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A thin, tapered piece of wood metal, or stone used to adjust the height of, or alignment of different components of a building during construction
Designed for superior thermal insulation and fire resistive qualties. While lacking in the compressive strength of regular concrete, it is easier to handle, does not require complex supporting structures, and is easier to nail into.
during restoration of historic buildings, what is the best method of reproducing plaster ornaments?
By drawing, or creating molds.
Linear ornaments such as modling can be recreated by a technique called drawing.
Ornaments can be created by using molds.
A compact building form has the least amount of exposed surface area for thermal conductivity and is therefore the most appropriate for a cold climate.
The architecture of Greek temples was:
I. Meant to be approached from all sides
II. designed for outward effect
III. the principal building form in Greek cities
IV. incorporated timber trusses
a. I, III and IV
b. II, III, and IV
c. I, II, and III
d. I, II, III and IV
name the building that incorparated pyrex glass tubing into the walls and ceilings.
Describe two methods of Pre-stressing Concrete?
Pre-tensioning: Steel strand are pulled tightly between abutments and concrete is cast around steel
Post-tensioning: Usually done on site, grease steel strands or hollow tubs containing steel strands are cast into the member and are not tensioned until after the concrete is cured.
(1809-1891)– Urban planner modernized Paris. Wide boulevards/people watching. 1853-1870 gave radically new face. Lots of people enjoy, lots missed old stinky Frankish Paris. Said was boring, uniform, standard, moved working class people out of center of city. By 1910 Paris settled into modern form/new lifestyle.
A portion of a tog sawed on two or more sides intended for re-sawing into lumber or veneer. Veneer sheets stacked in sequence as they are cut from the log.
A non-structural framework of wood or metal fasted to a floor, wall, or ceiling plane so that the finish surface will be flat or level. Can be used to create a space for insulation, finish the interior of masonry wall or cover poor construction.
A unit of cubic volume used in measuring lumber, equivalent to an area of 1 square foot and having thickness of 1 inch.
An object of significant mass, commonly concrete, buried in the ground and typically used as an anchor for retaining wall. Dependent on its own mass and the soil pressure to hold it in place.
When pouring concrete in hot weather, what kind of agent would one add to the mixture?
In curing concrete slabs, which of the following procedures is rarely used?
While observing a concrete pour, an architect notices that the entire concrete load has been deposited from a 6-foot height at the middle of a 40-foot-long form. The architect should direct the contractor to
The size of coarse aggregate in a concrete mix is governed by the:
All of the following are advantages of using precast concrete sections EXCEPT
To construct an eight-inch-thick masonry wall, concrete block might be selected instead of brick because it is
The following has little effect in preventing efflorescence?
The considerable variation found in natural brick colors is caused by the:
During a weekly job-site visit, the architect notices that a mason has used troweled joints on an exposed exterior masonry wall, instead of the weather-struck joints that were specified. In the interest of practicality, the architect should
Mortise-and-tenon joints were used in most 18th century timber framing because
Wood that has a moisture content of 30 percent is generally
Which type of manufactured panel would be most appropriate to use for perimeter foundation wall insulation?
Which type of manufactured panel is generally used as core stock for hardwood wall paneling?
All of the following ferrous metals can resist tensile forces EXCEPT
Which of the following metals is most resistant to galvanic deterioration?
Miscellaneous metalwork is most frequently fabricated from:
Which of the following is NOT a property of aluminum components used in building construction?
Lightweight metal framing systems have all of the advantages below EXCEPT
Most fabricated aluminum window assemblies are produced by
Which of the following characteristics are generally associated with tile roofs? (Choose three that apply)
II. Low initial cost
III. Fire resistance
IV. Considerable weight
V. Suitability for low pitches
Expansion joints are provided in a structure in order to:
The preferred minimum roof pitch for the installation of asphalt roll roofing is:
Which of the following insulation materials has the greatest resistance to heat flow per inch of thickness?
a collective vision of how urban and suburban planning should
follow certain fundamental principles regarding community size, integration,
transportation, open space, pedestrian paths, native vegetation, water and energy use.
