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Def: A society in which men were the masters of their homes, women and children were under the man's control. Small planters and farmers were committed to keeping the patriarchal society.
Year: 1800s in the South
Sign: In the South, women and children had to obey their master/ husband/ dad. The male in the house had the most authority.
Def: Laws passed in Southern states which forbade slaves to hold property, leave w/o permission, meet with other blacks. Prohibited whites to literate their slaves, and blacks to testify in court against white people.
Sign: The laws treated slaves like property, they had no opinion, choice, or freedom. They were owned by their masters, and sadly could not do anything to rebel.
Def: Immigration rapidly increased from 1830-1840. They came from Ireland, Germany, England and other countries, most of them settled in the NE cities.
Year: mid 1800s
Sign: Immigrants were mainly Irish and German. The Irish settled in the NE cities, and were mostly young women, no $$. The German settled in the west and were usually single men/part of a family, had $$.
Def: The growth of cities increased. Cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston nearly doubled,
Sign: As trade, industry, and the agricultural economy bloomed, the urban growth increase. What were small communities before turned out to be major cities, such as St. Louis, Pittsburgh. Population increased from 23mil.-------31mil. just in the 1950s.
Year: mid 1800s
Sign: As a result of racism, and prejudice the natives thought immigrants were stealing their jobs, older-stock Americans feared that they would bring radical ideas. Irish vs. Catholic. Whigs were upset that immigrants voted w/ Democrats.
Def:A political party which didn't like immigration, but specifically Irish Catholic Immigration. Known as "Know Nothings" because that would say "I know nothing" when asked about the secret org.
Sign: They tried to ban immigrants from holding office, put more restrictive naturalization laws in use, and demand literacy test for voting.
Created the political org. "American Party".
Def:The U.S. relied on roads for internal transportation, as the US expanded more roads were needed. In this era toll roads increased, built by private companies who charged a toll to use them. This was a far more efficient and easier way.
Sign: This significantly changed the trade, and industry trans. for people.
Def:Man made waterway that helped connect areas for easier trading and the transportation of goods.The Canal ran through Albany to Buffalo. (connecting Hudson River, with Lake Eerie)
Sign:. The Canal significantly lowered shipping costs for 20-30 cents/ton, to 2-3 cents/ton. It provided more security and internal shipping in the US. It gave NY direct access to Chicago and Midwest Created by governor of NY, Dewitt Clinton.
New York City
Def:The city began expanding when Dewitt Clinton began the Erie Canal project which created a faster way of transp. and trade within the midwest.
Year:beginning of the 1800s
Sign: Building the Eerie canal helped NY grow economically, by expanding the trade and transportation to the midwest, NY was now in competition with the other large cities, NOLA.
Def:The process of taking short railroad lines and putting them together (consolidation) to form longer ones, that would travel farther.
Sign: By 1853, 4 major railroad lines had crossed the Appalachian barrier to connect the NE with the NW. Railroads increased in distance, and became the primary source of transportation.
Def:Was invented by Samuel Morse, and it was also called the Morse telegraph system. The telegraph used wires to send messages at a distance, connecting cities together.
Sign: The telegraph lines extended along the tracks, which connected one train station w/ another helping to schedule/routing of trains. Helped link the N and NW together, separating the S. One telegraph traveled from NY- San Francisco.
Def:Newspaper publishers from around the nation formed the Associated Press. In order to promote news by wire, used telegraphs
Sign: By creating this, people would receive news faster, and without buying a newspaper. They no longer had to depend on the exchange of newspapers for out-of-town reports.
Def:Entrepreneurs who were engaged mainly in foreign and domestic trade. Buying for cheep, and selling it for more, to gain profit. They were the prime figures of businesses.
Sign: The American business grew rapidly in the 1820-1830s, and entrepreneurs increased.Big businesses began giving way to corporations, and they remained in power til take over by a larger corporation.
Def:i Began rapidly increasing when some legal obstacles to their formation were removed. By the 1830s, states were beginning to pass general incorporation laws, which a group could secure a charter merely by paying a fee.
Sign: The laws permitted a system of limited liability, or in other words, individual stockholders risked losing the value of their own investment, not valuable for the corp. bigger loses.
Def:i Parts that can be replaced in an object to make it work again. A effective and cheap way, instead of buying something brand new.
Year: mid 1800s
Sign: Eli Whitney and Simeon North introduced this method into gun factories. Later their ideas were used when manufacturing other products such as cars, sewing machines, and steam engines.
