Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
-The Jonah Statuettes, c. 280-90. Early Christian.
-The story of Jonah: he is eaten by a whale, rested, then spit up.
-Idea of christian resurrection since he comes out of the whale (like Jesus).
-The figures are very classicalized. Marble.
-Painted ceiling with the Good Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah, Catacomb of SS. Peter and Marcellinus, Rome. Late 3rd—early 4th ct. Early Christian.
-We see the story with all of the same as the figurines. Jonah story shown, praying orant, and good shepherd. Good Shepherd is heading his sheep (not actually showing jesus, just representing him and his ideals). Wealthy Christians made this for decoration.
The Good Shepherd Mosaic, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, c. 425-26. Early Christian. -Gold glass composition with gold cross/stars. Raised central attic structure.
-Snowflake like designs, showing other-worldlyness. Now the good shepherd is christianized with cross and halo. No specific illusion to jesus, but his promises/ideals.
Scene in a Mosque, from The Maqamat of Al-Hariri, by al-Wasiti, 1237. Islamic.
-"Islamacate" art--> Histories, stories; textiles. Islamacate from book of stories with golden tongue.
-Devotional form: micrab (arch area) indicator of direction for prayer.
-Mosaic Mihrab (Prayer Niche), 1354. Islamic. The living creators are represented on it. Whole decoration is various forms of arabic writing and textile work. Involving iconography of word. --"Mosque is house of every pious person". Words create religious iconography. Arabic text: God's gift to islam. Architecture tells us a lot about it, micrab is marker of direction of prayer.
Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome,4th century. Early Christian. Very big/high, on a hill top. Central nave and side isles (for non-christians). Directional space: when entering you are directed to main altar. Apse: Arched area at far end, holiest part, Clerestory windows: at the top of the nave bringing light in emphasizing holiness. Transept: At right angle to rest of building. Whole building is a cross--christianized basilica
The Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria, c. 706-15. Islamic. Very large, ancient sight that has been built on. Courtyard: extremely important in mosque bc God is present everywhere. Quibla: covered space guiding you to mecca. Domes: exterior way to draw you to quibla wall. Arcades and walls decorade. Unfolds horizontally, micrab at far left
Mosaic from the courtyard wall, Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria, c. 706-15. Islamic. Gold ground mosaics used to ornament building. Shows architectural vistas with trees. Quaran descriptions of paradise. Muslim concept of paradise.
Church of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey, 532-37. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, architects. Byzantine. Very big dome. Walking east: series of directional domes to apse. Pendentive: spherical triangle enabling you to go from square to round, secure and stable base for dome. Cohesion of symbols of central dome added onto directional space (combo of styles). Use of light creates wonderful interior space (a LOT of windows). Open interior draws you to directional space.
Lindau Gospels Book Cover,
c. 870. Switzerland/Early Medieval. Shows us the kind of jeweled gospel covers been held in other artworks. Back cover: celtic interlace, practical because flatter. Front cover: 3D images, repoussé--gold beaten to create volume from chest, contrasts to metal work in halo. Clusters of gems on pedestials that catch light, also practical book holder. Clothed, alert figure---> fully mortal pain/fully divine.
Gero Crucifix, Cologne Cathedral, c. 970. Germany/Early Medieval. Painted oak, carved in form of crucified body, 6ft 2. Head of christ had compartment for host/communion bread--usage justified sculpture. New kind of object and immaculate claim. Emphasis on human mortal pain: head bower in, body arches away from cross, strain on his arms, diaphram is caving in. Fully human and fully mortal mystery.
The Bayeux Embroidery (detail), after 1066. England/Romanesque. Ribbon like proportions. Hand made item. Ribbon like narrative--like column of trajan unfurled. War scenes, Horrors of war shown (decapitation, dying bodies). Also inscriptions. Ambitious textile, largest surviving medieval textile.
Sainte Foy of Conques, mid 11th–early 12th century. France/Romanesque. Pilgrims church.
