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Arch of Constantine, Rome 312-315 CE
Erected to celebrate Constantine’svictory. Medallions show details of war.
Basilica (Aula Palatina), Trier,Germany 300-310 CE
audience hall, Palace of Constantine
model for other basilica churches, twolayers, rectilinear, tall with apse at one end,
St. John Lateran (San Giovanni inLaterano), Rome314 CE
Rebuilt in the Baroque era and in the18th century
Seat for the pope – cathedral forrome – five aisle basilica.
It’s been changed, destroyed,reconstruction, but core basilica plan is still there.
Santa Costanza, Rome350 CE
Patron: Constantia, daughter ofConstantine
Circular in plan. Has narthex (porch)Walls are very thick with niches carved out. Pairs of columns. Columns separating circular space which is very tall and domed fromside aisles. Twelve pairs of Corinthian columns. 12 clerestorywindows.
San Apollinare en Classe,Ravenna, Italy532-549 CE
San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy548CE
central plan, founded by bishopaclesius. Building was dedicated to patron saint of Ravenna – SanVitale. Church is octagonal in plan. Sizable buttresses. On eachof the eight sides, divided into two stories, divided into threeareas by pilasters with round headed windows. Domed octagon withambulatory and gallery.
Santa Sophia/Hagia Sophia/AyaSophia, Constantinople/Istanbul, Turkey
Architects: Isodorus and Anthemios
First Santa Sophia was built byConstantine, but no longer exists. The church we have today was doneby Justinian with revisions. Holy wisdom. Dome has collapsed andhas been rebuilt several times.
Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany 792-805 CE
Surface ornament (throne) marble. Palaces built over many centuries and changed over time. What we seenow is not what was there originally. Gallery, dome, alternatingstone voussoirs. Strong central axis. Dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Bookmatched marble. Rather than having exedra (curved spaces)arches are on a plane. Mosaics on dome.
Plan of St. Gall c. 830
A plan on calfskin velum. Religiouscenter. Because of the times in Europe, place of learning in a timewhere most people were illiterate. Self contained, had own food. Hostel – people could spend the night in relative safety whiletraveling. Cloister – cloister spaces – campus architecture,where we look at definition of outdoor spaces surrounded bybuildings.
Monastery of Cluny III c.1085-1130
Gunzo, Abbott of Baume
Previous much smaller ones (I, II) hugechurch with two transepts, huge nave, two side aisles, ambulatory anda series of chaples.
Monumental side wall, biggest of itstime, barrel vaulted with piers that have pilasters on the sides.
Santiago(St. James) de Compostela, Spain c. 1075-1211
Patron: Alfonso VI and Bishop DiegoPeláez
Master builder: Bernard the Elder,Esteban, Bernard
Growth of pilgrimages in churches. People traveled to churches with relics. If church had relics peoplewould bring money while traveling…encouraged travel and movement ofideas throughout Europe.
San Miniato al Monte, Florence,Italyc. 1050-1200 CE
Overlooking river, on hill. Interiorhas not been changed that much over time, easy to get sense of whatit might have looked like when originally built. Quite a prominentlocation. Blind arcades (really wall behind), not an open arcade.
Pisa Duomo (cathedral), Italy c.1064-1165
Patron: Pope Gelasius consecrated it in1118
Architects: Buschetto c. 1064-1110
Rainaldo began new façade c. 1110-1125
Guglielmo finished façade c. 1165
AbbeyChurch of St. Denis,St. Denis, France
Renovationto Gothic under Abbott Suger 1137-44
St.Denis had existed before Suger came into the pic. Suger is famousfor alterations to existing building. He extended nave and made newwestern façade. Façade – clear delineation fo the geometry ofthe façade, tripartite façade with horizontal divisions.
Cathedralof Notre Dame (Our Lady),Paris, France
Consecratedin Carolingian period c. 495
Rebuiltin Gothic style beginning after fire in 1134
Archivaultsbegin to show the thickness of church. Steep gabled roof that isover the nave and transept. Celebration not only on main entrance,but on each end of the transept. Flying buttresses and monumentalrose window. Slender tower at crossing.
Cathedralof Notre Dame (Our Lady),Chartres, France
1194-fire;work began soon after
Spiresare not the same. Not built all at one time. Portal, archivaults,rose window, crossing of two gabled roof over nave, transept. Eachend of transept is highly emphasized creating secondary façade andsecondary entrance. South portal with rose window and towers. Largetransept and choir, nave shrunk, two ambulatories. Series of chapelsgoing around choir.
Patron: Cathedral Masons’ Guild & the Opera di Santa Maria
Gothic architecture in Italy, verydifferent than previous French Gothic. Three portals witharchivaults, above is a steep triangular pediment (similar to pisa). Variety of stone shits and surface decoration (carving, etc).
Santa Maria del Fiore (FlorenceCathedral), Italy
1294-1304 Initial design by Arnolfo diCambio
1355 Construction resumed underFrancesco Talenti
1418-1436Dome by Brunelleschi
A century before Brunelleschi went toRome, construction began on a new cathedral.
By 1417, an octangonal rum was built,but current technology was inadequate to span 138’-6”.
Ospedale degli Innocenti (FoundlingHospital), Florence, Italy
1419-1426entrance colonnade byBrunelleschi
Brunelleschi remodeled the façade andcourtyard.
