Art History Final Exam Study Guide ANCIENT AMERICA 1500 BC-1500 AD Ice age, people move from Siberia to Alaska through Bering Strait. Contains Anasazi cultures and Olmec/Maya (Mesoamerican) Base 20 mathematics Astronomy, hieroglyphic, books made of bark and skin. Olmec and Maya Cultures Olmec 1200-900 BC early to middle pre-classic In present day Mexico Class of commoners an the elite, most were farmers Seated Jaguar and Colossal heads Maya 1100 BC-1500 AD In southern Mesoamerica Developed most complex system of writing in Mesoamerica Math and books of bark Political and religious centers, heredity rulers were theocratic (connection with Gods) W 5.2 Olmec Colossal Head, San Lorenzo Veracruz, Mexico Culture: Olmec 1200 BC- 900 BC Artist: Weigh five to twenty tons Male portraits of rulers Organic faces, broad flat noses, thick lips Domed headdress with ear flaps, strap Most were defaced and buried Found similar head in L Venta 17 known W 5.8 The Leiden Plate Note: Hieroglyphic Writing Jade, 8.5 inches tall Mayan 320 AD ?Long Count? 360-day year On the front: Early Classic Maya Ruler from Tikal stepping on back of defeated enemy. On the back: glyphs showing long-count date in the year 320 (probably when the ruler assumed power). W 5.13 Tikal Temple 1 Tikal, Guatemala Mayan, Before 800 AD ?The Temple of the Jaguar? Nine layers supporting a temple, staircase Two rooms with corbelled-vaults, crowned by a roof comb (crest like, with painted sculpture) Tomb of ?Au Cacao? W 5.14 Bonampak Mural Classic Maya 790 AD Chiapas, Mexico Group of murals from late 18th century Narrative of Mayan treatment of captured prisoners Scene on step pyramid, King Chaanmuan wearing jaguar skin His wife wears whit robe Nobility to his sides and attendants under him on steps (nude captives awaiting death) One dead, with head by his foot Others hands drip blood Handout. Palenque, Sarcophagus Lid of Pacal Shows pacal descending into the underworld to rise as the sun on the night of his death. Iconography: Ecliptic- path of sun, moon, planets across the sky. The constellations on this path are known as the zodiac. Ecliptic is shown as double headed-serpent Tree- milky way in north-south position. Maw of the underworld- milky way wrapping southern horizon. Bird- north star and little dipper Jade mask and burial jewels. Anasazi culture Lived in 4 corners region kivas: ritual theaters Sipapu- corn mothers, spiritual access to world below Pine beams- deforestation Cannibalism controversy Women made pottery Handout: Site of Chaco Canyon, which contains Pueblo Bonito complex. 1050-1350 AD Anasazi Turquoise trading center 9 large D-shaped apartment compounds in 8 mile canyon 300 smaller compounds Pueblo Bonito is one Hundreds of rooms Plazas 60 kivas EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE Cultures: Islamic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Hiberno-Saxon, Carolingian, and Ottonian 9.1 Dome of the Rock Islam culture 680-700 AD Jerusalem Earliest extant Islamic sanctuary (Mosque of Omar) Encloses sacred Jewish, Islamic, and Christian rock outcropping. Mosaics and marble on exterior Inspired by round Christian martyria The building is a planned octagon Gilded dome Commissioned by Caliph Abd al-Malik ?would dazzle the minds? of muslims to detract them from christian buildings in Jerusalem. 9.2 page from Kairouan Koran Islam, Tunisia Ninth or tenth century manuscript Written in kufic Islamic interest in linear complexity in text and design Ink, gold, silver, blue parchment Kufic was one of the two main groups of scripts. (other is cursive). 9.15 Sutton Hoo purse cover Anglo-Saxon Metalwork East Anglia, England 630 AD Part of purse containing gold coins Found with remains of pagan ship burial. (practice wear dead placed in ship buried under mound (to carry to afterlife) Royal person buried with treasures. Gold cloisonné and crushed dark red garnets on ivory. Interlace designs and animal style Centerpiece contains four fighting animals intertwined. 9.20 Warrior entering Valhalla Viking culture 800-900 AD Gotland, Sweden Limestone relief, with runic inscription saying it was ?raised for his brother Hjoruv? Memorial At top is warrior Hjoruv riding Odin?s eight-legged horse into Valhalla A Valkyrie and her dog offer him horn. Lower, Viking ship full of warriors Refers to ship burials in Beowulf and that dead sail to afterlife Framed with interlace. 