Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said thata new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on. Mahan linked the growing productivity of U.S. factories and farms to the need for a great battleship fleet that could protect the nation’s foreign commerce, destroy an opponent’s commerce in battle, and annihilate the opponent’s fleet in decisive combat.
De Lôme Letter
Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, it was stolen from the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. The yellow journalists played it up.
U.S.S. Maine explodes
February 15, 1898 - An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and later used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
Annexation of Hawaii
By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. President Grover Cleveland did not want to forcibly annex Hawaii; he believed the annexation overstepped the national government’s power. In July 1898, during William McKinley’s first administration, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
Teller Amendment, April 1898
In order to reassure anti-imperialist elements on the eve of declaring war on Spain, Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado drafter an amendment to the declaration of war and Congress adopted the measure pledging that the United States had no designs on remaining in Cuba following conclusion of the conflict nor had any intention to annex the island..
Introduced by Connecticut Senator Orville Platt in March, 1901. The amendment ceded to the U.S. the naval base in Cuba (Guantánamo Bay), ensured U.S. intervention in Cuban affairs when the U.S. deemed necessary, and prohibited Cuba from negotiating treaties with any country other than the United States. Abrogated in 1934.
Philippine Insurrection Led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence. Led an unsuccessful three-year armed resistance against the United States.
Secretary of State, September 1899
John Hay, Open Door notes During the 1890s aggressive European nations had carved China into economic “spheres of influence” in which they exerted exclusive political and economic control. Secretary Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market, essentially creating an “open door.” Hay claimed it a victory but all recipients of the notes rejected the idea of equal access.
Boxer Rebellion, 1900
A secret super patriotic group of Chinese called the Boxers (their symbol was a fist) revolted against all foreigners in their midst. In the process of laying siege to foreign legations in Beijing hundreds of missionaries and foreign diplomats were murdered. Several nations including the United States sent military forces to quell the rebellion. American participation was seen as a violation of its noninvolvement policies.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Latin American nations were in deep financial trouble and could not pay their debts to European creditors. Roosevelt declared the U.S. would intervene and occupy the ports of those countries that were delinquent in paying their debts and manage the collection of customs taxes until European debts were satisfied. U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
Treaty of Portsmouth Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Manchuria after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
Gentlemen's Agreement, 1907
The Gentlemen's Agreement between the United States and Japan in 1907-1908 represented an effort by President Theodore Roosevelt to calm growing tension between the two countries over the immigration of Japanese workers. A treaty with Japan in 1894 had assured free immigration, but as the number of Japanese workers in California increased, they were met with growing hostility. In August 1900, Japan agreed to deny passports to laborers seeking to enter the United States. Racial antagonism continued, however, fed by inflammatory articles in the press. On May 7, 1905, a Japanese and Korean Exclusion League was organized, and on October 11, 1906, the San Francisco school board arranged for all Asian children to be placed in a segregated school. Japan was prepared to limit immigration to the United States, but was deeply wounded by San Francisco's discriminatory law aimed specifically at its people. President Roosevelt, wishing to preserve good relations with Japan as a counter to Russian expansion in the Far East, intervened. On February 24, the Gentlemen's Agreement with Japan was concluded in the form of a Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers intending to enter the United States and recognizing the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports originally issued for other countries. This was followed by the formal withdrawal of the San Francisco school board order on March 13, 1907. A final Japanese note dated February 18, 1908, made the Gentlemen's Agreement fully effective.
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials and businessmen. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
How the Other Half Lives Early 1900's muckraking writer/photographer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. His most popular work, How the Other Half Lives, became a pivotal work that precipitated much needed reforms and made him famous. Jacob Riis's photography, taken up to help him document the plight of the poor, made him an important figure in the history of documentary photography.
Ida B. Wells (1862-1931)
Was an African-American woman who achieved nationwide attention as leader of the anti-lynching crusade. A writer, she became part-owner of a newspaper, the Memphis Free Speech. In May 1892, in response to an article on a local lynching, a mob ransacked her offices and threatened her life if she did not leave town. Moving to Chicago, Wells continued to write about Southern lynchings. While investigating, she would go directly to the site of a killing, sometimes despite extreme danger. In 1895, she published The Red Record, the first documented statistical report on lynching. Wells was also a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936)
The Shame of the Cities American journalist was one of the most famous and influential practitioners of the journalistic style called muckraking. He specialized in investigating government corruption, and two collections of his articles were published as The Shame of the Cities and The Struggle for Self-Government.
Ida Tarbell (1857-1944)
One of the leading muckrakers, she is remembered for her investigations of industry published in McClure's magazine. Her 1904 book, History of Standard Oil Company, exposed the monopolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company and strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies.
The Bitter Cry of the Children Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Probably the most influential and certainly the most widely read of the Progressive-era exposés of child labor was Spargo’s The Bitter Cry of the Children (1906). Spargo was a British granite cutter who became a union organizer and socialist and gained his formal education through extension courses at Oxford and Cambridge. In 1901, he emigrated to the United States where he became a leader of the conservative wing of the American Socialist Party. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto.
Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
1913 - gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states.
