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Def: A myth and a time of period when Southerners looked back at the war at the horrible things that happened in the war. Famous people in the war such as General Lee and Stonewall Jackson were admired and praised, almost like religious figures.
Year: late 1860s
Sign: The South was badly destroyed after the war and the myth showed a sense of emptiness in the South. Statues were built to acknowledge the South's army men who died, and remind southerners of the Lost Cause.
Def: "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
Sign:j The abolishment of slavery, took a large step for the South. Blacks were now free. However AA still faced difficult times.
Def: Congress established the Freedmen's Bureau which was an agency of the army directed by General Howard.
Sign:j It gave food to the former slaves, established schools, made efforts to give lands to blacks. It also helped poor whites. It was not a permanent solution it was only able to operate for 1 year, and too small to deal with the big problems facing the South.
Def: Led by Rep. Stevens and Senator Sumner urged that civil and military leaders of the Confederacy be punished and South whites be disenfranchised.
Legal rights of blacks be protected and that property of wealthy Southereners who helped the Confederacy be taken and given to freedmen
Sign: A group from the Republican party, caused division in the Rep. Party.
Def: Pardon to all but the highest ranking military/civilians. Required 10% of voting population in 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a gov.Hoped to extend suffrage to blacks.
Sign: People thought that Lincoln was being too easy when admitting states into the Union but he wanted states to be admitted and then moved forward. Louisiana, Arkansas, & Tennessee reestablished loyal govts. under Lincoln's plan in 1864. NEVER ENACTED
Def:i Required 50% of 1860 election to take the "iron clad oath" --oath to allegiance. Required a state constitution before the election of state officials. Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen's libertie
Sign: Lincoln pocket vetoed it. Created by the Radical Republicans, was harsher than Lincoln's plan.
Andrew Johnson's Restoration Plan
Def: 10%+ plan and Wade-Davis. Johnson became president after Lincoln died.
Sign:j Oath of allegiance, rich people of $20,000+ would have to apply to president for individual pardon. A governor was appointed in each state. Voters will elect delegates to Constitutional Convention where a new state const. would be made, abolish slavery, ratify 13 amendment, and debts would be pardoned.
Def:i State legislatures began enacting laws designed to give whites control over former slaves. Passed by Southern states, after Civil War. Laws restricted newly freedmen's rights.
Sign:j Blacks continued to suffer, and live in fear. Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers. (slavery)
Def: 1st Civil Rights Act which declared blacks to be citizens of the U.S. and gave the federal gov. power to intervene in state affairs to protect the rights of citizens.
Sign: Johnson vetoed both bills, Congress overrode him on each of them.
Def:i Everyone born in the U.S. and naturalized was automatically a citizen and entitled to all the "privileges and immunities" guaranteed by the Constitution.
Sign:j Offered the 1st constitutional definition of American citizenship. Equal PROTECTION to all!
Def: Included: creation of the 5 military districts in the seceded states, each destrict was to be led by
a military official who has the power to appoint and remove state officials. Restart reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th amendment.
Sign: Radicals passed the bills and overrode Johnson's vetoed of all of them.
Def:i Says that all citizens can vote, no matter what their race, or color is.
Sign:j Gave African Americans the right to vote, which upset some Southerners who believed blacks should be treated as property.
Def:i A Supreme Court case that ruled that military trials in areas where civil courts existed were unconstitutional. Threatened the system the Radicals were planning..they did all the could to change it.
Sign:j Congressional Radicals took action to stop the Supreme Court w/ interfering w/ their plans. Let people in the military to be tried fairly.
Def:i An act passed by the Radicals .Which forbade the president to remove civil officials, including members of his own cabinet without the consent of the Senate.
Sign:j The purpose was to of the law was to protect the job of Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, who was cooperating with the Radicals.
Johnson's Impeachment proceedings
Def:i The Radicals didn't like Johnson's plans so they tried to find ways to impeach him. They impeached him because he violated the Tenure of Office Act.
Sign:j Radical put lots of pressure on the Radical senators to impeach Johnson. Johnson was not impeached by one vote, Radicals gave up.
Def:i A negative term used by South Democrats towards white Southerners who allied with the Republican Party. (and supported the Republicans in the Reconstruction)
Sign:j Scalawags shared a belief that the Republican Party would serve their economic interests better than the Democrats.
Def:i Northern Republicans moved to the South to establish themselves there as planters or business people, seeing the South as a new frontier.
They were educated people in the middle class.
Sign:j The word portrays the people "carpetbaggers" as poor people who arrived in the South with all of their possessions in a carpet bag.
Ulysses S. Grant and Grantism
Def:i Grant was the former General for the Union, he was elected in 1873 and then re-elected. He was not a good president, and used the spoils system badly.
Sign: Grantism was a name for his presidency by the people who didn't like him, and had different positions.
Def: Were Scandals that occurred during Grant's presidency.
