APRIL 28, 2009 ? ARCH 340 The dark ages/medieval period Concept of de-urbanization, no more big empires Plagues broke out, people in-turn spread out Ex: castles and monasteries Monastesties: for religious purposes and community Elements of Castle: Loop Windows: skinny window for shooting arrow purposes Portcullis: iron gate that drops down - defense Donjon: dungeon. prison De Bijenkorf Department Store, Rotterdam, Marcel Breuer, 1955 Dates vary - some say from the sack of Rome in 476 til 15th C. Renaissance Territory Varies, the most feudalistic was in w. Europe A time of de-urbanization In the west Chaos reigned. Feudalism took root, cities became depopulated The Carolingian Period Charles the Great, or Charlemagne Ruled from 768-814 Becomes Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 First attempt to recreate Rome Used the basillica plan as a model for churches Westwork: Charlemagne's palace at Aachen Palatine, Chapel Aachen, c. 796-805 Similar to San Vital design Circular design Gatehouse (Torhalle) of the Abbey, Lorsh,, Germany Replicates concept of Rome with arches Shingles on roof??? Idealized Carolingian Monastery C. 820 (St. Gall Monastery, Switzerland) ? see bottom right Early example of town planning Westwork begins to evolve here (interior shot) Plan remains, which was found in Switzerland The Ottonian period Carolingian period came to a close after Charlemagne's death Empire was divided among heirs Controlled by Otto I, II, and III St. Michael, Hildesheim Germany Begun c. 1001. Completed in 1044 Rebuilt in the 11th, 12th, and 17th centuries Destroyed in WWII Doors of Bishop Bernward, c. 1015 16' tall; they are the most ambitions and complex bronze casting project since antiquity Old testament on left, new testament on right Notice: Starkness Planarity Horizontality Height is not emphasized (eyes kept down, regardless of the height) Doors very influential: Florence Cathedral Doors, Andre Pisano Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise The Gates of Hell, 1880-1917 Kunsthaus Zurich, Zurich The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo Rodin Gale, Seoul Ottonian arch. = big stone box No glamour as in the byzantine architecture The Romanesque Period Term wasn't coined until 19th century Kostof Quote - "that is what the term Romanesque, that ambiguous concoction of scholars, is meant to suggest in part - sort of Roman." Romanesque = "sort of Roman" Influencing factors: 1095 Catholic Pope Urban II called for Crusades Invaded Turkey and the Holy Land (middle east) Return to Christian control Souvenirs returned - relics Concept of people seeing the world! Urbanization emerges from this concept Santiago de Compostela, Spain (St. James at compostela) Remodeled in 1600's Very sacred, site where people travel to see this building Sainte-Foy, Conques, France 1050-1120 What Santiago de Compostela looked like before remodeling Cruciform shape Westworks Setting is in small town, isolated Build for pilgrims/tourists - those who travel to seek this Reliquary of Sainte-Foy Daughter of wealthy family Burned alive by upper Diocletian's 13 yr old girl's head is in this box Brought Europe out of Dark Ages Terminology: Westwork: façade of church Cruciform: cross shape Crossing: the intersection of nave and transept in a cruciform church Choir: the part of a cruciform church east of the crossing. Ambulatory: backside of church where pilgrims walked along Chapels: small chapels, niches, places to display things Clerestory: a portion of an interior rising above adjacent rooftops and having windows admitting daylight to the interior. Triforium: narrow band between side aisle and story above Aisle: a longitudinal division of an interior area, as in a church, separated from the main area by an arcade or the like. Historiated Capitals: capitals on columns that tell a story Fascade Elements: Portal: half circle shape above doorway that typically has a sculpture Spandrel: Archivolt: curved areas over vaults Voussoir: Tympanum: area above door, usually with sculpture Jamb Figures: figures along door jamb Jamb columns: Jamb Pedestal: Trumeau: a column supporting a tympanum of a doorway at its center. Colonnette: A small, relatively thin column, often used for decoration or to support an arcade.
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