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Erechtheion and Porch of the Maidens. Classical, 421-405 BCE. On top of Acropolis. 6 caryatid (woman) columns. Temple marks location of contest between Poseidon and Athena to be patron of Athens (Athena produces olive tree which they want). Back corner of porch-location of original olive tree. Ionic order and female column (ionic buildings more feminine). Erectheion is ionic temple (slender columns, decorative detail, scroll shapes).
c. 330 BCE. Marble Roman copy. Hermes is holding baby Dionysus (god of wine). Hermes is godlike but humanized (not very imposing figure, looking serenely down at Dionysus). Must have had some sign with it because most people would not have assumed that it was a god.
Ludovisi Gaul/Gaul and His Wife, 2nd century AD, original from Hellenistic, c. 230 BCE. Victory monument of Attalos I (ruled Pergamon). Gauls defeated. He killed wife and he is killing himself. Where knife is already piercing his skin-blood on his chest. Instead of being captured, rather kill wife and himself. Element of respect for Gauls (worthy enemies). Interest in showing that they aren't Greek: wife has short, choppy, unkempt hair and is wearing dress that is culturally specific; Gaul has mustache; must look from different perspectives to see details.
Athena Fighting Alcyoneus. Great Altar, c. 175 BCE, marble. Athena in center with shield, helmet of war. Balance to scene, displacement of weight. She is gripping figure to the left and lifting him off the ground. Ge, earth, is giant's mother and pulling onto Athena--this giant gets power from connection earth (since his mother is earth). Snakes everywhere, one is biting giant (snakes were connected to Athena). Look of fear on giant's face. Victory (Nike) flies in about to crown Athena. Graceful as she fights.
Apollonius/Seated Boxer, Rome, c. 100 BCE. Roman Republic. Hellenistic. Sitting, exhausted, wearing leather straps on hands (hands hurt from boxing). Has facial hair (not young boy without hair). Made from bronze, original survived (not Roman copy). Cut on face, in pain. Cauliflower ear from getting hit repeatedly. Looking up, maybe at man who defeated him. Epitomizes Hellenestic period: familiar theme of athlete in hyper dramatic way. Lost wax casting. Would be inlaid eyes. Muscular but defeated. Posture.
Statue of Augustus of Primaporta (and Cuirass). Italy, late 1st BCE/early 1st CE. Early Roman Empire. Started in wartime then peace. Found in wife's villa. Probably made after death (barefoot: symbol of emperor deified after death). Copy of bronze. Bad reputation in beginning, but then there's peace. Emphasized Caesar's lineage to Aphrodite (Cupid on dolphin). Oratory stance. Away from verism (this is idealized). Cuirass: breastplate; would be painted, ceremonial, images of diff. gods (sun, moon, earth), Tiberius negotiating with man with staff--peace. Retrieving Roman standard from Parthians. Godlike, recall Greeks. Canon proportions (Doryphoros).
Ara Pacis, Roman Empire, Rome, 13-9 BCE. "Altar of Peace." Flora elements: acanthus leaf. Romulus and Remus: story of brothers cast out, raised by she-wolf, then founded Rome; depicts Jupiter speaking to brothers; Augustus references beginning of Rome. Sacrifices made in middle of altar. Meander around exterior.
House of the Vettii, Pompeii, 2nd c. BCE/rebuilt 62-79 BCE. Example of non religious/governmental archit. Many houses faced street directly and had atrium area with impluvium (caught water in basin, underneath is porous rock, cistern, water was filtered). Owned by two brothers, probably free men who made fortune in trade. Built to be most lavish, patrician-style home possible. Red paint was very expensive, red in murals=wealth. Floor plan shows two impluviums, Greek-style garden, private interior lounge space.
House of the Faun, Pompeii, 2nd century BCE. Occupied entire city lot. Where Mosaic of Alexander the Great was found. Hellenestic statue found in middle of pool of faun. See atriums, pools: many ways to catch water in architecture. Had kitchens and private baths which were very luxurious (people used public baths usually). Statue of faun in fountain.
Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii, c. 60-50 BCE. Lots of red: wealthy home. Depicting Mysteries of Dionysus: Cult of Dionysus was women's cult, women worshipped him and were initiated, banned because women went off and got drunk, weren't "civil". On first wall, woman on far left wears garment associated with marriage, then see her progressing (starts to look afraid, more menacing, interaction with gods).
Colosseum, Flavian Amphitheater. Rome, c. 70-80 CE. Built where Nero's palace was--drained lake. Coliseum reference to colossal statue of Nero that existed nearby. Place for public entertainment: gladitorial games (Etruscan invention), killed Christians, naval battles. Held 55,000 spectators max, organized. Underneath, honeycomb of rooms with levers, pulleys. Doric to ionic to Corinthian, with sculptures in holes. System to create shade: poles at top with sheets. Bread and circus.
Arch of Titus. 81-96 CE. Flavian. Early Empire. Built to celebrate victory over Jews. Originally bronze sculpture of Titus with his chariot-similar to how Jupiter represented victory
Baths of Caracalla. 211-217 CE. Roman Empire. Caracalla was emperor. Many emperors built baths to gain popularity from Roman people. Over 900 baths in Empire (this is one of the largest ones). Individual baths broken up in linear fashion. In interior is pools, tracks.Romans created concrete. Began to use this for building. Added exterior layer of brick for stability. Baths had ranges of temperatures (furnaces to heat baths). Men and women had separate bathing areas, possibly separate bathing times.
Pantheon. 118-136 CE. Concrete/brick exterior. "Coming from the gods." Hadrian was emperor . Buil. inscripted. Many constr. attempts. Dome ceiling: oculus (hole in top, light hit in diff. ways, rain/snow came down (draining system), drew eye up/to detail. Trad. roman temples: pediment, porch, podium; first to merge with rotunda (with marble). Floor: colors and stones=wealth/intell. Coffered dome ceiling--gateway to heavens, sacred. Ppl worshipped inside (unusual). Used as Senate meeting place (church and state).
Forum of Julius Caesar. 51 BCE. Fora (forum plural). Used as meeting places, for political events. He bought land at his own expense. Given as a gift back to Rome. Constructed a temple for himself in the temple. Also had statue of his favorite horse outside temple. Before Senate meeting, they had to recognize his connection to the gods (some people were not fans of this).
Forum of Pompeii. Not designed in same way as Forum of Julius Caesar. Political, civic meeting place.
Forum of Augustus. 42 BCE-2 BCE. Roman Empire. Built at opposite end of Forum of Julius Caesar. Made up of shops and business offices. Mini oculus.
Temple of Mars Ultor (Roman god of war). 2 BCE. Rome. Roman Empire. Built to avenge Julius Caesar's death. Commemorated Augustus' victory in 42 BCE at Battle of Philippi over assassins of Julius Caesar.
Forum of Trajan. Rome. 106-112 CE. Concrete/brick overlay. Trajan (97-117) conquered Mesopotamia, other territory. Made Dasia (Romania) Roman province. 101-102, 103-105: wars in Dasia. Winnings used for Forum. 2 libraries, column statue of Trajan at top (his gravesite)--first time person buried in public place--needed approval. Document details of war from Trajan's book. Romans on horses (others not, being defeated, simpler clothes). Used for gov. purposes, slave trials, trade, daily life. Altars to unknown gods.
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus. Rome. 250-260 CE. Late in empire, shift in burial practices (cremation to sarcophagus). Shows insanity of people in gatherings. Romans fighting group of barbarians. Movement away from Classical ideals. Figure in center stands out, was general, brave with arm out, probably man in sarcophagus. Rides fearlessly into battle. High relief carvings.