Typical Human Comfort Zone
measure of the spread of arms
applied science concerned with designing equipment/furniture to maximize productivity by reducing fatigue and discomfort.
components that can be assembled, configured, and reconfigured
to create workstations/workspaces. Includes panels, work surfaces, shelving, storage,
and power&data support for computers/communication systems, and other equipment.
does not allow for substitution, and typically used to control aesthetics, function, and quality.
• Identify name, model number, finish type, and submittal requirement.
Descriptive (Open) Spec:
used in competitive bidding, and does not give level of control in closed spec.
• Describe characteristics, materials, finishes, workmanship, and fabrication of
products and give list of comparable manufactures.
used with vendors who propose products they think will meet requirements
• Describe only the desired/required results. Give no characteristics or
the sum of all energy required to extract, process, deliver, and install materials needed to construct a building.
process of adapting old structures for purposes other than those
initially intended while retaining their historic features.
the act or process of applying measures necessary to sustain the existing form, integrity and materials of an historic property.
designed to protect workers who handle ACM and other hazardous materials
toxic material once used in paint and other household products, found in air from
industrial sources, and in drinking water from plumbing materials.
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ):
the air quality within and around buildings and structures,
especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants
meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
the connections that humans subconsciously seek with the rest of life.
process of ensuring that system are designed, installed, and
functionally tested for effective operation/maintenance for an owner’s operational needs.
systematic investigation process applied to existing buildings to
improve an optimize operating/maintenance.
Life Cycle Costing
provides a tool for determining long-term costs for the total building
something organic (wood fiber, paper, cotton, etc.) that mold can use as an energy source. Mold cannot eat inorganic materials like concrete, brick, or gypsum (but it loves the paper on drywall!)
measure of thermal resistance in a component. (U-Value = 1/R-Value) and typically the opposite of an U-Value. Used to define level of insulation.
ability of a material to store heat (concrete/masonry walls store heat in an arid climate and release it slowly at night)
the average temperature that a mechanical system is designed
for, either for heating (how cold it gets) or cooling (how warm it gets)
Types of Shading
the deliberate use of light for a desired aesthetic effect, and includes both artificial light sources (lamps and light fixtures) and natural daylight
the increase in temperature in a space, object, or structure that results from solar radiation.
a unit of illuminace or light intensity. Measured as the illuminace cast on a surface by one-candela source one foot away
a measurement of how much light gets to what you want to light
energy that comes from natural resources like sun, wind, rain,
geothermal heat and are naturally replenished
Building code that specifies techniques, materials and methods to be used. Cut and dry and simple to administer by the official
Building code that describes functional requirements, but leave
method to achieve decisions up to the designer.
walls that divide a single building into two or more “buildings”, if either side collapses the wall will not for the duration of its rating
make up rated assemblies/enclosures (e.g.: shafts, exit enclosures, exit
passageways, horizontal exits, atriums, mixed use occupancy separation)
openings through floors/ceilings connecting adjacent floors. 1 hour rated when connecting less than 4 stories, or 2 hour if passing through a 2 hour floor assembly or if connecting 4 or more stories
demising walls separating tenants, residential units, corridor walls.
used as required to prevent the movement of smoke, have a 1 hour fire resistance raiting
Allowable building area and limitations
are Based on the Occupancy Type, if multiple uses are separated, and the construction type
Building Egress is comprised of three parts:
a path of egress travel from one part of a building to another
part of a building on the same level, which affords safety from fire and smoke
similar to an exit, but horizontal, and leads to the exit discharge
Rectangular masonry unit molded from clays and shales, dried and fired in a kiln.
Exposed masonry attached, but not structurally bonded, to the backing.
a projection of brick jutting out from a wall to support a structure above it
filling joints to the face with mortar and tooling them to the desired profile
Grades for Building and Facing Bricks
Types of Facing Bricks
Structural bonds for brickwork
There are three types of lintels for spanning openings in brick walls:
Types of arches:
prevent moisture from penetrating into the masonry wall where the wall intersects the roof
Internal (Concealed) Flashings
catch water that has penetrated a masonry wall and drain it through weep holes to the outdoors
Surface divider joints
must be provide to avoid excessive buildup of forces that
could crack or spall the masonry
intentionally created slots that can open to accommodate
shrinkage in surfaces made of concrete masonry
intentionally created cracks that can open to accommodate
shrinkage in surfaces made of concrete masonry
placed at junctions between masonry and other materials, or between old and new masonry, to accommodate differences in movement.
