Ninth President of the United States (1841), an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office; death sparked a briefconstitutional crisis, resolved presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution
Tenth President of the United States (1841–1845); opposition to nationalism and emphatic support of states' rightsendeared him to his fellow Virginians but alienated him from most of the political allies that brought him to power in Washington
Settlement in 1842 of U.S. - Canadian border disputes in Maine, New York, Vermont, and in the Wisconsin Territory (now northern Minnesota)
Imperialist phrase first used in 1845 to urge annexation of Texas; used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains and Far West
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to the interim government ofMexico City, that ended the Mexican-American War (1846 – 48). Mexico ceded to the United States Upper California and New Mexico; gave up claims to Texas.
Enthusiasm for emigration to the Oregon Country in the late 1830s and early 1840s
Pioneer of California known for his association with the California Gold Rush by the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill, and for establishing Sutter's Fort in the area that would eventually become Sacramento
Forty-seven surviving members of a group of migrants to California were forced to resort to cannibalism to survive a brutal winter trapped in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 1846-47; highest death toll of any group traveling the Overland Trail
John C. Fremont
First candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States.
Stephen F. Austin
A fight to the death
James K. Polk
11thPresident of the United States (1845–1849); defeated Henry Clay of the rival Whig Party by promising to annex Texas. Polk was a leader ofJacksonian Democracy during theSecond Party System.
50'40' or Fight!
General Zachary Taylor
12th President of the United States (1849-1850) and an American military leader; known as "Old Rough and Ready"; General for 40 years; last Whig president
General in chief of the army; both a Whig and a politically ambitious officer. Served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history
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