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Def: When Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected president in the 1860's election, Southern states began succeed from the Union
Sign: Southern states like South Carolina who had slavery as their main source of economy decided to succeed from the Union. Other states soon followed. MS, GA, FL, LA, TX
Confederate States of America
Def: The Southern states created their own union against the Northern states. Consisted of 11 S. states. They became as the North's opposition in the Civil War.
Sign: The Confederate States of America had different advantages in the Civil War. However, most of them being disadvantages
Def: Last attempt to stop Civil War. Idea came from Senator John Crittenden from Kentucky. Called for constitutional amendments that would guarantee slavery in the southern states. Mainly to reestablish the Missouri Compromise line. Slavery below it, no slavery on north of it.
Sign:It failed to unite the states together, Republicans didn't want to give up their position on slavery. War was now on its way.
Def: First battle of the Civil War. The Federal fort was in Charleston, South Carolina. Confederates attack and win.
Sign: Civil War begins! Beauregard as the commander for the South, Anderson for the North. After the war, more states chose to succeed, NC, VA, AR. (4 more states succeed)
Def: Was a federal law that stated permitted any citizen to claim 160 acres to public land and to purchase it for a small fee after living on it for 5 years.
Sign: Encouraged settlers to move west. It was a Republican economic policy.
Def: The act transferred substantial public acreage to the state governments, which were to sell the land and use the proceeds to finance public education.
Sign: The act led to the creation of many new state colleges and universities (land-grant institutions)
Def: Existing or newly formed banks could join the system if they had enough capital and were willing to invest 1/3 of it in gov. securities. In return, they could issue U.S. Treasury notes as currency.
Sign: Created a new banking system. Eliminated much of the chaos and uncertainty in the nation's currency and created a uniform system of national bank notes.
Def: Congress wanted to fulfill the dream of transcontinental railroad. It created two new federally chartered corporations.
Union Pacific Railroad Comp.- was to build westward from Omaha
Central Pacific- was to build eastward from California
Sign: The projects would meet in the middle to complete the link. Gov. provided free public lands and generous loans to the companies.
Pacific Railroad Companies
Def: Companies that helped build the transcontinental railroad in America.
Sign: Companies included the Central Pacific and Union Pacific. Helped build the railroad.
Def: Paper currency that was not backed by gold or silver.
Sign: The value of greenbacks change as time went on, which caused difficulty. The government used greenbacks sparingly, ($450 million worth of paper money.
National Draft Law
Def: Voluntary enlistments diminished, and soldiers were needed. Congress was forced to pass an national draft law to have enough soldiers to fight.
Sign: All young adult males were eligible to be drafted but a man could escape service by hiring someone to go in his place or by paying the government $300.
DRAFT--- Greatly increased voluntary enlistments.
Def: Opposition to the draft act (immigrants, Peace Democrats, laborers) They rioted for 4 days, they believed African Americans were to be blamed for the Civil War. Over 100 people died. Irish workers also believed that the war was fought for the benefit of slaves who would be competing for whites jobs.
Sign:j Showed that the North's views about the war were divided, not unite like the South.
Def: He ordered military arrests of civilian dissenters and suspended the right of habeas corpus.
The right of an arrested person to a speedy trial.
Sign: Lincoln used extraordinary methods to suppress the Democratic Party (opposition).
Def: A Supreme Court case ruled that military trials in areas where the civil courts existed were unconstitutional.
Sign: A controversial case, and was shortly done after the Civil War.
Def: Democrats who opposed the Civil War and the Draft Law that was put into place. Known as "Peace Democrats" or "Copperheads"
Sign: They were in opposition to Republicans who supported the war.
Def: George McClellan D and Abraham Lincoln R. Lincoln wins re-election, 212 electoral votes, and 10% more in popular vote.
Sign: Lincoln wins re-election, most of the Electoral College wants him as president.
Def: An act that Declared that all slaves used for the support of the Confederate military effort would be considered freed.
Sign: In 1862, a second confiscation act was passed by the Radicals. Which declared free the slaves or persons helping or supporting the Confederate army. Allowed slaves to work as soldiers.
Therefore weakening the SOUTH.
Def: The proclamation declared forever free slaves in all areas of the Confederacy except those already under Union control:
Tennessee W Virginia, and S Louisiana.
Proclamation did not apply to the border slave states, which never succeeded and were not under the president's war powers.
Sign: It clearly established that the war was not only fought to preserve the Union, but to eliminate slavery as well.
U.S. Sanitary Commission
Def:i An organization made up of volunteers and led by Dorothea Dix. Mobilized many women to serve as nurses in hospitals. By the end of the war, nursing became a woman's job. **sanitary
Sign:j The Sanitary Commission gave woman another chance at work. They did housework, cooking, and taking care of soldiers. Women found the war a liberating experience, an opportunity to achieve career goals.
Confederate Conscription Act
Def: Voluntary enlistments for the war were declining therefore Congress enacted the act.
ACT: i subjected all white males between 18-35 yrs. to military service for 3 years.
Year: 1862 (repealed in 1863)
Sign: Just like the North applied the Draft Act, so did the South.
Def:i Was one of the Union commanderers. Had great experience.
Sign:j He was replaced by Ullysees Grant.
Def:i Was the last army general for the Union (N) and was also the 18th president.
Sign:j He was appointed as commander by Lincoln. They both shared the belief in making enemy armies/resources instead of enemy territories.
Def: The primary commander for the Confederacy, was a great leader. Originally was going to serve for the Union, but served for his home state. VA
Sign:j Believed in states rights, and also signed the peace treaty with Grant to end the war.
Def:i Both the South and the North were equipped with Ironclads. Which were steam powered ships with iron armor, and were used in attacking opposition.
Sign:j The Union's Ironclad was the Monitor, while the Confederate's was the Merrimac or Virginia. The North used the ships to control the Southern Coast and ocean. (cut off trade for the South)
Def: The idea that France and Britain needed cotton from the South, and were dependent on it. The Confederacy tried to persuade nations to be in support of their side.
Sign: The Southerners put their hopes in the King Cotton diplomacy, but it failed them. France and England could mange to run the country without the South's cotton.
Def: The Repeating Rifle was introduced by Oliver Winchester. The Rifle could shoot multiple times without being reloaded.
Sign: Weapons used in the Civil War became more advanced. The weapon made a huge move toward warfare technology.
Def: Bloodiest single day of the Civil War. 23,000 casualties die, in Maryland. McClellan from the North almost lost the battle against the South's general Lee.
Sign: Northern Victory! Lincoln used the victory to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
Def: Robert E. Lee troops march to Gettysburg Pennsylvania. Battle lasted 3 days. In the Picket's Charge, Lee lost 1/3 of his army (best men) the South quickly weakened and were defeated.
Sign: The South loses, 3rd day was Picket's Charge. North is well prepared on a hill, and they know how to use canon setting to kill as many Southerners possible.
William T. Sherman
Def: Led his famous march to the sea. Served during the Civil War.
Sign: Said the famous quote "War is hell". He was quite a cruel man, destroying everything on his way in Georgia.
Def: Sherman captured Atlanta and then marched to Savannah Georgia devastating towns and plantations through which his troops marched
Sign: His goal: simply to destroy the opponents, the South. Savannah surrendered 2 days after the march, then went North to the Carolinas.
Def: In a private house in the city of Appomattox Courthouse, General Lee surrendered to General Grant. Marked the end of the Civil War.
Sign: The Civil War was now finished, reconstruction was soon to follow. Grant allowed the Confederate Army to
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