April 2, 2009 Challenges to Democratization in Africa Semi-authoritarian Regimes Changes in regime types Afro-Marxist regimes Authoritarian regimes Democratic regimes Semi-authoritarian regimes Characteristics of Semi-authoritarian regimes Ultimate agenda is to stay in power at all costs Combine rhetoric of liberal democracy with illiberal rule Limited civil and political liberties Electoral contests manipulated Concentration of power Dominant party system Characteristics cont. Centrality of Security Forces Multiple Networks of Patronage Civil Society Autonomy Constrained Paradoxes of power Leaders pursue patronage and violence in order to stay in power. Because rulers have used these tactics, they must stay in power: leaving office will surely mean exile, repression, imprisonment or death. Paradox of democratization Since 1986, when Museveni took over, the more the country seemed to democratize, the more control the executive exerted. The opening of political space became a pretext for control of civil and political. Paradox of participation Decentralization and the creation of mechanisms for popular participation became converted into a patronage based political machine to maintain the ruling party in power. Paradoxes of powersharing What had initially been an?anti-sectarian? government became narrower and more exclusive in composition. Paradox of security As the government became more insecure, it relied increasingly on various extralegal armies and militia. The armed forces, rather than being a source of security, became a source of insecurity for many, especially those in the political opposition. Maria Putzer Document2
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