Round arches and ionic capitals werederived from Brunelleschi’s study of ancient rome.
San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
church interior 1425-1460s
Never given a façade, a façade waspurposed by Michelangelo, but never built
Santo Spirito, Florence,Italy1444-1482
1292 initial church was begun
1428 Brunelleschi was commissioned todesign new church
Brunelleschi designed the wholebuilding.
Space is divided by repetitiveelements.
The square bay is the module. Nave andtransept are twice the width of the aisle.
Side aisles subdivided into bays.
Santa Maria Novella facade,Florence, Italy1456-70
Lower part of façade Tuscan Romaneque,
attributed to Fra’Jacobo Talenti
Upper part of façade by Alberti;patron: Giovanni Rucellai
Façade derived from ancient RomanTriumphal arch.
Tall recess rises to bottom of attic,articulated by giant pilasters that emphasize vertical division offaçade.
Sant’ Andrea, Mantua,Italy1472-94
Interior: a series of interlockingtriumphal arches.
Each “triumphal arch” unit isdivided into three horizontally and vertically.
Door, rectangular panel, circularwindow.
Façade and interior elevation repeatthe same triumphal arch motif.
Unity and clarity of the entirebuilding.
All barrel vaults are coffered.
Large arches lead to side chapels
Ceiling is coffered barrel vaultsexcept at crossing, see base of dome.
S. Maria presso S. Satiro,Milan, Italy1482-1492
Patron: Ludovico Sforza
Has a bas-relief apse. No space in theurban context for an apse or choir, so instead created shallow apseemphasized with painting.
The Tempietto, Romec. 1502
Patrons: Queen Isabella & KingFerdinand
Marks location of St. Peter’scrucifixion
Symbolic building with little interiorspace
Form inspired by ancient temples
Slender Tuscan columns
Designed to be within colonnadedcourtyard
It’s relation to the urban contextwas very different than the way it was designed.
Laurentian Library, SanLorenzo, Florence1524
Pope Clement II (Medici family)
Pope Leo X (medici Family), sponsored adesign competition for the façade of San Lorenzo
Miochelangelo’s first architecturaldesign, but never built due to the death of Pope Leo.
The Campidoglio, Rome1537
Behind is roman forum. Build on top ofthe tabularium (roman building where bronze tablets were stored)
Reconstruction of collapsed gothicbuilding.
Palladio encased b uilding with a classical marble loggia and portico
Doric and ionic columns
Looking at one structural bay: definedby columns, first level doric, second level ionic. On either side ofcolumn is pair of smaller columns supported arch. Between maincolumn and arch are circular openings.
Villa Americo-Capra (LaRotonda), Vicenza1556-57
Villas – a villa is a residence onan agricultural estate with quarters for the owner, his family andservants. It had an open relationship with the surroundingenvironment. Main building and a series of out buildings. Mainbuilding grand, but actually very utilitarian.
(with Vicenzo Scamozzi)
Architecture in front, then goes backin space and gets smaller and smaller. Stage with exaggeratedperspective
St. Peters, Rome
First built by Constantine in 337. Huge basilica church with double side aisles. Apse is over St.Peter’s tomb. By renaissance times, church was falling apart,desire by pope to renovate at design addition.
Pope hired Bramante originally todesign addition.
Decided to design new greek cross planin 1505.
Construction began in 1506.
Bramante died 1514.
Church of the Gesu, Rome 1568
Architect of façade: Giacomo della Porta
Church Council at Trent 1545 respondedto Protestant Revolt
Council encouraged sensory stimulationthrough architecture, painting, and sculpture to enhance religiousdevotion
St. Peters Colonnade and Piazza 1656-1667
Architect: Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Built in constrained space – twodifferent spaces: trapezoidal space and oval space. Huge arms –symbolically arms of the church embracing followers of god.
Egyptian obelisque. Baroque –architecture created at a monumental scale rather than human scale.
St. Peters Baldacchino 1624-33
Made of guilded bronze, bronze coveringthe beams of the porch of the pantheon. Bronze was removed, melteddown and used for baldacchino. Church was uses all of the resourcesof the city of rome for glorification of god.
Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale,Rome 1658-70
Most of the churches of this time wereof latin cross and basilica form. There were a few centralizedchurches. Oval in form. When you go in you are looking at it on theshort axis. It’s dynamic on façade due to curvilinear arms thatare concave, convex stairs. Very sculptural exterior wall. Poche,thick sculptural wall. Exterior wall of pantheon was similar to thiswith thick wall w/ niches.
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,Rome 1634
Architect: Francesco Borromini
The geometry of this church was derivedfrom triangles. In the façade there is undulation. At lowestlevel, concave, convex, blahblah. Huge shield at cornice level. Atfirst appear to be classical in style, but come together in differnetway. Oval dome, half domes on each of the four sides. Very unusualgeometry in coffering.
Sant’ Ivo della Sapienza, Rome 1642
Two overlaying equilateral trianglesforming basic geometry of church. (star of david shape)
Tiny space that is very complex. Façade is concave. The façade itself is articulated by a series ofblind arcades and in each arcade is a window and center door. Façadeis divided into five horiziontally and into two vertically. Veryunusual dome with six bearing points. Dome is rising up from theform of plan at floor.
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