Exterior view: towers projecting transepts. strip buttresses as supports exterior/creates pattern. Cross shape with side isles, directional space. Interior view with stone vaulting consisting of barrel vaults with transverse ribs to ornament it and divide nave into 5 parts/create rhythm. Groin vaults base for strip buttresses. Form of church becoming more dynamic. Indirect lighting
The Last Judgment tympanum, Sainte-Foy of Conques, mid 11th–early12th century. France, Romanesque. Tympanum: monumental exterior structure, from western entrance portal with carvings of the last judgement. Left side: good people, "oh you sinners" Right side: bad people, unspeakable horrors. Center: good side v. bad side. Inscriptions--romaneque revival
Reims Cathedral, begun c. 1211. France/Gothic. Cornation church. Very high, high gothic, but so open in design: windows to create openness and arcades/flying buttresses for support. Covered with sculptures and stained glass along arcades. Stained glass within Reims by Chagall. Building makes a cross with the transept. Cross-ribbed vaults--linear design. Narrow nave, combined with height gives attenuated proportion.
Coronation of the Virgin gable sculpture, Reims Cathedral, c. 1240. France/Gothic. Below big window, rose window keeping eye ascending upward.
The Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, c. 1239-48. France/Gothic. Deeply saturated colors, so tall. Culmination in reliquary--place where relics were kept (crown of thorns). Scene of passion of christ with crown of thorns before crucifixion. Windows celebrating arrival of crown of thorns. Single isle, tall strip buttresses. Iron chain woven around church to hold windows together.
Jean Pucelle, Book of Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux (Betrayal and Annunciation scenes),
c. 1325-28. France/Gothic. Book of times you were praying. Illustration of sacred stories to show devotional importance of that hour. Scene of infancy juxtaposed with scene of passion --> beginning to end of life. Scene at ennunciation of mary. Controposto with passion. Grisaille: pen, touched with color. Less color so more restrained
Duccio, Maestà altarpiece, Siena Cathedral, 1308-11. Italy/Early Renaissance. Front, central portion. Softer Gradations. Under painting is greenish-->gave naturalistic cast to virgin face. Hand caresses child. The christ child shares gesture of virgin. Formal theological relation between mother and child. Full prayer on base-->combining duccio to virgin. Artist as the maker.
Giotto, fresco decoration of the Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, Padua, c. 1303. Italy/Early Renaissance. Place of annual feast: day of virgin. Many intricate Freskos. Alter wall: Mission of Gabriel and annunciation--God gives mission to gabrial--realistic/movement. Exit door: Last judgement, time thats passing will come to an end. Justice, vs. injustice, charity vs. envy.
Giotto, Lamentation, detail from the Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, Padua, c. 1303. Italy/Early. Renaissance. Biblical event after christ taken off cross, mourning of christ. Many reactions to his death by his mourners, all gestures repeated by angels in the sky. Set in little window spaces: as things take place in shallow stage spaces. Blown on pen to give life to scene. Most famous part was lower level: the level the person is on
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Court of Good Government, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338-40. Italy/Early Renaissance. Personifications of Justice: old ruler. Injustice is subjugated to tyranny.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Effects of Good Government in the City and Countryside, palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338-40. Italy/Early Renaissance. Good government side: populated by all kinds of people, harvesting, details of life, peaceful/prosperous city. Happy hunters. Bad government: buildings are falling apart. Scenes of rape and robbery. Gate is barely opening to military figure
Limbourg Brothers, Très Riches Heurs of the Duc de Berry, calendar page for February, 1411-16. France/Northern Renaissance. Activities of the month. February: winter scene, cold, people warming themselves in barn, being cold vs. getting warm. Realism.
Jan van Eyck, Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife, 1434. Flanders/Northern Renaissance. Exploitation of different potential of Oil Paint. You can vary opaqueness, layering (dogs fur). Painter as witness, coming in the door. Fancy script shows legal notery. Devotional painting: looks like bedroom but wooden shoes have been removed as you would in special chamber. Rosery beads, whisk broom, eye of god, chamber of your soul. Strange faces: inscrutable, not praying but meditative, reflecting inward.