1. Such as the Credit Mobilier- stocks given to reps. to avoid investigation on Union Pacific Railroad
2. Whiskey Ring- Large businesses that were filling incorrect taxes
3. Indian Ring Scandal- a bribe in order to get license to trade w/ Natives
Year:1873-1877 (Grant's Presidency)
Sign:j The scandals produced negativity and corruption to the U.S. government.
Def:i Economic depression lasted 4 years, financial failures. Republicans wanted gold/silver reserves, while debtors wanted greenbacks.
Sign: Began with Jay Cooke and Company an investor in railroads and largest financier declared bankruptcy. One of the worst panics to occur since the time.
National Greenback Party
Def: A political organization created by the "greenbackers" who supported paper money.
Year:1875 (active in next 3 elections)
Sign: Failed to gain support, it kept the money issue alive.
Def: William Seward who had served Lincoln, accepted the Russian offer to buy Alaska territory for $7.2 million, despite the criticism.
Sign:j The U.S. gained a lot of land, called the "folly" because people thought Alaska was a wasteland w/o any resources.
Def: Led by former Confederate General Nathan Forrest, formed a terrorist organization a white supremacy group.
Sign: The group was Democrats. They were attacking Republican leaders and trying to restore Democratic control of the South and keep African Americans powerless.
Def:i Also known as the KKK Acts, they prohibited states from discriminating against voters depending on race, and gave the federal gov. power to supersede the state courts and prosecute violations of the law.
Year:1870 & 1871
Sign:j Protect black voters and punish attackers, came after the 14, 15 amendments although blacks were still terrorized.KKK------in decline
Def: A harsh theory that argued that individuals who failed did so because of their own weakness and "unfitness". People who supported the theory believed that non-employed in the N and the poor blacks in the S are misfits.
Sign: It encouraged a critique of government intervention in social and economic life, which weakened the Reconstruction program.
Def:i Was the Republican candidate running against Democrat Tilden. The Nov. election showed Democratic victory, Tilden was one short of majority, so the problem was disputed with the Special Electoral Commission. In which Haynes won 8-7 and became the president.
Sign:j Although a close election, it was a surprise for Haynes to win HAYNES WINS.
Compromise of 1877
Def:iThe compromise that settled the diasgreement about who won the 1876election. Southern Democrats and Republicans agreed to give Hayes thespot over Tilden in return for federal soldiers leaving the South.
Sign:jHaynes was now the president, while compromising with thepresidential results.
*removalof troops from the south
*appointmentof at least 1 S to Hayne's cabinet
*controlof federal areas, internal impr. & aid for the Texas and PacificRailroad
Def:i Were aristocrats who ruled southern society and gov. after the Compromise of 1877.
Sign:j Returned South just how it was before the Civil War, moved African Americans out of gov., and destroyed the reconstruction movements that had occurred.
Def:i One of the most popular forms of entertainment late 1800s. Whites dressed and blackened their skin portraying blacks as lazy, ignorant, and childish people. (discrimination)
Sign:j The shows were extremely racial and discriminating towards African Americans.
Def:i Folk tales which portrayed the antebellym slave world as "harmonious" By Chandle Harris. Close bonds between black and white races.
Sign:j Used to respond warmly/nicely to the "Lost Cause".
Def:i South began to build their industry with the development of manufacturing. (textile, steel, railroads. Jobs were created.
Year: 1880s post Civil War
Sign:j South was falling back, the economy was deteriorating, so the South took a step towards industrialization. Not very successful.
Def:i A system in which southern states leased gangs of convicted criminals to private interests as cheap labor (supply)
Year: late 1800s
Sign:j The system was used well providing cheap labor and fees going to the states, not the workers. It denied employment in railroad construction and etc. projects to free the labor force.
Def:i The Plantation owners would provide poor (mostly black) farmers with a piece of land to work, and then share the crop
Year: post Civil War
Sign:j Basically another type of slavery, not as direct, but pretty close, the rent was high.
Def:i Founder president of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. African American born into slavery, worked up to get educated. Urged other blacks to go on the road of self-improvement.
Year: late 1800s
Sign:j His message: go to school, learn skills, zoom in industrial education. Adopt the standards of the white middle class, then they could win the respect of the white population.
Def:i A performer who would impersonate a black person by acting plain stupid
Year: after Civi War
Sign:j The Laws that would be put into place were a set of laws to keep blacks in the South politically powerless.
Def:i Black man boarded a white only car and refused to move. A Supreme Court case that ruled "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the "equal protection of the 14th Amendment.
Sign:j Established separate but equal. is OK
Def:i The belief that the white race is superior to any other race, specifically the black race.
Year: late 1800s
Sign:j KKK was formed as result, cause for violence and death
Def:i Dramatic increase in violence against blacks along with the Jim Crow laws. The worst violence: lynching. Occurred when a mob of whites lynched a black because of accusation of crime, or braking a law.
Sign:j In 1890s--187 lynching per year. It was horrible, some people found it fascinating and publicly went to see the lynchings.
Def:i A committed black journalist lauched an international anti-lynching movement w/ personal stories of friends' lynching.
Sign:j She was determined to stop lynching, movement gathered both whites and blacks.
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