Porphyry Tetrarchs. Venice. 305 CE. Found today in St. Marks Square, Venice; originally found in Istanbul, taken in 13th cen. by Crusaders. Would've been in eastern capital of Rome (Roman Empire split into system of 2 caesars/2 dictators--western Rome and Byzantium). Depicts 2 caesars and 2 dictators. Dictator is on left with beard/age, on right is caesar without beard (work together--trust). Less muscular, attention to body. Military dress. Unhappy--frowns. System of succession broke down around time this was made.
Arch of Constantine. Rome. 312-315 CE. Diocletian's successor Constantine (dictator in west) conquered whole empire, overthrew Maxentius in Rome in 312 CE. Constantine marked victory through arch. Triple arch--very large. Frieze all around top, depicts various things, especially wars fought to become emperor. Used different aspects of Roman monuments stuck on arch (links himself to previous leaders); attic section with reliefs and works from Trajan of wars.
Arch of Constantine. 312-315 CE. Siege of Verona. Constantine and troops attack Verona. Probably carved by same people carving sarcophagi. Constantine would have been standing at very back, watching over, with Victory holding wreath over him showing that he has already won battle. More simplified than on Column of Trajan.
Catacomb of Priscilla. Rome. 200-400 CE. Not much Christian art until c. 300. Catacomb: network of subterranean passageways carved into rock under ancient cities (Rome's rock bed was tufa-good for carving, porous); 60-90 miles of Roman era catacombs . Made up of chambers, passageways, bodies. Over 4 million buried over years. Raided for relics. Built otuside of cities. Catacomb of Priscilla started for her family, grew. Greek chapel: sarcophagi for wealthier people, frescos like marble, oldest part of catacomb.
Orant panel. Early Christian painting didn't focus on Crucifixion or darker elements of Christianity. Orant pose: arms out, probably buried there. She is in three stages of her life. Left: marriage, Right: sitting on birthing stool, Center: orant pose is early depiction of prayer (depicting her in death).
Good Shepherd Fresco. Shows one of two ways Christ was depcited (good shepherd, teacher). Carrying goat on shoudlers. Like image of Roman calf-bearer (worshipper of Athena). Young, beardless Christ looks like Roman god. Christ cares for flock, animals or human. Catacombs fall into disuse in 312 when Christianity is accepted.
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. Rome. c. 200-400. Roman who converted to Christianity, buried instead of cremated. 2 registers of 5 images from new testament/5 from old (Adam+Eve, Abraham +Isaac, Christ to Jerusalem on donkey, Christ as teacher). Christ like greek god, no beard/curly hair. Personify sky in image--remnants of old beliefs--paganism. Grapevines in scenes (before Dionysus, now Eucharist). Crude images on side, carved schematically, not seen since tomb fit into niche.
Old St. Peter's. Rome. 4th century CE. Constantine wanted to commemorate Christianity, built church over spot where St. Peter would have been buried. Know what it looked like from coins minted at time. Early Christian architecture: churches needed space for congregation, forms based from Roman basilica. Held 3,000-4,000 people. Wide central nave, 1-2 aisles, led to apse, sometimes transepts, narthex (front porch), atrium (central courtyard), exterior was plain brick and interior covered in mosaics and frescos.
Santa Sabina. Rome. c. 422-432 CE. Apse at end with altar, exterior of brick, clerestory windows (let light in), about 100 years after St. Peter's. Inspired by St. peter's. No trancept. Corinthian columns. Would have had oil lamps, other types of illumination, so that frescos could be seen.
Santa Costanza. Early Christian World. Rome. 4th Century CE. Brick exterior. Where Sarcophagus of Constantine's daughter Costanza was. Round church (different). Based on Tholos burial tombs of Mycenaeans, looking at Pantheon. Round: mausoleum, baptistry, private chapel. Portrait of Costanza in mosaic. Grapevines. Cherub-like figures harvesting grapes, taking them to crush and turn into wine. Reaching back to iconography/symbolism of Rome (cherubs, grapes).