Jan van Eyck, Madonna of Canon van der Paele, 1436. Flanders/Northern Renaissance. Donor painting. Representation of viewing madonna (paradise garden on cloth). Armor of Saint who presents to madonna-> Little image of painter. Madonna reflected in crown of saint-> cue to idea that looking at transcription of reflection. Reflecting inwars
Rogier van der Weyden. Deposition, c. 1435. Flanders/Northern Renaissance. Alter-piece. Up close to you, both illusionally and physically. Vibrant colors. Guilded tracery, cross bow motif. Relates instruments of daily life to those of religion. Brings features to life. Focus to life from bronze. Colorostic cues, echo of christ with body of mary. Bod of body mickicked by mary. Virgin, pure white hand compared to wounded hand of christ. Literal flow of blood from figure.
Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin,
Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence,
c. 1425. Italy/Early Renaissance. Representation of skeleton in tomb: mementori, reminder of death. Skeleton speaks to you: contemplate death. Image of God generated. Illusion/linear perspective. Also vanish point perspective.
Benozzo Gozzoli, Journey of the Magi, Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Florence, c. 1459.
Italy/Early Renaissance. Representation of magi procession. About to enter into sacred space. Beginning of procession --> Each section, each magi represents different parts of world, different ages. Portrait of painter, he is looking out of painting. Political narrative.
Filippo Brunelleschi (architect), Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, begun 1420s. Italy/Early Renaissance. Mural architecture. Basic format=central nave with nave arcade and isles. New: architecture is cleaned up and regularized--planned with regular cubic units. Brunelleschi looks to other Florence churches for inspiration, continuity of tradition
Leon Battista Alberti (architect), Church of Sant’ Andrea, Mantua, begun 1470s. Italy/Early Renaissance. Temple like because: Proportionally similar to solomonic temple form bible, and roman architectural forms (open air chapel on top of church--real sense of the connection between public space and church. Uses various revised Roman architectural forms (triumphal arch, 4 corinthian columns). Inside has great barrel vaulted nave/chapels.
Botticelli, Primavera, c. 1478. Italy/Early Renaissance. Tempura on panel. Center of painting: depiction of venus, Goddess of the garden, taking the place of Mary. Mercury, graces, venus, cupid, flora, floris. Represents early springtime. Venus is an inviting and generative figure. A narrative painting thats showing idea of generation in the spring time.
Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504. Germany/Northern Renaissance. Technique of engraving onto a copper plate, fill ink in line sthen transfer onto paper. Looking back to Mantegna's work (lines of the chisel are course and parallel on stomach, flesh looks hard. Durer: showing off his skill, flesh is softer and more life-like. He is competing with Mantegna.
Leonardo da Vinci,
Madonna and Child with Saint Anne and John the Baptist, c. 1500.
Italy/High Renaissance. Madonna is shown in a twisting pose--> serpentine figure. A kind of 3 dimensional contrapposto.
Michelangelo, Pietà, 1498. Italy/High Renaissance. Not a biblical event but icon of virgin holding body of christ. Type of image with firm legacy. Faces of christ and virgin are idealized, less focus on pain-->emphasis no longer of immediate presence of passion, encouraged by idealization to evaluate figures. Name on sash of virgin. Pictorial language. New kind of devotional image.
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Vatican, 1508-12. Italy/High Renaissance. Builds new illusionistic architecture, all in painting. Transformed from archaic to roman-like. Ancestors of christ: jacob, joseph, handed down, jewish people are trapped. Libyan sibyl: forecast of coming of christ, twisting/turning figures. Ignudo: nudes on top of pedestals, idealized body. Drunkenness of Noah: fall of man.
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Vatican, detail, Creation of Adam, 1508-12. Italy/High Renaissance.Shows Michelangelo looking at compositions of early christian frescos but updates it with roman sculptures: belvedere torso updates christian fresco. Light motif, story of creation of perfect man.
