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2. Greater trochanter
3. Linea aspera (down back of femur)
-proximal, middle (not big toe), distal
-1st (big toe) -5th (small toe)
extends the thigh at the hip
1.) long head- inferior margin of glenoid
2.)medial head- posterior humerous
3.)lateral head lateral humerous
PA- Greater trochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera
DA- tibial tuberosity
I- femoral nerve
A: Extends knee
O: Anterior inferior iliac spine
A: assists with flexion of femur (hip flexor)
**only quad with origin on plevis
**rectus femoris provides hip flexion
- Attribution of human motivation, characteristics, or behavior to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena – an initial composed of human figures
– the decorative surround to text
From the Greek for beautiful writing, calligraphy is a script that exhibits exceptional and often self-conscious artistry and aesthetic quality in design and execution.
-Greek for beautiful writing
- exceptional & self-conscious artistry
- aesthetic quality in design & execution
– an amusing figure, often a grotesque, particularly popular in the 13th to the 15th century
- amusing figure, often a grotesque
- particularly popular in 13th-15th centuries
the application of gold, silver or copper to a surface. The gold leaf was applied with a glue, than burnished to make it shiny.
a hybrid and comic figure, often combining elements from human and animal forms.
The science of armorial bearings. Served to identify the organization, whether secular, the church, guilds or businesses. There are rules for heraldry concerning colors and patterns, mostly from the French. Heralds were used on armor, shields, documents and banners, those used on manuscripts were useful in determining the ownership of the manuscript.
- science of armorial bearings
- served to identify organization (church, secular, guild, business)
- rules concerning colors and patterns, mostly from French
- used on armor, shields, documents, banners
- used on manuscript to determine ownership
an enlarged letter at the beginning of a chapter or other part of a manuscript that contains figures or animals, but not a story (historiated initial)
the embellishment of a manuscript with luminous colors (expecially gold and silver).
A bird in Egyptian mythology that lived in the desert for 500 years and then consumed itself by fire, later to rise renewed from its ashes.
a title, chapter heading or instruction that is not strictly part of the text but which helps to identify its components. Red ink was often used to distinguish such elements, hence the term, which derives from the Latin term for red, rubrica
The handwriting used in manuscripts
1. Compare the abstract decorative art of the Early Middle Ages in Europe as seen in the ornamental page from the Lindisfarne Gospels with the Islamic decorative style as seen in the Ardabil Carpet. In what ways do they resemble each other? What is distinctive about each?
Compare: Both are carpet patterns, Both are symmetrical vertically, Repeated patterns in color and decoration
Contrast: Islamic mosque vs. cross, border vs. no border, 2D vs. 3D interlace, Floral motifs vs. serpents, color schemes are different, size, materials
1. Compare the plan of Saint Gall to the plan of Old Saint Peter’s in Rome. What similarities do you see, and what changes have been made?
Both of the structures are churches with many similarities such as naves, aisles, apses, transepts, narthexes, and atriums. Saint Gall has been expanded to include a larger transept, towers in the front, and a small community that surrounds the church that is reserved for monks. The Saint Peter’s Church of Rome is smaller with a more simple design.
1. Discuss the treatment of space and volume in manuscript illumination, comparing pages from the Book of Kells , the Coronation Gospels, the Ebbo Gospels, and the Paris Psalter.
The Book of Kells is a space filled with pattern, very flat. The Ebbo Gospels contain a lot of space around the figure, somewhat flat. The Coronation Gospels figures are contained in a small space, but have good volume. The Paris Psalter contains figures in a small, crowded space, tipped towards the viewer, but showing full volume in the figure.
1. Compare crucifixion images from a Byzantine mosaic in Daphni, a Carolingian manuscript cover, and Ottonian Gero Crucifix. How is the mood different in each of the images, and how do the formal characteristics create the mood?
In 4-20, the overall mood is sad and tranquil. Jesus’s head is tilted to the side in calm acceptance, and the other figures have an expression of mourning. However, Jesus is in a elevated position, which shows that he still has power. 6-6 has a much happier mood. Jesus is smiling and appears as if he has no pain. He seems completely relaxed, and he stands up straight. This clearly shows his godliness and power over death. 6-13 is by far the saddest crucifixion. Jesus hangs his head in defeat, and his arms are stretched out in pain. He is a figure of pure suffering, and there is no one to comfort him.
