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a. Mainlysettled in Central America on the Yucatàn peninsula
c. Developeda written language, numeric system, accurate calendar, advanced agriculturalsystem
a. Previouslynomadic northern warrior tribe, succeeded Mayan civilization
c. Ruledover central and southern Mexico, developed administrative, educational, andmedical systems as advanced as those being used in Europe. Religious practicesconsidered “savage” by European invaders.
a. Oneof the major cities that rose because of advanced trading systems in the South,populations was about 40,000 people.
b. Around1200 A.D.
c. Representslarge permanent settlements in Southern North America that centered on tradingcrops grown on the Mississippi River Valley.
a. Atype of farming in which the farmer focuses solely on growing crops to feedhimself and his family.
b. Popularwith both Native tribes and England in the 14th century (beforetheir interest in exploring the seas)
c. DwindledEngland’s interest in overseas exploration/travel, solely focused on providingfor their own families, ensuring their own survival through their owncrops/goods.
a. Europeangovernment system headed by powerful monarchies, can also be defined asextreme, almost biased devotion to a country or belief
b. Late15th century, during population and commerce rebound after BlackDeath in 1347
c. Formedcentralized nation-states, in which courts, armies, and tax systems wereidentical within each nation-state, organized a central power and brought fortha sense of unity and uniformity.
a. Sailedand explored for the Portugese, but first westward voyage was sponsored bySpain. Planned to discover a shorter new route to East Asia, did not recognizethat he had landed on an undiscovered continent. Believed he had made it to theFar East even until death.
b. Sailedapproximately from 1492-1498 on several voyages
c. His gall and confidence pushed Spain to turn their attention to seafaring and exploring
a. Typeof European sickness brought to the Americas by colonists/conquistadores.
b. Mostdeadly when settlers began interacting with the Natives.
c. Widespreadepidemic greatly reduced Native population, leading conquerors to ultimatevictory not by force, but by an unwittingly spread disease.
a. The era of Spanish conquerors began with thenews that the Americas held gold, silver, and other goods that could rival thetrading goods in Asia. Among the most famous are Hernan Cortès, FranciscoPizarro, and Hernando de Soto.
b. Spurredby Magellan’s initiative, Spanish exploration was at its peak in the early1500s.
c. Warfare and disease were the two factors that really led to the birth of the Spanish empire
a. SpreadingCatholicism to the Natives became one of Spain’s top priorities, missions mostcommon establishments found in the New World. Priests and other Spaniards wereprimarily interested in traveling to the Americas to spread their religion asmissionaries.
b. Aboutlate 1500s, after first initial push for conquest.
c. American territories deeply religious, Catholicism spread through Central America and Southern regions of North America
a. Thefirst long-lasting Spanish colony was the land of the Pueblo Indians, and itwas a more isolated colony farther north.
b. Foundedin 1598, took until 1750 to be considered stable.
c. TheNew Mexico territory was one of the first permanent settlements and was a greatrepresentation of how the Native and Spanish cultures, although they becamecloser and learned to at least tolerate each other’s ways, never truly merged.
a. Slaveswere often traded for goods, money or sugar cane in exchange for labor for thegrowing European settlements in the West.
b. Beganas early as the 8th century A.D., hit its peak in the 16thcentury and spread even further in the 1700s by the English colonists.
c. Increasein cheap labor increased profit and goods produced by the Europeans, andAfrican slaves became a vital part of the new global trading economy.
a. Lawscreated in England in an attempt to balance rising economic inequality causedby an increase in the value of trading wool. Land belonged to land-owners andtenants, not to farmers, Enclosure Movement ensured the land was for everyone’suse again
b. Approximatelyearly 1600s.
c. Ledto a surplus population in England and debilitated the country’s ability tofeed its people.
a. Newforeign trading opportunities gave English merchants the chance to startimproving the quality of England’s exported goods. Marketed finished productsand gained large profits.
b. Around16th century, before England began seriously investing in overseassettlement.
c. Thisnew fervor pressured England to start expanding to foreign soil to gain morechances to make new products and trade for foreign riches.
a. Economicsystem where entire nation’s wealth is top priority. Main idea was to increaseexport rates and limiting import costs.
b. Flourishedfor a while, failed around 1550s.
c. Increasedbenefits of getting colonies, might be able to have goods without spendingmore. Colonies would also take care of overpopulation problems and decreaseforeign dependency.
a. Monkand ordained priest who lived in Germany. Defied Catholic beliefs, believedcomplete faith was the way to salvation, not payments or “works” to the church.
b. Rebelled1517, ex-communicated by the pope in 1520.
c. Sparkedmajor religious reform within England. First to branch off from the church andcreate a new belief besides Catholicism in the country.
a. Swisstheologian, believed in the idea of a pre-determined destiny, developed theDoctrine of Predestination. The way an individual lived their lives decidedtheir fate.
b. Startedhis movement after Martin Luther’s revolution.
c. Introducedcompletely different beliefs compared to Catholic church. Basis Puritanbeliefs, one of the most significant figures in European Reformation.
a. Thepope denied him a divorce, and in retaliation King Henry VIII separated Englandfrom the Catholic church and deemed himself the religious head of the country.Called Protestantism.
b. 1529,wanted to divorce his wife.
c. Didnot really change other aspects of English Christianity, but instilled amonarchal authority concerning religion.
a. Atime period in which religious alternatives to Catholicism were introduced andincreasing. Pope and clergy losing some authority.
c. Causedgreat distress and tension within England, only persuaded them to considertraveling to foreign land even more seriously.
a. Mostlyexiles who returned to England after Elizabeth I’s coronation. PossessedCalvinistic ideas and fought to “purify” the Catholic church.
b. Becamesignificant in England after Queen Mary’s death in 1558.
c. Ingeneral, wanted to change the entire religious system, which was by this timecorrupt and mostly set forth for political advantages. Wanted to bring focusback to spirituality.
a. Newofficial religion of England after Queen Mary’s death, mostly satisfiedpolitical needs rather than spiritual essentials.
b. Developedby Elizabeth I, approximately mid-late 1500s.
c. Systemwas still separate from the church of Rome, but still conservative compared tothe new, more radical ideas the English were starting to learn about.
a. Wereessentially extremely radical Puritans who wanted the freedom to form their owncongregations and practice their faith freely, rather than follow the teachingsof the church.
b. Eraof the European Reformation.
c. Mostsignificant difference was their tolerance of women assuming importantreligious roles, such as becoming preachers. Very different ideology thanestablished religion, most beliefs considered illegal.
a. Ascendedto the throne and introduced the Church of England. Broke ties with Rome andCatholic church once again and severed an alliance with Spain.
b. KingHenry VIII’s daughter, ruled after the death of her half-sister Mary in 1558.
c. Instillednew system in attempt to satisfy the people’s widening view of religion.However, some religious leaders were still corrupt, most still unhappy.
a. Scotsman,first in Stuart line to be crowned, believed he had the divine right to ruleand no one could command his decisions.
b. Becameking in 1603.
c. Favoredthe traditional Catholic church, caused much of the discontent within thePuritan population, which urged them to look for a place to go to escape thereligious confines in England.
a. England’sfirst attempt at establishing a permanent American colony. Expedition was ledby Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Richard Grenville, and commander John White. Twoattempts at colonizing, second group of settlers mysteriously disappeared afterseveral years. Left only with the word “Croatoan” carved on a post.
b. Attempts occurred in 1585 and later in 1587.
c. Mystery remains unsolved, but set a dark omen for the first attempts at English colonization in America.
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