1919 - prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
1920 - gave women the right to vote.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
On March 25, 1911, a fire broke out in a New York City sweatshop run by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company. The fire started on the eighth floor of the Asch Building and quickly spread upward to the two top floors of the building. Some workers, having no way of opening the doors that had been locked to prevent theft, leaped from windows to their deaths. Fire truck ladders, then able to reach only six stories were of little help, and the building's overloaded fire escape collapsed. One hundred forty-six individuals, mostly young immigrant women, died in the tragedy. The disaster touched off a national movement for safer working conditions, led to the creation of health and safety legislation, including factory fire codes and child-labor laws, and helped shape future labor laws.
Racial incident that grew out of tensions between whites in Brownsville, Texas and black infantrymen stationed at nearby Fort Brown. About midnight, Aug. 13-14, 1906, rifle shots on a street in Brownsville killed one white man and wounded another. White commanders at Fort Brown believed all the black soldiers were in their barracks at the time of the shooting; but the city's mayor and other whites asserted that they had seen black soldiers on the street firing indiscriminately, and they produced spent shells from army rifles to support their statements. Despite evidence that the shells had been planted as part of a frame-up, investigators accepted the statements of the mayor and the white citizens. When the black soldiers insisted that they had no knowledge of the shooting, President Theodore Roosevelt ordered 167 black infantrymen discharged without honor because of their conspiracy of silence. His action caused much resentment among blacks and drew some criticism from whites, but a U.S. Senate committee, which investigated the episode in 1907- 08, upheld Roosevelt's action.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Meat Inspection Act, 1906
Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing State lines.
The Jungle Upton Sinclair was a famous novelist and social crusader from California, who pioneered the kind of journalism known as "muckraking." His best-known novel was "The Jungle" which was an expose of the appalling and unsanitary conditions in the meat-packing industry. "The Jungle" was influential in obtaining passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. A founder of the Progressive Movement, he was a spearhead for political reform in Wisconsin and the nation for 25 years. Unwilling to compromise on principle, "Fighting Bob" LaFollette earned the deep admiration of his supporters and the hatred of many foes. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1905, he fought the same forces of privilege he had defeated in Wisconsin. A few progressive Republicans joined him, and they often held the balance of power in a Senate closely divided between the two parties. LaFollette opposed the protective Payne-Aldrich tariff and worked to regulate the railroads and other industries. He sought the GOP presidential nomination in 1908 and 1912. He founded LaFollette's Weekly Magazine (1909) and the National Progressive Republican League (1911).
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed during Wilson’s presidency.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff, 1913
Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad. The most significant tariff reduction since the Civil War.
Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved. It exempted labor unions from prosecution as monopolies that could be found in restraint of trade.
Adamson Act, 1916
Wilson pushed passage of this act that mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.
Mexican Revolution, Diaz, Huerta, Carranza
Diaz was ruler of Mexico for 34 years, and caused much terror and bloodshed. Many people fled to the U.S. to plan a revolution. Huerta, in 1913, overthrew Diaz as dictator and had him murdered. Carranza was the leader of the forces against Huerta. The Mexican Revolution was an unstable situation that led to distrust between the U.S. and Mexico.
Pancho Villa, General Pershing
1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
British passenger liner sunk off the Irish coast by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. In the sinking, 1,198 persons lost their lives, 128 of whom were U.S. citizens. A warning to Americans against taking passage on British vessels, signed by the Imperial German Embassy, appeared in morning papers on the day the vessel was scheduled to sail from New York, but too late to accomplish its purpose. The vessel was unarmed, though the Germans made a point of the fact that it carried munitions for the Allies. The considerable sympathy for Germany that had previously existed in the United States to a large extent disappeared after the disaster, and there were demands from many for an immediate declaration of war. President Wilson chose the course of diplomacy. After prolonged negotiations, Germany finally conceded its liability for the sinking of the Lusitania and agreed to make reparations and to discontinue sinking passenger ships without warning. The immediate crisis between the United States and Germany subsided. The incident, however, contributed to the rise of American sentiment for the entry of the United States into World War I, with recruitment posters two years later urging potential enlistees to “Remember the Lusitania!”
A telegram sent to the government of Mexico by the Foreign Secretary of Germany, Alfred Zimmerman on January 16, 1917 at the height of World War I. The telegram was intercepted and decrypted by the British. Zimmerman’s message proposed that Mexico should ally itself with Germany if the U.S. were to enter the war. It also suggested that if Mexico were to launch a pre-emptive strike on the U.S., it would have Germany’s backing and would be rewarded with Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the Central Powers and its allies won the war. This letter evoked an outpouring of anti-German sentiment and President Wilson asked Congress to arm American ships so they could defend themselves from potential German submarine attacks.
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
War Industries Board
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. In the resulting treaty the victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
League of Nations
A concept for an international peace keeping organization devised by President Wilson. It reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
"Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette
Some senators known as “irreconcilables” opposed the Treaty because it committed the U.S. to the League of Nations. This group of 16 senators could not be reconciled to, or made to accept, the Treaty. They argued that joining the League would threaten American independence in making foreign policy. The handful of Senate "irreconcilables," led by senators William Borah of Idaho, Hiram Johnson of California, and Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin, were basically isolationists who were uncompromising in their opposition to U.S. membership in the League of Nations.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!