Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a
government for the Plymouth colony.
1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, the colony was best
governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and
served as its first president.
was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New
Hampshire in 1639.
colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
King Philip’s War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known
as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over
the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian
lands for expansion.
The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and
Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the
colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army,
with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The
rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when
royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly that he founded remained part of the
government of New York.
Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to
unify the colonies. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped begin this movement.
Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the
Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; mostcolonial merchants ignored it.
France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also
gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain to compensate it for ceding Florida to the British.
expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when
Pontiac was killed. The war was a failure for the Indians in that it did not drive away the British, but the
widespread uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict.
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. While the Proclamation of 1763 did improve England's relations with the Ohio Country natives, it greatly upset the colonists. The whole reason they had supported the French & Indian War from 1756-1763 was to gain access to land in the Ohio Country. By implementing the proclamation, England denied the colonists this opportunity. Many colonists became convinced that England did not care about nor understand the colonists' needs.
A series of British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the ship’s crew was British. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually
lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the
triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the
tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from
non-British Caribbean colonies.
British legislation passed as part of Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
The Grenville government built up British troop strength in colonial North America at the end of the French and Indian War to protect the colonies against threats posed by remaining Frenchmen and Indians. In March 1765, Parliament passed the Quartering Act to address the practical concerns of such a troop deployment. Under the terms of this legislation, each colonial assembly was directed to provide for the basic needs of soldiers stationed within its borders. Specified items included bedding, cooking utensils, firewood, beer or cider and candles. This law was expanded in 1766 and required the assemblies to billet soldiers in taverns and unoccupied houses. Repealed in 1770.
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Twenty-seven delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in Virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instituted another movement to stop importing British goods.
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have led the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
The Massacre was the 1770, pre-Revolutionary incident growing out of the anger against the British troops sent to Boston to maintain order and to enforce the Townshend Acts. The troops, constantly tormented by irresponsible gangs, finally on March 5, 1770, fired into a rioting crowd and killed five men: three on the spot, two of wounds later. The funeral of the victims was the occasion for a great patriot demonstration. The British captain, Thomas Preston, and his men were tried for murder, with Robert Treat Paine as prosecutor, John Adams and Josiah Quincy as lawyers for the defense. Preston and six of his men were acquitted; two others were found guilty of manslaughter, punished, and discharged from the army.
He was an African American and one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr.
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament, alarmed the colonies because it nullified many of the Western claims of the coast colonies by extending the boundaries of the province of Quebec to the Ohio River on the south and to the Mississippi River on the west. The concessions in favor of the Roman Catholic Church also roused much resentment among Protestants in the Thirteen Colonies as some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies.
The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissolutions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilance. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.
The first military engagements of the Revolution, fought on April 19, 1775 within the towns of Lexington and Concord near Boston. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between Britain and its thirteen colonies in North America. 700 British Army regulars, were ordered to capture and destroy military supplies that were reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord. The first shots were fired just as the sun was rising at Lexington. The militia was outnumbered and fell back. Other British colonists, hours later at the North Bridge in Concord, fought and defeated three companies of the king's troops. The outnumbered soldiers of the British Army fell back from the Minutemen after a pitched battle in open territory. More Minutemen arrived soon thereafter and inflicted heavy damage on the British regulars as they marched back towards Boston. The occupation of surrounding areas by the Massachusetts Militia marked the beginning of the Siege of Boston.
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Thomas Paine: Common Sense
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social contract" that existed between a government and its people. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
An act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776 which declared that the Thirteen British Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain” was dissolved. The document, explained the justifications for separation from the British crown.
A decisive American victory resulting in the surrender of an entire British army of 9,000 men invading New York from Canada. British General John Burgoyne surrendered his entire army after being surrounded by much larger American militia forces. The capture of an entire British army secured the northern American states from further attacks out of Canada and prevented New England from being isolated. A major result was that France entered the conflict on behalf of the Americans, thus dramatically improving the Americans' chances in the war. The battle of Saratoga is commonly seen as the turning point of the Revolution.
An overwhelming victory by American Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British, part of a chain of events leading to the Patriot victory at Yorktown.
forces led by General Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by General Lord Cornwallis. It
proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War, as the surrender of Cornwallis’s army
prompted the British government to eventually negotiate an end to the conflict.
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the
colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic
coast to the Mississippi River.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!