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Alexis de Tocqueville
Def:AFrench aristocrat who visited the US in 1831, noticed the equalitybetween the people, he wondered for how long the equality would last,he feared industrialism would be the cause
Sign:Hewrote a book Democracyin America(1832-1840), “government of democracy”
Def:a believer that all humans are equal and should have equalrights, even be in the same social class
Sign:Jackson and his followers were NOTegalitarians, most of his followers were wealthy people, he was anaristocrat as well.
Def:Suffrage: the right to vote, but also the question of who will beable to vote
Sign:TheDorr rebellion greatly expanded suffrage in the states, specificallyRhode Island
Def:RhodeIsland's constitution stopped half of the adult males from voting.Thomas Dorr and a groupof followers formed the “People's Party” and drafted a newconstitution, submitted to popular vote.
Sign:Thenew constitution was defeated, the Dorrites began setting up new gov.with Dorr as the governor. 1842- 2 governments were claiminglegitimacy. Began imprisoning Dorrites. At the end it failed.Dorr was captured and imprisoned, but suffrage greatly expanded.
Def: A system where party leaders (Jackson) would elect/give jobs to citizens who supported them in the White House, such as Secretary of State, Treasury,War.
Sign:Jackson kicked out the members in the White House whom he didn't likeand replaced them with the “common man” and people he liked. He helped make the right of elected officials to appoint their ownfollowers to public office-established feature of US politics
John C. Calhoun
Def:Vice-President during Jackson's presidency in 1828. Home state South Carolina,developed the Theory of Nullification.
Proposed: sincefederal government was a creation of the states, the states were thefinal judges of the constitutionality of the federal laws. If statedoesn't like law than it can hold meeting to declare fed. law null &void.
Year:1828(during vice presidency)
Sign:He received much support from South Carolina, but didn't have a finallarge effect.
Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
Def:Tariff(taxes) implied in 1828, 1832
Both were protective tariffs
1828- protected North's industry, but it upset the South because they didn't manufacture major products. (Tariff of Abdomination)
1932- caused even more frustrations
Sign: The tariffs were the major cause of the Nullification Crisis with SC, who wanted to separate from the Union. Jackson did not let that to happen.
Def: Tariff of 1832- keeps tariff rates high, SC doesn't like that, state convention was held and decided to nullify the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, forbid collection of duties within the state.
Year: 1832 (During Jackson's Presidency)
Sign: Jackson believed that nullification was treason and they were traitors. HenryClay came up with a compromise—thetariff would be lowered gradually so that in 1842 it would bethe same as in 1816
Def: He was governor of New York in 1828-1829, appointed by Jackson as Secretary of State. He was part of the “Kitchen Cabinet”-official cabinet/president ally.
Sign:He became Jackson's good friend. In 1831, Jackson chose him as VP. He helped createone of the first modern party organizations in the US; helped bringparty politics to the national level.
Def:Adebate about the federal policy toward western lands, all land salesand surveys be temporary discontinued.
Robert Hayne (Sen. from South Carolina) believed that slowing down the growth of theWest was a way for the East to obtain its pol. and eco. power. Hehoped to get support from westerners in Congress—lowertariff—tyranny.
Daniel Webster (Whig & Sen. from MA) attacked Hayne & Calhoun andsuggested debate on states rights vs. national power.
Jackson sided with Webster, he won. "2nd reply to Hayne"
Five Civilized Tribes
Def:Consistedof: the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw. The tribeslived in South. They weredeveloped tribes. The Cherokees were particularly advancedwith a Constitution, culture, own language.
Sign:The Removal act of 1830, killed many of the Tribe's members anddiminished the size of Native population within the US.
Removal Act of 1830
Def: Act passed by President Jackson, and forced tribes to move WEST of the Mississippi River (Oklahoma) Some tribes agreed, while others like the Cherokees resisted. Tribes got paid little to move
Sign: Led to the Trail of Tears. (natives moved from Georgia-Oklahoma)
Worchester v. Georgia
Def: Worchester (missionary) settled in Cherokee reservation without a license and the state of Georgia imprisoned them.
Sign: The Court's decision (John Marshall) said that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokees and their land.Cherokees were protected by the Fed. Government/ Constitution
Jackson didn't like the decision, "Let him enforce it"
Def: An outcome of the Removal Act, forced relocation of the Native American nations, to move to Oklahoma. (5 civilized tribes)
Sign: Many Natives died along the harsh trail to Oklahoma, about 1/8. Seminoles in Florida had great resistance, uprising in 1835.
Second Seminole War
Def: The Seminoles didn't give in to Jackson's orders to relocate them west. Instead they fought against the troops with guerrilla tactics
Sign: Even after their leader Osceola died, the Seminoles didn't give up. Killed 1,500 white soldiers, gov. spent $20mil. In 1842- gov. abandoned the war, the relocation of the tribe was never complete
Def:President of the 2nd US bank, who was a Whig. Submitted charter for Bank's renewal, but Jackson vetoed it, 1832.
Sign: Clay wanted to win the election, so he and Biddle set up a trap for Jackson. He is known as "Czar Nicholas" wanted to keep the bank, but Jackson did not. So they "fought" and Jackson won at the end.
Hard and Soft Money
Def:There were 2 different groups to the Bank. Supporters of soft money included: people who wanted more currency in circulation(didn't want gold/silver) *bankers/allies
Supporters of hard money: gold/silver only basis for money."public virtue"
Sign: President Jackson supported the hard-money.
Def: President Jackson appoints Roger Taney when Chief Justice Marshall dies.
Sign: Under Jackson's power, he changes Marshall's nationalism, into just the opposite. In the case Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge re-established the power in the states. (10th amend.)
Def: An opposition party to President Jackson. Which favored expanding the power of Fed. gov., encouraging industrial and commercial development, connected economic system. CLAY/CALHOUN/WEBSTER
Sign: They were cautious about westward expansion. Vision of USA: industrial future, rising in commercial and manufacturing power, banks. Support from merchants, rich farmers, Evangelical Protestants. (Anti-Masons)
Panic of 1837
Def:Panic occurred during Van Buren's presidency (1837). Caused by Jackson. When Jackson issued "specie circular" --in payment for public lands the gov. would only accept gold/silver.
Sign: Produced financial panic during VB's first months of presidency. Banks, businesses failed, unemployment grew, prices fell. Political catastrophe for VB and the Democrats.
The Penny Press
Def:Newspapers that were sold for a penny, and tried to attract as crowd as possible. They carried news of the candidates running for election.
Sign: It was accessible to anyone, and it was first used in the 1840 campaign. (Harrison v. VB)
William Henry Harrison
Def:9th president of the US, died of pneumonia after 1 month of being in office. Vice President, John Tyler became president.
Sign: From the Whig party, won the election with 234 electoral votes to 60 for VB.
Def:Was originally the VP, but when Harrison died, he became the 10th President.
Sign: Was a former Democrat. Agreed to abolish VB's independent treasury system, and raising tariff rates. Refused to recharter the Bank of the US, Tyler was out of the Whig party.
Treaty of 1842
Def: Treaty that the US and Britain signed, which settled a boundary between Maine and Canada. Signed by Lord Ashburtron and Webster (Secretary of State)
Sign: The treaty also protected trade routes. It was popular in America, and Anglo-American relations improved.
Treaty of Wang Hya of 1844
Def: Treaty between China and the US, occurred during Tyler's presidency. The US sent Caleb Cushings to China to negotiate the treaty.
Sign: The treaty opened the trade with China and gave the right of Americans who are accused of crime in China to be tried by American officials. In the next 10 years, trade quickly increased.
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