by Duke of Monmouth Bloody Assizes: 300 supporters executed, and 800 sent as slaves to America Had 2 daughters by Protestant wife (Mary and Anne) Remarried Catholic and had baby boy Many claimed baby was smuggled in William and Mary William of Orange (Holland) marries Mary, and invited by Parliament to rule England William lands with a Protestant army and James II escapes to France- protected by Louis XIV This was the Glorious (or bloodless) Revolution Monarchy was now constitutional with King chosen by Parliament, not divinely ordained Toleration Act of 1689 grants religious freedom to every religion except Catholics and Unitarians James II attempts to retake throne with help of Irish and Louis XIV, but is defeated This locks in Irish Catholics as second class citizens dominated by Protestants Parliament is large and in charge? Parliament made plain its position of strength when in a new coronation oath William and Mary had to swear "to govern the people of this kingdom according to the statutes in Parliament agreed on and the laws and customs of the same". A Bill of Rights was also drawn up by Parliament and signed by the King; Now the Crown was no longer able to enact laws, raise taxes, or keep an army without Parliament's consent. Furthermore members in the House were to enjoy the privilege of free speech. The decisive nature of Parliament's power was emphasized by Sir Joseph Williamson when he explained Parliament's reasons for being less than generous in money grants to the new king: "When princes have not needed money they have not needed us". Good Queen Anne Anne is final Stuart monarch England fighting War of Spanish Succession against Louis XIV Duke of Marlborough (John Churchill) wins three big victories (Blenheim) Ended by Treaty of Utrecht in which Brits got Gibraltar, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia and trading rights in Spanish America Act of Union united England and Scotland with common flag, coinage and monarch Two political parties emerge: Tories (who supported monarchy) and Whigs (who supported Parliament) Problem: she has no children Next King is going to be a German from the House of Hanover ? George I. His grandson will be George III (who loses the American colonies!) Cluster Writing James I Gunpowder Plot Charles I Civil War Cromwell To what extent and in what ways did the Puritan Revolution contribute to the supremacy of Parliament in 1689? To answer: Demonstrate how a complex set of events contributed to a complex development Divide the bigger issue into smaller questions What was the Puritan Revolution? How did it increase the power of Parliament? How did the Restoration affect Parliament?s role? How was the monarchy weakened by the Puritan Revolution How and why did the Glorious Revolution occur? 1. That England developed a constitutional government can be explained by all of the following except: (a) the English kings rejected the divine right theory (b) the Tudor monarchs, lacking a legitimate claim to the throne, had to cooperate with Parliament (c ) the English gentry blurred the sharp class distinctions between the nobility and the middle classes that existed elsewhere in Europe (d) revolution strengthened the role of Parliament (e) a tradition of individual rights served as a basis for constitutionalism 2. Probably the most significant long-term result of the Puritan Revolution was: the restoration of the Stuarts to the throne (b) The issuance of the Petition of Right (c ) the increased authority of Parliament (d) The vindication of the divine right of the monarchy (e) The recognition of Calvinism as England?s official religion 3. Which of the following was NOT a significant accomplishment during the reign of Elizabeth I? The Thirty-Nine Articles completed the English Reformation Her foreign policy encouraged the independence of the Netherlands, a commercial and colonial rival She weakened the power of Spain, a bastion of Catholic orthodoxy She satisfied the Puritans who had criticized the Anglican liturgy as too close to Catholicism She encouraged nationalism and the development of a unique culture Answers 1.A they never willingly rejected divine right 2.C 3. D ? never satisfied them, that?s why they eventually rebelled
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