9.23 Lion symbol of St John, Book of Durrow. Hiberno-Saxon Culture 650- 700 AD From either Ireland or Eng Saint John Evangelist, as a lion surrounded by border filled with interlace Medieval manuscript illumination Lion made of red and green diamond shapes Illusion in the interlace 9.24. Tunc Crucifixerant, Book of Kells Late 8th or 9th century Hiberno-Saxon Letter T turns into animal dragon Interlacing Human figures Continues into border like other middle age styles To ?illuminate the word of God? Large Chi at bottom (X) Christ 9.29 St. John, Coronation Gospels Carolingian period, holy roman empire Late 8th century manuscript Codex discovered in Charlemagne's tomb Naturalism organic, medieval style 9.31 Christ in Majesty, Vivian Bible Carolingian period, holy roman empire 845-846 AD after Charlemagne?s death Vivian Christ with the four Evangelists Divergence from classical style Flatter space, figures are connected by geometric designs rather than landscape Compared with Charlemagne's manuscripts, more abstract and agitated/exaggerated. 9.32 from Utrecht Psalter Psalm 88 in prayer book 825-850 AD Reims, Northern France Carolingian period, holy roman empire Introduced new correspondence between word and image metaphorical meanings Psalm 88 has scenes from last judgment and crucifixion (top) (bottom) sufferings of earthly life soldiers in boats and killing enemies on castle Relates to psalm verses, in metaphorical images 9.35 to 9.39. St Michael?s church and doors The Ottonian Period (refers to three rulers named Otto who stabilized Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne?s death) Benedictine Abby Church of St. Michael?s at Hildesheim Commissioned by Bernward, the bishop 960-1022 AD Lower level is composed as an arcade, upper level is plain Remaining bronze doors Typology Old and New Testament Scenes Byzantine and Carolingian style ROMANESQUE ?Romanlike? 11th & 12th century Medieval art that characterize ancient roman arch. & style Round archs, stone vaults, thick walls, exterior relief and sculpt Churches, cathedrals, and monasteries 10.1 10.2 Stavelot Triptych Romanesque reliquary Commissioned in 1156- 1158 AD by Abbot Wibald Belgium Contains relics Christ?s Cross (True Cross) 6 Scenes of gold/enamel Wings framed by Corinthian columns and round arches Center: Constantine with his mother, two arch angels 4 saints Annunciation when closed Crucifixion when open Fragments of virgin?s dress, true cross, head of nail?etc. Three Constantine scenes on left Three Helena scenes on right His conversion to Christianity 10.4 Ste Foy reliquary Romanesque, Conques 10th-11th century Saint Faith martyr Martyred as child Saint?s relics, attraction for pilgrims, contained in this gold statue Head formed around his skull Antique mask Wooden core 10.3 -10.11 Ste Foy, Conques (all) There?s a church 10-50-1120 AD Nave, belfry, transept, and crossing. Dedicated to Ste Foy Latin Cross Basilica plan Radiating chapels Two social and temporal systems Cont? Stone barrel vaults Romanesque portals 10.23 from Sacramentary of Saint-Saveur Romanesque 11th cent Interlace on manuscript illuminates initial T Sacramentary of Saint-Saveur de Figeac Organic yet geometric 10.24 - 27 Autun, sculpture by Giselbertus Romanesque Giselbertus? capital decorated with a narrative scene: Flight into Egypt at Autun Cathedral 1130 AD in Burgundy Holy family fleeing King Herod All male children under 2 killed Disregard of gravity Continued? Romanesque Last Judgment Tympanum By Gislebertus at Autun 1120- 1135 AD Christ Surrounded by mandorla supported by four angels Saved are at his right, damned at his left Angel Michael weighs souls 10.36-38 Bayeux ?tapestry? Romanesque 1070-1080 AD Wool embroidered linen depicts Norman invasion of England 230 ft, 626 figures, 8 colors of wool probably commissioned by Bishop Odo Latin inscriptions William the Conqueror leading Normans Viking longboats GOTHIC Gothic cathedrals Middle to 12th century in France to 16th First used by Italians during Renaissance Refers to Germanic tribes who invaded Greece and Italy 11.1-11.3 Saint-Denis Gothic 1140 AD Abbot sugar made additions West Facade New Narthex and west facade with twin towers and three portals Semicircular ambulatory in the apse, lets public be separate from clergy using windows 11.5-11.8, 11.25, Chartres Gothic 13th century Cluster compound piers Colonnetts connect to ribs Flying buttresses More window light Stain-glass Guilds (carpenter?s guilds) West facade 1140-1150 AD Rose window Royal coats of arms of French kings North transept Tympanum Second coming of Christ Statues face viewer 11.10 Honnecourt, sketchbook Gothic 1225 AD Villard de Honnecourt Only surviving sketchbook 11.23 Antichrist, from Harley Ms Gothic 13th century Antichrist represented as 3-headed tyrant (Trilogy) From Harley Manuscript Hints Mongol Invasion 11.35, Reims, Annunciation