Vienna Genesis. Early Christian Luxury Art. Vienna. 6th Century CE. Richly illustrated text. Bible scenes. Is a book, pages from velum (animal hide)--needed to slaughter many animals--very expensive. Handmade. Was originally dyed purple (color of royalty). Made for royal patron. Test would have been silver. Rebecca and Eliezer: narrative telling of when Eliezer finds Rebecca for Isaac. Culture on cusp of classical antiquity: aerial view, white structure, walking along streets with columns.
Vienna Genesis. Vienna. 6th century CE. Jacob Wrestling Angel. Followed by people, cross river, with 2 wives. Comes upon man who he wrestles. Asks angel to bless him, see angel bless him. Scene of transformation. No sense of distance with figures--looked at reliefs.
Priestress Celebrating the Rites of Bacchus. Early Christian Luxury Arts. Vienna. c. 400 CE. Ivory. After 391 when Pagan cults were banned. Know name of patriction family who commissioned it. Some people held on to old traditions (art related to old pagan rites consciously referenced classical style art--emphasize link to past).
Hippodrome Obelisk of Theodosius I. Byzantine Era. Constantinople. 390 CE. Constantine moved center of Roman empire to the east. Rome started to crumble after Constantine came to power--fell into eastern and western empire. West fell in 1453. Important rulers: Constantine, Theodosius--makes Chistianity official religion, Justinian--makes Christianity only religion, Orthodox Christian Church (and wife Theodora). Early Byzantine Era ends 565. Obelisk from Karnak. Image of Theodosius at center--like Constantine on the Rostra. Hierarchy of people depicted--movement, definition. People standing lower move more (lower status moves). Static people are higher status.
Hagia Sophia. Byzantine Era. Constantinople. c. 532-537 CE. Under Justinian, generals took over parts of Italy and remade empire--building programs. Minarets, buttresses, outbuildings would not originally be there. "Christ of Holy Wisdom." Builders: Anthemius of Tralles, Isidore of Miletus. Plain exterior. Largest collection of relics in ancient world. Like basilica--longitudinal axis, side aisles, second story. Dome in center is new concept. Domed basilica--first time this was done. Dome appears to float, 40 windows in base--32 lines with gold, other 8 lined in silver. Dome is 180 feet diameter. Dome rebuilt, first dome collapsed in 558. Resting on multiple architectural elements that diffuse weight (4 piers, arches connecting piers, no squinches--there are pendentive (strong yet elastic). Floor is colored marble. Top is mosaic. All figurative mosaics covered up when it became a mosque.
San Vitale. Byzantine Era. Ravenna. c. 526-547 CE. Ravenna had become last stronghold of western Roman empire--had been important religious city. Belisarius sent off to take back Ravenna, and it becomes part of Byzantine Empire. San Vitale dedicated to Saint Vitalis in 547. Octagonal church. Centralized plan. Since assocated with martyr, has different, round shape. External octagon, internal octagon, 2 stories inside, ambulatory (second level). Mosaics. Women on top floor. Interior covered in marble.
San Vitale. Byzantine Era. Ravenna. 526-547 CE. Apse Mosaic. In half dome. Christ seated on globe in center. 4 rivers in paradise. Last judgment scene. On either side is angels and 2 figures flanking them. St. Vitale on the left, Christ holding out laurel wreath (2nd century martyr). Comes around to mosaic of emperor Justinian on the left (christ offering wreath to emperor). On right, man in contemporary dress, holding church (Bishop Eclessias--original builder). He is offering building to Christ.
Justinian Panel. Mosaic of Justinian. Next to him is Maximadnus (Bishop of San Vitale). Look at feet to see who is at foreground (emperor usually at front). Bishop standing more foreward than emperor--shows importance of bishop. Emperor with retinue--clerics, political figures, royal guard. He holds bowl: liturgical paten (used to hold bread for Eucharist). No clear indication of space--gold background (holy space). Nymbus (halo) generally reserved for holy figures.