What are the distinguishing features of the Romanesque style seen in the church of Saint-Sernin at Toulouse when compare with Old Saint Peter’s in Rome?
1. Describe the various evolutionary steps, in both plan and elevation, that led from the Carolingian to the Romanesque style in northern European churches.
Carolingian: Short transept
Heavy interior piers
Romanesque: Longer transept
Façade towers/transept tower
Barrel vaults/groin vaults
Wide nave and aisles
Lighter, attached columns
1. Why do you think Bernard of Clairvaux was so disturbed by the sumptuous art of the churches? Do you agree with him?
Bernard of Clairvaux was disturbed by the art of the churches because he rejected the fancy and elaborate details of the church and believed in rejecting worldly pleasures in favor of a life of contemplation. The sumptuous art of the church was too distracting. No, we do not agree because we think that the people of the church should be able to decorate their religious buildings to show their respect for their god.
- horizontal supporting bands onto which the quires are sewn to the spine for the book
- leather or hemp
- split to be able to be sewn tighter
bands on the spine of a book to consolidate the ends, strengthen the attachment of the boards and impede the entry of worms. Usually leather, parchment or linen covered with silk thread.
an inscription that records the inclusion of the book in a library
- swelling on bark of oak tree after stung by an insect laying eggs
- tannic and gallic acids are soaked out with water, the results were used in ink and in tanning hides
a word derived from the Latin encaustim (burned in), since the acids in the ink tend for it to eat into the writing surface. The basis of medieval ink was a solution of gall and gum, colored by the addition of carbon (lamp black) or iron salts.
- derived from Latin encaustim (burned in) since acids in ink tend for it to eat into the writing surface
- basis of medieval ink= solution of gall and gum colored by addition of carbon (lamp black) or iron salts
adjusting the space between characters, especially by placing two characters closer together than normal Such as WA, MW, TA, VA, makes them look better.
typographical term referring to the vertical space between lines of text.
a writing support material made from water grown sedge. The inside of the stem was cut into strips which were then laid vertically and covered by a layer of strips laid horizontally. The result was pounded and the resin contained inside the plant make it stick together, producing a sheet of papyrus. Papyrus was used occasionally until about the 4th century when trade embargoes made it scarce in Europe. Then began the experimentation with parchment.
- writing support material made from water grown sedge
- inside of stem cut vertically into strips, which were then laid vertically and covered by later of strips laid horizontally
- result was pounded and resin contained inside plant made it stick together, producing sheet of papyrus
- used occasionally until 4th century when trade embargoes made it scarce in Europe
- led to experimentation with parchment
a writing support material made from animal skin, particularly goat or sheep skin. To produce parchment, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched over a frame and scraped with a knife. They were sometimes whitened with chalk and then cut to size. One animal skin would produce about 4 pages of a manuscript, depending on the size.
a writing support material made from cotton or linen rags, sometimes silk. The rags were soaked and shredded until they were reduced to a pulp, and sizing and water was added. A wooden frame strung with wires was dipped into the mixture and agitated until the fibers fused to form a sheet of paper. The paper was blotted and pressed, trimmed or left with a deckle edge. Paper frames often incorporated a metal design which left an image on the paper: the watermark. Early paper was quite resilient, but beginning in the mid 19th century, wood and other organic pulps were added to cotton (or used exclusively) which made the paper acidic, causing it to turn brown and crumble.
the leaf (page) attached to the board to cover the channeling and the cords, the endpaper
the gatherings or booklets of parchment which form the book
a writing support material made from animal skin, particularly calf skin. Vellum is made in the same way as parchement.
contains the sung portions of the divine office (the cycle of daily devotions), sometimes large in format so they could be used by a choir,
a manuscript that contains descriptions and tales of animals, birds, fantastic creatures, and stones, real and imaginary, which are imbued with Christian symbolism or moral lessons.