and Visitation Gothic 1225- 1245 AD Doorjambs statues at Reims Cathedral Greatest number of exterior sculptures More naturalistic Face each other Drapery and human for it covers On left angel Gabriel and Mary enacting the Annunciation On right is the Visitation where Mary visits cousin Elizabeth 11.37, Scenes from Life of Saint Denis Gothic Architecture 14th century 1317 AD France Manuscript of the Life of Saint Denis 27 illuminations Late Gothic Vines relate to Christ?s ?I am a vine? In this one Saint Denis asks two others to write his biography He sits on a Lion throne (relates him to King Solomon) PRECURSORS OF RENAISSANCE 13th Century Italy Rebirth 12.1-2. Nicola Pisano, pulpit ?Nativity? Renaissance 1260 AD Marble pulpit Italy Baptistery and Nativity Roman Heritage in medieval Art Washing Jesus Mary is largest figure Drapery shows 3D organic movement 12. 3 Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned Renaissance 1280-1290 AD Tempera and wood Byzantine influence (long thin figures) monumental Mary?s Drapery Baby Jesus has man-like proportions Old Dispensation embodied by four prophets Throne no floor 12. 4 Giotto, Madonna Enthroned Renaissance 1310 AD Florence, only of Giotto's paintings attributed to him Relationship of space and form Throne on horizontal support and steps. Not thin figures, more bulky Drapes obey law of gravity, Has 3D space Baby-like features on Jesus 12.6 ? 13,19. Giotto, Arena Chapel. Renaissance 1305 AD Arena founded by Enrico Srovegni Simple, barrel-vaulted, rectangular, brick Interior FRESCO and enormous last judgment Annunciation and other frescos: Ex. Injustice ? Fresco, vice of justice Italian concern with government Justice personified as enthroned queen in Gothic set Holds Nike as did Athena in Parthenon Giotto kiss of Judas 12.14 Giotto, Stigmatization of St Francis Bardi Chapel Renaissance 1317 AD Fresco Saint Francis perused poverty in imitation of Christ in receiving stigmata Cubic At front so visitors immediately see 12.20-21 Lorenzetti, Good Government Renaissance Sienna, 1338 AD Effects of good gov?t Republican Fresco Like Giotto?s Justice, good gov?t Realism, women fashion, dance/sing, horseback, school, farming Floating figure meaning ?Security? She-wolf nurses Romulus and Remus 12.25 Martini, Annunciation Renaissance 1333 AD Florence Panel, gold leaf By Simone?s brother in law Gothic taste, elongated forms, s-shape body pose of Mary Angel Gabriel, Compared to Giotto?s Annunciation, Simone's has elaborate features, lilies show her purity, palm alludes death (crucifixion) impregnated by ear 12.29-30 Limbourg Brothers, Annunciation/January Renaissance 1413 AD France From manuscript Tres Riches Heures Mary interrupted by Gabriel Three lilies, in Gothic Chapel Impregnating rays of light January Day which gifts were exchanged at court of Berry Rich textures Duke at table, jean wears fur hat Battle in back Zodiac Akkadian, 2.17. Victory Stela, Naram Sin Akkadian (depicts nature) 2254 BC Stele from Susa Sargon I?s grandson Naram Horned cap of divinity Right side Mesopotamian belief of ruler Egyptian, 3.1 Palette of Narmer 3100 BC Egyptian Upper Egypt-white crown Lower Egypt-red crown Hathor heads Narmer- or Menes=first pharaoh 3.12 Pyramids of Khufu etc Giza, Egyptian 2550 BC Old Kingdom of 4th dynasty Great pyramid is for Khafre Open Mouth Ceremony Greek 5.9 Exekias, Achilles and Penthesilea Greek vase 525 BC 5.27 Polykleitos, Doryphoros Greek 440 BC By Polykleitos Classical canon Roman copy in marble ContraPosta stance S Parthenon GREEK Athens 447 BC East pediment- Athena's birth, Mt. Olympus, Doric Metopes-battle between Lapiths and Centaurs Ionic Frieze- Triglyphs 7.34 & 37 Column of Trajan ROMAN Trajan?s column 113 AD Narrative frieze 7.59 landscape with boats Roman Pompeii fresco 1st Century AD Third Style Fresco Weird oblique space Foreground and background Early Christian and Byzantine 8.22 Apse Mosaic Ravenna 547 AD Mosaic, beardless Christ, More conceptual than natural Córdoba Sutton Hoo Aachen Hildesheim Rome Bayeux Santiago de Compostela Chartres Conques Siena Florence Padua terms Cloisonné-multicolored surface with enamels poured into wired areas Beowulf- Valhalla- Stigmata-marks like wounds of jesus Polychrome-of several colors Relic- Guild-orgs of craftsmen Apocrypha- Gesso-white chalk coating Fresco- Giornata-a days work Altarpiece Predella-lower part of alterpiece small scened Triptych-alterpiece with one large panel two wings Sipapu-corn mother Kiva-ritual theater,
Want to see the other 58 page(s) in Art Hist FINAL EXAM study guide power point?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!