Factory Girls Association
Def:Mill workers in Lowell organized a union-- the Factory Girls of Association, which staged a strike to protest a 25% wage cut. After 2 years they struck again, to protest the rent increase for the boarding houses.
Sign: Both strikes failed, and a recession in 1837 destroyed the organization. After 8 years, the Lowell women (Sarah Bagley) created the Female Labor Reform Association--10hr. day,improvement conditions in the mills.
Gap between rich and the poor
Def: During the Industrial Revolution, wealth was distributed unequally. Merchants and Industalists had the highest wealth, they were the few percent that owned more than all the other people.
Sign: Rich people tried to show their wealth by getting together in communities, building mansions, creating clubs just for the "rich" people. While most of the Nation was poor.
The Middle Class
Def: (social class) A group of people who belong in the middle wealth-wise. Middle class grew because of the industrial economy and increased commercial life. More people were able to own/work in business.
Sign: Middle class families lived in advanced homes, they had cast-iron stove, separate beds, and ice boxes. Men took care of the money and politics, while women cared for their children and did the housework. Often, they would hire slaves to take care of their children.
Cult of Domesticity
Def:Idea which refers to the idealization of women in their life roles, as taking care of the home and being a mother.
Sign: The idea of "separate spheres" for women and men. Defined women as maternal, domestic people. Female culture started to exists, with the women forming their social networks, and clubs that they belonged to.
Def: There was a rise of commercial agriculture. Agriculture in late 1840s in the NE was declining and transforming And farms in the NW increased due to better soil.
Sign: Agriculture was a large part of the US economy in the mid-late 1800s. When agriculture in the NW improved and developed, the economy flourished.
Def:i Cyrus H. McCormic of Virginia built the reaper. Which enabled a crew of 6-7 men to harvest in a day as much wheat as 15 could harvest using older methods. He patent the reaper in 1834, and began selling it.
Sign: The invention of the reaper, allowed farmers to cultivate larger land. It also fueled the establishment of large commercial agriculture. More efficient, cheaperm and better
Def:A system where workers operate machines to produce goods over and over again, all located under a single roof.
Sign: While factories began creating textiles, the shoe industry also bloomed. In MA shoes were largely handmade in factories, with each worker doing a specific task (machine).Manufactured goods rapidly increased. Mostly located in the NE.
Lowell Mills and workers
Def:Factories in which young unmarried women are hired to work (coal mines). They lived in boarding houses, were fed, but the long and decent at first, than low paid jobs just were not suitable. The women usually came from farms and that was their only option to find a job.
Year:1813, strike 1834
Sign: After years, wages declined and hours of work lengthened, which led to the decline of the system. Which lead to strike and foundation of Factory Girls Association and Female Labor Reform Association.
Def: Craft societies that combined in a countywide basis and set up central organizations. They united together to "fight" the industry and new factories, that was stealing customers from them.
Sign: In 1834, delegates from 6 cities founded the National Trades' Union, and in 1836 printers/cordwainers set up national craft unions.
Def:i Rural life was far different than urban life. People relied on communities, which they celebrated weddings, funerals, or parties. They were like a large family, religion drew them together.
Sign: They treasured their links to the outside worlds, letters from relatives was so important to them. Many cherished the separation of urban and rural life.
Common wealth v. Hunt
Def:A court case that reached the Supreme Court, which allowed labor unions to exist. Laborers rights were strengthened and the right to strike was established.
Sign: Gave more freedom to craft unions/trade unions. Also, allowed for any trade unions to express their opinions.
"High Culture” and “Lowbrow culture”
Def:is class distinction between education levels. People who were smarter had "high culture" and people who were dumber had "lowbrow culture"
Sign: High culture people were though of more intelligent and sophisticated. While the "lowbrow culture" people were thought as average, or not intelligent.
Def. = (289) distinction between the rich and poor
Sig. = as industrial/economic revlution continued to progress, distiction became shown even more; production in the Northeast increased new tecniques replaced workrs and necessity for as much labor
Time = mid 1800s
Susan B. Anthony
Def: Cotton production began growing rapidly. From 500,000 bales in 1820, to 3 mil. in 1850, and 5 mil. in 1860. It brought 200 million/year.
Sign: Cotton economy was decently stable, and brought lots of money to America. (2/3 of exports)States: AL,MS,LA,TX,AK, GA. SOUTH
South politicians called "Cotton is King"
Def: Also known as the "lower South" and "Cotton Kingdom". White farmers began settling there with the belief of prosperity in the future. (ex:gold rush)
Sign:j Most settlers were small slave holders or slaveless farmers who hoped to move into the planter class.
Def: A southern magazine written by James De Bow, in order to keep the south and north's economies separate.