a combination of pure metals to give greater strength or resistance to corrosion
alloys that contain a lot of iron (e.g.: stainless steel, galvanized iron)
Non Ferrous Alloys
doesn’t contain much iron (e.g.: aluminum, copper, zinc)
The most abundant metal
hard brittle alloy of iron and 2.1 - 4% carbon that can be readily cast in a mold, use for pipes, plumbing fixtures, hardware, castings, etc. (Crystal Place made of it)
iron that has been purified by beating it repeatedly with a hammer, used for ornamental work, grilles, pipes, and outdoor furniture (Eiffel Tower made of it)
any range of alloys of iron and carbon that contain less than 2% carbon, the most
widely used structural metal in construction, used for framing, concrete, rebar, lathing,
conduit, pipes, fixtures, connectors like nails, bolts, and pins.
Light weight metal with good thermal/electrical conductivity and resistance
to corrosion, used for lightweight framing, railings, grills, siding, curtain walls, doors/
windows, flashings, roofing, hardware, etc
Metal that resists corrosion, electrical and thermal activity, used for electrical
work, water pipes, roofing/flashing, and mesh
metal that resists corrosion, used for finish hardware, plumbing, HVAC components and fittings
Metal that resists corrosion and is workable, but also toxic, heavy, soft, and weak, used for foundations, rough hardware, roofing and flashing
Metal used for roof coverings, flashings, and protective coatings for steel
Metal used for roofing, flashing, countertops, sinks
steelmaking procedure where carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from iron to make steel.
Basic Oxygen Process
steelmaking procedure where a hollow, water-cooled lance is lowered into a container of molten iron/recycled steel scrap and a stream of pure oxygen is blown in at high pressure from the lance to burn off the excess carbon/impurities.
Light Gauge Steel
steel that is cold rolled and lighter than .018”
a steel reinforcing member used when constructing pre-stressed, poured gypsum deck. When the gypsum is poured, it surrounds the Bulb-Tee.
hard fibrous substance beneath the bark of tress
wood that has been sawn into construction members
lumber that is +5” in its smallest dimension
evergreen trees (pine, fir, spruce) used for framing, sheathing, etc
deciduous trees (maple, oak) used for flooring, paneling, trim, furniture
a thin finished top layer of an engineered wooden floor
Water content in a piece of wood can vary between 30% - 300% of the oven-dry weight of the wood. This unseasoned wood
When a tree is cut, the water slowly begins to evaporate in the following order:
Wood drying methods
shrinkage around the circumference of the log is about
half again greater than the railed shrinkage.
caused by fungi in mild temperatures, moisture and air. Treated with preservatives, and by keeping it well ventilated and dry
prevention by impregnating a chemical solution or by
a rocklike material produced by mixing coarse and fine aggregates, portland cement, and water, and allowing the mixture to harden
gravel or crushed rock
chemical reaction between water and cement which creates heat
a product of lime, iron, silica, and alumina, crushed, ground, proportioned and
blended, then sent through a kiln, cooled and pulverized to a powder
a mineral that expands upon being heated, used in the expanded state for
heat/sound insulation and fireproofing
form of obsidian formed by cracking of cooling volcanic glass, used as insulation
freshly mixed concrete, unstable mixture of solids and liquids
horizontal or vertical joints between ow successive concrete pours
joints that allow free movement of adjacent parts due to expansion or contraction of concrete. Typically waterproof, watertight, filled with an elastic filler. Required at buildings over 200’ long, at joints of building wings, and additions
joints that allow for shrinkage of large areas, and controls and induces cracking to occur along the joint
joints located at slab on grade, columns, or walls to allow for
process of cutting into a surface (concrete, glass, etc) by applying acidic, caustic, or abrasive substances
Abrasive Blasting (Sandblasting)
process of forcibly propelling a steam of abrasive
material against a surface under high pressure to smooth, etch, clean it
process of creating a rough, pockmarked texture on concrete or
stone that resembles naturally weathered rock
process of sanding/polishing for a matte or slightly reflective surface
The quality of cement is established by the ASTM
Air entraining admixtures