April 8, 2010 The Templars Dissolved in 1312 Jacques de Molay (Grand Master) Group of French knights that recognized that Christians traveling to the Holy Land needed protection They were knights AND religious monks Entrusted with important diplomatic affairs (relaying messages, transfer money) Became very wealthy and very powerful EVERYWHERE Very secretive and private Dissolved by King Philip Church and State: From Canon Lawyers to Secular Philosophers John of Paris (1250-1306) Criticized the papacy Most important work: Tractatus de Potestate Regia ed Papali What are the two errors concerning temporal and spiritual authority? the error of the Waldensians was to deny the successors of the apostles any rightful lordship over temporal things and to maintain that it is illicit for them to have any temporal riches Paris says they went to far, you can?t deny the Pope his power that he receives from God The other error is that King Herod who, when he heard that Christ was born, believed him to be an earthly king. How does John of Paris use the concept of natural and human law to define these powers? Presents human beings as political animals because it?s human nature (secular power) (spiritual power) human kind has been ordered to live righteously in order to obtain salvation William of Ockham (1285-1349) Marsilius (Marsiglio) of Padua (1275-1342) Defensor Pacis (1324) Why are articles 2, 3, 9, 17, and 33 so significant? 2.) This contradicts the pope. Article says that any decision needs to be decided upon by a group not one individual (the Pope) 3.) No one can force people to follow Christian faith. This article is talking about the Inquisition. 9.) A ruler is only elected by the body of the people 17.) No one body is greater than the other. The pope is as close to God as the average Christian follower 33.) If a council is assembled in the improper way, then any decisions made within that assembly are not valid and no one is obligated to observe them. Lollard Movement John Wycliff (1330-1384) Professor at Oxford University Called the ?Morningstar? of the reformation Criticized the wealth of the church De-emphasized the sacraments Denied the transubstantiation of Christ Stressed the individual spiritual journey towards God Stressed the authority of the bible over church councils and laws Wycliff?s Bible (1382) Gospel of John Translated into Middle English The Great Schism (1378-1415): Two popes. Then three? The pope returned to Rome in 1376, then died. College of Cardinals were predominantly French, and riots broke out in Rome The cardinals elected an Italian to appease the Romans Urban IV then began replacing the cardinals with Italians The French cardinals tried to denounce him, claiming that they elected him under duress and was therefore illegal They elected another pope, Clement VII, who returned to Avignon Europe Divided Conciliarism (1415-1449) 1409 ? Council of Pisa Deposed two popes and elected a new one The two previous popes refused to step down so now there are 3 popes 1415-18 ? Council of Constance The first conciliar pope was elected: Marin V Conciliar movement made Church councils, not the popes, the supreme authority within the Church Martin V and his successors opposed the conciliar movement The conciliar movement was the first try at shifting power from the pope By 1449, papal supremacy over councils was reinstated Jan Hus (1373-1415) Hussite Wars (Bohemian Wars) Religious war National Churches and Reformation (1450-1517) By 1450, the pope had reaffirmed his authority over Christendom The church in England had limited papal interference in ecclesiastical courts since the mid fourteenth century Same thing happened in France called the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438) and in Germany called the Pragmatic Sanction of Mainz (1439) The popes of the last half of the fifteenth century were more interested in ruling the Papal States then Christendom Martin Luther (1483-1546)
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