Theodora Panel. She is standing in architectural space--narthex (porch, now lost). She is processing in, guard opens curtain. She is depicted as royal and holy (purple gown with halo), she is holding chalice. At the bottom of her dress is 3 figures (3 magi who brought gifts to baby Jesus). Inclusion of her in this space shows her importance and power.
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child Between Saints Theodore and George. St. Catherine's Monastery, Egypt. 6th or 7th c. CE (early Byzantine). Icons: way people reach out to god. Icon is painting of a sacred figure that is activated by veneration. Making physical/spiritual connection and figure hears you. Icons used not just for worship, but teaching tools and confession, miracles, funerals--omnipresent. Two angels behind virgin. Would be made on wood board and painted with encaustic (pigment that is wax-based--luminous, reflects light, dries quickly). Angels look up into shaft of light, hand at very top--hand of god. Background very limited--figures are important. Solemn figures. Eyes are emphasized (eye contact part of activation). Some Greco-Roman elements show up in Mary's face. She looks off to side, Hellenistic trait. Looks more like individual than type, has strong features. Older traditions seeping in. People pointed blame at icons for political disintegration. Icons destroyed (almost none left). Many icons at St. Catherine's, became cut off from rest of Byzantine wrold when Islamic armies came through. Iconoclasm (anti-icons).
Kaaba. Mecca. 631-632. Square building. Made of stone. Inside is covered in lush marble and built on former religious spot. Tradition says Abraham built kaaba with Ismael. Embedded is black ancient stone (thought to be meteorite, from time of Adam and Eve). During the hajj, Muslims make pilgrimage in act of prayer and circumabulate around kaaba. Muslims orient to Mecca, and the Kaaba, during prayer. Was like a treasury at one point. Fabric is sign of importance of place.
Dome of the Rock. Umayyad, Jerusalem. Late 7th century. In 638, Muslim armies took Jerusalem from Byzantine empire. Site where Mohamad ascended into the heavens. That belief wasn't very widespread until 200-300 years after. Site of Solomon's Temple, which was destroyed in 70 CE by Romans. Dramatically different from exterior of Christian church. Mosaic inside. In center unter dome is exposed rock where Mohamad ascended. Many crown forms. Could have been meant to reference kaaba, if kaaba was where crowns of people conquered. Like another kaaba, brought treasures conquered people. Copies of important places is common concept--people couldn't travel much. Not afraid to copy existing styles--draw from local examples (round shape from local church--Church of Holy Sepulchre which has rotunda. Mosaics but no people/animals.
ASPECTS OF MOSQUES
*Qibla wall: wall that has mihrab.
*Mihrab: niche in qibla wall, orientation toward kaaba. Thought to be void left of Mohamad.
*Minbar: pulpit where imam preaches.
*Minaret: towers where muezzins climb to top 5 times a day and call out prayer
*Muezzin: person praying
*Maqsurah: section for elite, screened off. Screens very elaborate.
Great Mosque. Damascus. 705-715. Built by Umayyads. Meant to be new mosque for great capital. Umayyads moved capital to Damascus in Syria. Formerly Roman religious site. Christian church on site when selected to be site of mosque. Took inspiration from early Christian architecture: arches, colonnades, columns, pediment. Early Islamic architecture is malleable, but have no images. Aniconic: no images of people or animals--plants are okay. Lush landscapes shown in detailed mosaic--depiction of Paradise.
Great Mosque. Umayyad. Cordoba, Spain. c. 785-786 CE. First Muslim ruler of Spain commisions church to be built in Cordoba: exterior courtyard, colonnades, columns, Roman influence. Umayyad prince built this. Started with simple building: courtyard, hypostyle hall, qibla wall, mihrab. Mosque continued to expand. 36 piers, 546 columns. No clear focal point. Need to work to find mihrab, qibla wall--act of working for worship. Visigoths known for horseshoe arch (doesn't stop at half-circle). Scalloped arches (later influence). Hypsotyle hall. Minimal horseshoe arches, double arches. Sourced local materials. Voussoirts are blocks (individual component of arch), alternate white and red.