Raphael, School of Athens, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, 1510-11. Italy/High Renaissance. Library as place for display. 4 branches of learning: philosophy, poetry, law and theology. Humanus circles trying to recover ancient writings. A lot of activity in Rome about revival of learning. Aristotle (ethics) plato (contemplative branch)--groups around them. Light and lively style.
Titian, Assumption of the Virgin,
Church of Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice, 1518. Italy/Venetian Renaissance. Venetian coloristic mode. High altarpiece as focal point. Heavenly sphere, earthly ground--coloristic joining of the 2. Ascent of virgin, twisting position. Virgin face: shading, curiosscuro and coloristic. Red is keynote color--celestial and terrestrial realm.
Michelangelo, Last Judgment,
Sistine Chapel altar wall,
Vatican, 1534-41. Italy/Late Renaissance. Center of christianity. Christ into Heroic apollo figure generating movement. Damned and saved-->Vortex of movement of tortured/saved bodies. Criticized for overuse of nude. Includes mythological figures to embellish narrative.
Codex Selden, c. 1000. Mesoamerica/Mixtec. Narrative: linear, detailed events. Cyclical: looking at overall picture and how things relate to each other. Symbols all mean things. 6 monkey's story: female ruler, was insulted so sought revenge. Pedestals represent places. Speech scroll talking.
Sun Gate at Tiwanaku, Bolivia, c. 500 CE. Central Andes/Wari. 1 single piece of stone, 12ft high. Low relief carving. 1 figure more important in the middle--> Standing on stepped platform, holding staffs in either hand, wearing tunic, inlaid eyesm illuminations ocming from head (rays). Profile figures-->Men/birds/pumas. Changing into animals.
Stepped Fret Tunic with Anomalies, c. 600 CE. Central Andes/Wari. Began from people turning into birds. Artist abstracts the piece. 480 frets. 2 anomalies. Bright green spot and 1 bird head on bottom. One of the rules is to break the rules. Important to throw things in that are completely opposite. They have order but break it. Just like a state: create order out of chaos.
Templo Mayor. Tenochtitlan, c. 1500 CE (reconstruction drawing). Mesoamerica/Aztec (Mexica). City on an island in middle of lake. Considered uncivilized so punished by Spanish. Sacred place in the middle of town. Astronomical orientation. Temple marked equinox(sunrise over temple). 2 opposite colors. Sun between two parts. Tallest pyramid in town. Underneath architecture: underworld.
The “Calendar” Stone, c. 1500 CE. Mesoamerica/Aztec (Mexica). Motecuhzoma II commissioned (and is represented by crown on piece). Cylindric. Names based on birth dates. Ritual calender of 260 days. Rays of sun/cardinal direction. Apocalypse: Will happen if people stop getting sacrificed. People were sacrificed on it. Tongue is flint knife, tallens w/ claws. Sun/sacrifice keeps sky going--movement principle.
Throne of Motecuhzoma II,
c. 1500 CE. Mesoamerica/ Aztec (Mexica). Looks like mini temple. Holders for human hearts from sacrifice. Sun with movement glif-> Carrying the sun. Motecuhzoma II putting himself up as a god, like patron God. Mexican flag: eagle on cactus eating heart. Cactus coming out of devouring earth
Machu Picchu Observatory, Peru,
c. 1500 CE. Central Andes/Inka. Where first king came for vacation. Orchids, butterflies, rainbows, but a city. Ceremonies take place here. Windows for each solstice where light lines up with rock. Embracing wall, huge boulder. Shows they're close to nature but also controlling it. Room inside made by people. Waterfall of fitted stones insertion of selves.
“Sacred Rock,” Machu Picchu, Peru, c. 1500 CE. Central Andes/Inka. Wall around it, 2 areas and plaza around it. Created out door viewing area for rock, to see mountain behind it. Dialogue between living mountain and created rock mountain. Controlling peoples' focus to power of nature. Claiming power of nature. Did they modify rock or was it like that?
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!