Sign: It is evidence that at the time the South relied heavily on the North. It was printed in New York, sold about 173 per issue.
Def:i The South strongly relied on the North's industrial and commercial economy. Instead, the South received its profit from cotton.
Year: mid 1800s -- cotton production rocketed
Sign:j The South greatly profited from its region's agricultural system and mainly cotton. They failed to create a flourishing commercial or industrial economy.
Def: White Southerns were known as "Cavaliers", they were people happily free from the 'materialistic' instincts of the Yankees in the North.
Year: mid 1800s
Sign: They believed that they were more concerned with the refined and gracious way of life than with growth and development.
Def: The wealthy and white plantation owners owned 40-50 slaves and 800+ acres of land. They used their power and influence far beyond their numbers compared to society.
Sign: The top social class created the "image" of the south being full of wealthy plantation owners. many wealthy landowners began from the bottom making their way up to success.
Def: The idea of southern men that they have to defend their honor. "Code of chivalry in order to protect dignity". They continued to duel to settle disputes, and show their southern honor.
Year: mid-early 1800s
Sign: Honor in the South was different than in the North. In the event when congressmen Brooks beat another senator. The North thought he was a savage, while the South praised him to be a hero. Causing division of cultures between the N & S.
Def: Very much like the North middle class, women lives were centered in the home where they served as companions for their husbands and mothers for their children.
Year: mid 1800
Sign: They were rarely engaged in public activities or in working.finding a job.
Def: Men who owned a few slabes with whom they worked and lived more closely than did the large planters. They devoted themselbes to subsistence farming , others grew cotton/other crops to sell but most could not.
Sign: Plain folks, were friendlier and more "plain" compared to the large plantation owners. 3/4 if white families didn't own slaves at all.
Def: White Southerners referred to slavery as the "peculiar institution". By that they meant that the institution was "special". Slavery drew a sharp line between blacks and whites, AA developed their own culture, and it created a unique bond btw slaves-masters.
Sign: The South at the time was the only area in the Western World where slavery still existed.
House slaves and field slaves
Def: House slaves lived and worked in their master's home, taking care of the housework, cooking, and children. (women) Field slaves worked in the field, usually men.
Sign: House slaves had an easier (physical) life, than the field slaves. Both slaves were rudely and inhumanly treated, and had a low survival rate.
Def = (304) House slaves: lived and worked close to the master (mainly women); Field slaves: worked only in fields (mainly men)
Sig. = Both kinds treatd horribly with aweful conditions; female house slaves especiall were vulnerable to sexual abuse by their master or other white men;
Time = southern society mid 1800s
Def: Unlike Southern slavery, urban/North slavery allowed slaves more freedom, and ability move in the city. Slaves worked in mining and lumbering. Slave women and children worked in the region's few textile mills
Sign: Segregation between whites and blacks increased. And in a way, it was making up doe the loosening of the discipline of slavery.
Free African Americans
Def:i Slaves who bought their own freedom, usually by developing a skill and using it to earn profit. Sometimes they were freed upon the their master's will. (became rare)
Year: early-mid 1800s, antebellum
Sign: 250,00 free African Americans lived in the slave-holding states before the war. Most free blacks lived in the North, in comparison to the South where they could be captured into slavery again.
Domestic and foreign slave trade
Def: Domestic trade was the transfer of slaves from one part in the South to another. Families were separated and slaves auctioned. Foreign importation of slaves was illegal in 1808 but slaves continued to be smuggled until 1850.
Sign:j Slavery was the South's main dependency, and if it were to be taken away from them, the economy would diminish.
Def: Shuffling, grinning, head-scratching, deferential slave who acted out the role that he recognized the white world expected of him.
Sign: Stereotypes the whites had towards the blacks.
Def: Leader of the slave revolt consistent of 1,000 rebellious slaves, outside Richmond.
Sign: Outcome=FAIL. 2 Africans gave plot away. Prosser and 35 were executed!
Def: A freeman from Charleston, along with 9,000 men, planned to revolt. It was a failure, since word got out, and measures were taken to stop the revolt.
Sign: Revolt failed, when word got out.
Def: A slave preacher who led a band of blacks who armed themselves with axes and weapons. In Southampton County, Virginia, they went from house to house and killed 60 white.
Sign:j Final result was a fail, since more than 100 blacks were executed in the aftermath.
Def:Slaves were often captured, when attempting to escape. So they decided to resist their masters and refused to work hard.
Sign: Some lost/broke tools, or performing tasks improperly. In a way that was their way of rebellion.
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