Great Mosque at Samarra. Iraq. Abassid. 848-852 CE. Only requirement for mosque is it has prayer area. Made from mudrock. Huge open spaces in middle. Minaret that is 3 levels high in middle, where muezzin would climb 5 times a day.
Pyxis of al-Mughira. Iraq. Umayyad Dynasty. 968 CE. Made of ivory and carved throughs crimshaw, which was luxurious and logical material (easy to carve, lustrous). For cosmetics or perfume. Given to prince al-Mughira on his 18th birthday. Princely iconography: 2 men on horseback (royal poetry), 2 figures and musician-1 figure is Umayyad khalif with ball and septer and other is Abassid king. Made for allies of Umayyad leaders.
Golden Haggadah. Late Medieval Spain. c. 1320. For Passover. Used as a guide. Plagues of Egypt: see how wealthy owners of haggadah were (lots of gold). Lots of work went into this--handmade. Book had 56 total miniatures. Was used (wine stains, smudges). Aniconic-don't use images for holy worship, but here used for education not religion. Glimpse into medieval Spanish Jewish life, shows wealth of community, see how they drew influence from many cultures. Faces in style of Christian manuscripts. Scenes of Liberation. Jews leaving Egypt. Starts off with first plague, then Jews crossing Red Sea and Egyptians chasing them (shown with contemporary army elements). Preparation for Passover. See people getting matzah, Miriam holding book with motif (Islamic iconography). People slaughtering sheep and getting rid of bread.
Alhambra, Granada, Spain, Nasrid Dynasty, 1354-1391 CE. Nasrids didn't have much land or sway but built this palace. Built during last Muslim dynasty (1232-1492). Mile long perimeter wall. 30 towers. Prepared for defense. Complex connected by gardens, gates. Residence for wealthy family. In middle of living space is courtyard with basin supported by 12 lions. Ornate architecture. Fountain connected to different parts of building through 4 trophs. Water very important in Muslim culture. In private scene, fauna is okay. Parts of complex: home for ruler/family, barracks for guard, medina where court officials lived/worked
Alhambra, Granada, Spain, Nasrid Dynasty, 1354-1391 CE. Hall of the Sisers. Inside Palace of the Lions. Residential apartment on second floor. Detailed decorations on ceiling. Fountain with complex hydraulic system (marble basin, water channel)
Superimposed Elephant and Two Giraffes, Fezzan Region, Libya, Saharan Rock Art, after 8000 BCE. Earliest examples of art in Sahara are Saharan rock art. Different types of animals that used to live in Sahara but are savannah animals: elephant and two giraffes. Cut into rock. Images of animals, people, dances. Most rock art found in Libya and Algeria. "Large Wild Fauna Style." Hundreds in region. By depicting these animals, trying to change living animals themselves, increase their control.
Figure with Masklike Head and Horned Female FIgure, Tassili N'Ajjer Region, Algeria, 8000-6000 BCE. Saharan Rock Art. Cave paintings. On left is horned woman covered in spots on body (body scarrification--done during initiation practices, made incision and rubbed irritant so that it healed raised). Earliest art was on the body. On the right is a mask (early example of masquerade).
Great Zimbabwe, Shona peoples, c. 1000-1400 CE. Early example of royal architecture. Near gold-producing region, inland. Greatest early fortified settlements in southern Africa. Shona are cultural group from Zimbabwe. May have been palace, judicial center. Zimbabwe means "court" in shona. Walls made of granite. Conical tower: exterior wall that encompasses ruin, between 20-30 feet high, turrets and monoliths (may have been grainery). May have been place of protection. Cattle very important (people could bring cattle here). Stone wall 7 m high. Shona came from Sahara.
