the system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
stratification produces social classes
categories of people who have similar access to resources and opportunities
those families who fall within the top 10% of income distribution
the level of annual income below which a person of family is defined as poor and thus entitled to government assistance
the difference between the official poverty line and the actual income of the typical poor household
age at greatest risk?
race of poor
African American and Hispanics
gender of most poor
type of family pattern who is poor
type of regions the poorest
the south and west
social problems linked with poverty
crime and punishment
The biggest problem of poverty
the link between poverty and health is evident from birth to old age
the infant mortality among the poor is twice the national average and among the poorest, four times the national average
death comes earlier to the poor, who are more likely to die from infectious diseases and violence at any age
about 850,000 people are homeless in the US on a given night
up to 3.5 mil people are homeless at some point during the year
low income coupled with a decrease in available low-income housing leads to homeless
poor children are less likely than rich children to complete high school
fewer poor children enter college and have less of a chance of completing an advanced degree
uncertain work and the working poor
Crime and punishment
due to the focus on street crime, the poor are more likely to face arrest, trial , conviction, and prison
the poor depend more no public defenders and court-appointed Attorney, most of whom are underpaid and overworked
The welfare system -- social welfare program
an organized effort by government
private organization or individuals to assist needy people defines as worthy of assistance
carrots vs sticks..
are people naturally good and loving, and if left alone bound to do good? or inherently ruled by the impulse to do as little as possible and get away with as much as they can?
Responding to poverty (welfare) Large government-run welfare programs have three characteristics
1. they direct money to specific categories of people
2. they benefit many people (eg., the elderly, veterans, students, and farmers)
3. they do not significantly change income inequality.
(not always low-income)
changes in the welfare system began to occur when President Clinton pledged in 1992 to "end welfare as we know it."
the result was the Welfare Reform Act of 1996
The public remain divided over whether people deserve help.
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
Replaced federal AFDC program with a new state related program (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families)
New rules required able-bodied people received benefits to find a job or enroll for job training with 2 years.
Aid to families with dependent children
temporary assistance for needy families
Welfare Reform Act of 1996 (set 2)
states can set their our qualifications benefits, but must limits assistance to 2 consecutive years with life cap of 5 years.
the program directs all states to move half of single parents received welfare into jobs or retraining by 2002
2010 health care reform #1
You must have Medical Insurance!
(be fined if you don't. if don't have you can get from gov. additional 33 mil will be insured under this bill)
2010 health care reform #2
More Health Care Jobs
huge demand for more that are insured. colleges offer incentive programs
2010 health care reform #3
Kids can stay on your policy until 26 years
most only allow till age 19. even if "independent" can still be under parent's insurance
2010 health care reform #4
Insurance cannot drop you.
can't cancel your policy if you get sick or "go over" the amount alloted to you.
2010 health care reform #5
You Can't be Denied Insurance
stating this year you child cannot be denied coverage simply because they have pre-existing condition.
2010 health care reform #6
No maximum limit on cover.
Companies will be barred for institutioning caps on coverage when your costs for treatments goes up due to sickness.
2010 health care reform #7
No waiting time.
if you currently have pre-existing conditions that have prevent you from being able to qualify for health insurance for at least 6 months uou will have coverage options.
poverty due to capitalism
poverty due to race and ethnicity
poverty due to patriarchy (gender)
Reasons for Poverty - Conservatives
focus on personal responsibility, stressing the importance of self-reliance
Reasons for Poverty - Liberals
view poverty as more structural than it is individual; thus they look for societal solutions
"fix the little things"
Reasons for Poverty - Radicals
change the system
poverty is inherent in capitalist society
they dismiss social welfare programs and tax plans advocated by liberals as little more than a band-aid applied to the body of a person with an incurable disease;
"fix whole structure"
poverty involved more than money
Federal and State Regulations
sources of business information
what is key to finding the regulations
understanding the regulatory process
State to state regulations
each state has its own regulatory process and this may vary from sate to state
Iron Law of Regulation
any regulatory agency creates winners and losers within the affected industry
The Federal Regulatory Process (1-3)
1. A bill becomes a Law
2. The law is published in the Statues at Large and eventually in the US Code
3. the law may call for development of specific regulations for a specific subject, or problem and may specify a federal agency to oversee the process
The Federal Regulatory Process (4-5)
4. The federal agency drafts a regulation and published it in the Federal Register for comments
5. Comments are received, revisions may take place; final regulation is published in the Federal Register
The Federal Regulatory Process (6)
6. Finals regulation will be published in the next annual revisions of the CFR which is organized by subject areas.
Cod of Federal Regulations
Both the FR and the CFR
have indexes that are easy to use. most databases, legal information service, etc will cover changes.
The Federal Regulatory Process (7-8)
7. Enforcement of the regulation is assigned to specific federal agencies. some agencies have courts that try violators of regulations.
8. through trail and error, revisions are made to the regulations. revisions of regulations appear in the FR and then the final revisions in the CFR.
State Regulatory Process
varies for each state. but generally. follows the same procedures as the federal level: Legislative actions (laws), the regulations are written by an agency, published in the State Registrar, administered and enforced by a state agency.
(Same process as Fed)
Reasons for Government Regulations
4. Too much competition
5. Order in Society
6. Order in Industry
involves a complex set of economic and political forces.
pubic choice analysis suggests:
demand for regulation often stems for special-interest and redistribution concerns.
through time, regulatory agencies often adopr the views of the interest groups they regulate
regulation is infelxible; it will be slow to adjust changing conditions
failure to approve a highly beneficial product will cause fewer problems for regulators than approves of a danger products generally apply tests that are too restrictive from the viewpoints of consumer welfare.
Traditional economic regulation
seeks to fix prices and/or influences entry into specific industries
widespread dissatisfaction with economic regulation led to significant deregulation in the trucking and airline industries.
this deregulation resulted in new entry, intense competition, and discount prices.
Health and Safety Regulation
Designed to reduce risk
these mandates frequently specify in detail the engineering processes to be followed by the regulated firms and industries.
traditional economics is less common
what regulation has been growing?
health and safety
much like a tax. because it increases costs, it will lead to higher prices and reduces output
the cost of regulation
the same lack of information that generates much of the demand for health and safety regulations, also makes it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of each regulatory activity.
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