Great Zimbabwe, Shona peoples, c. 1000-1400 CE. Dual chevron pattern lining walls. Chevrons make us think this building is royal. Chevron looks like eagles flying and Shona rulers are associated with eagles. Kings live above everyone else overlooking sacred spaces, eagles perch in trees above sacred pools and live up high. Eagles fly and can touch earth and heavens, thought to intercede with gods. Rulers have priestly status and have ability to connect with ancestors. Eagles can bring rain, Shona rulers are tasked with bringing rain. Little knowledge on Great Zimbabwe, abandoned after 1600 and no written records. Built entirely in curves (advanced stone masonry).
Great Mosque of Djenne, Mali, founded c. 1200 CE, rebuilt 1906-1907. Entire structure made of adobe (mud). Djenne founded around 800 CE, by 1200s was major center of Islamic learning. Originally built under first Muslim sultan in Djenne (26th ruler of Djenne: Koi Konoboro). By 16th century, was big enough for half of population of Djenne to worship inside. French traders came, French colonial powers took over Mali, building became symbol of cultural patrimony for people of Djenne, and administrative building for French. French level and rebuild it in 1906-1907, has maintained similar form. UNESCO World Heritage Site (have to maintain building). Mali has rainy season. Yearly plastering of Great Mosque: little boys add sand, dung to mud and older men use ladder to climb up building facade, smear mud all over exterior to replaster. Wooden beams are decorative/functional (men plastering front climb on beams to get higher up). Local tradition infused in Muslim building: ostrich eggs on top of spires (ostrich egg is symbol of fertility, purity). Monday Market: Center of town. Every Monday, everyone comes to trade. Most activity in town.
Wall Plaque from Oba's palace, Edo period, Benin (Nigeria), 16th century CE. Drawing of city. Benin city was major urban center. Birds in picture found later. Until late 19th century, kingdom of Benin was biggest power (inland, but near rivers, traded what they got from interior). 1896: British traders wanted to increase trade, came into city during sacred time, Benins killed them, British mounted Punitive Expedition in response (killed a bunch, deposed king, stole goods from palace).
Lost wax casting: make clay core, layer on wax which is where you create image (incise, add elements), add channels that lead to wax, covered in successive layers of cay, heat, pour wax out, through channels, pour in molten brass, break away clay and left with hollow brass.
Plaque: Equestrian Oba with Attendants. 16th-17th century. Palace of Benin (Nigeria). Courtyards held up with pillars, decorated by plaques. Plaques told history of kingdom, specific order. Over 900 plaques found. Most common themes are oba (king) with attendants, depictions of Europeans (mostly Portuguese). Hierarchic scale-oba is larger. Oba wears certain traditional regalia: collar (coral beads-Benin traded with Portuguese). Never women. Floral motifs taken from Portuguese Christian arts. Riding a horse (introduced in 1504), became status symbol--usually for rulers. Attendants shade oba from the sun.
Plaque: Portuguese. 16th-17th century. Palace of Benin (Nigeria). Long, narrow noses, odd hats, beards.
Veranda post of enthroned king and senior wife (opo opoga), made by Olowe of Ise, Yoruba, c. 1910-1914. Veranda post from Palace at Ikere. Yoruba live in west part of Nigeria, near Benin-king also called oba. Oba lived in palace and wasn't supposed to leave-palace was called afin (center of empire). Palaces decorated with 2 well-known objects: palace doors, veranda posts. Multiple verandas in each courtyard. Verandas help up by posts. Image of oba and chief wife. Oba is seated (status), feet don't touch the ground because he is holy. Wife is support, different than Benin because there is a depiction of women and they prop up society. Women in Yoruba valued for knowledge about bringing life into world--spiritual power since they can create life. Yoruba have masquerade for post-menopausal women (Gelede), have the knowledge of men AND women. King is focal point but he is not ruling alone, main wife behind and secondary wife in front, god Esu (trickster figure--supports king, frequently depicted with him). Columns show power of king, history of kingdom, royal lineage of king.
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