– a devotional book for the layman with material to be read in observing the “hours” of the Virgin Mary, that were each associated with an episode in her life. The book usually contained other sections, like a calendar that contained the days of the saints, lessons on the gospel, some psalms, memorials and other possible offices (services)
a book used for celebration of the divine office (services). Usually contained a psalter, antiphonal and other smaller books
included in manuscripts to identify feast days for the particular area or local saint (depending on the patron), red letter days. Calendars were often illuminated with the labors of the month or the zodiacal signs. They would be accompanied by tables or sets of calculations for the owner to figure out the moveable feast days.
a collection of annals or notes of yearly events
originating in the 1st century, the codex, from the Latin word for tree bark, caudex, is a book of folded sheets sewn along one edge. Not a roll/scroll or tablet/slab, Christian started using codices about 300.
the response and versicle to the readings during the Mass.
a text dealing with plants and their properties
the book of Psalms, a principal book of devotions from the 800s on. The Psalms, all 150 of them were recited each week at certain hours of the day.
a book containing tropes, musical and textual additions to the chants of the Mass or divine office
– early Christian music in the church, sung by monks or nuns, usually monophonic, said to be written by Pope Gregory with the inspiration of the Holy Spirit
Having a single melodic line, single-voiced; having but one part, one voice (one set of notes, one tune, not one person)
Consisting of several tone series, or melodic parts, progressing simultaneously, more than one voice at one time (multiple tones at once)
One of a school of poets who flourished from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, principally in Provence, in the south of France, and also in the north of Italy. They invented, and especially cultivated, a kind of lyrical poetry characterized by intricacy of meter and rhyme, and usually of a romantic, amatory strain.
The removal of Jesus from the cross
the passionate and demonstrative activity of expressing grief – over the death of Christ.
a courtly style that flourished under the patronage of the Dukes of Burgundy, primarily in Flanders, from the late 14th to the mid 16th century. Characterized by showing court life, opulent colors and deep spatial elements.
– a fusion of Greek, Roman and Christian elements. Iconic, gold backgrounds, gold halos.
a Frankish dynasty, Charlemegne was one ruler, that ruled much of Northern Europe and Italy starting in 751 and ending with the start of the Ottonian empire in 962. Naturalistic figures, opulent use of gold, silver and purple.
a term coined by art critic Giorgio Vasari in the 16th century to describe what he considered to be the barbaric art of the west, are produced anywhere from Roman times to the Renaissance. It is now used as a term to describe a period in western art between 1300 and early 1500s, before the Renaissance. Typified by a love for the grotesque, the courtly, naturalistic treatment of the figure, decorated initials, frames and backgrounds, and gilding.
after the Carolingian dynasty, from 919 to 1024, the start of the Romanesque period. Iconic look, use of gold and purple, emphasis on the patron.
a name for the architecture coined in the 19th century for a style that used the Roman principles of construction during the late 11th and 12th centuries
- application of gold, silver, or copper to a surface
- gold leaf applied with glue, then burnished to make it shiny
- chalk, ash, powdered bone, bread crumbs or pumice rubbed into writing surface so that ink will go on smoothly
- also can be used to transfer images (via pricking)
1. abstract pattern
2. intricate designs like early medieval metalwork
3. interlaced animals and humans
First Holy Roman Emperor- united Europe by consolidating the Frankish kingdom and defeating the Lombards in Italy.
1. Replaced classical style (calm & solid) with energy and frenzy
2. Merged classical with linear style of the north (Celtics)
3. Looser painting style- more color
Similar to Christ in the Coronation Gospels// Ebbo gospels in smaller figures
- figure of Christ is calm and solid, classical in conception like Coronation Gospels
- smaller figures have nervous energy like the Ebbo Gospels
-being simpler, less sophisticated
-geometrically clear, more massive supports, expressing robust strength, façade has 2 cylindrical towers flanking entrance portal
1. Towers framing the façade (westwork)
2. Presence of a transept (Crossing)
3. Concern with proportional relationships
1. blood streaks down forehead from the (missing) crown of thorns
2. face contorted in pain, eyelids closed
3. body sags, muscles stretched to limit
1. radiating chapels off the ambulatory for relics
2. Tribune (2nd floor balcony) for overflow crowds
3. Longer/ wider naves and aisles
4. Additional chapels
- providing suitable, majestic, setting for the display of relics led to the use of stone
1. protection from fire in churches where candles were the light
2. majestic setting
3. enhanced acoustics
- combination of groin vaults and clerestory brought light into upper parts
- large windows in clerestory
- reduced wall surface
1. rib vaults
2. slightly pointed arches
1. wooden roofs
2. resembles Early Christian basilica
3. no vaulting
1. new logic of design & construction
2. projecting transept
3. crossing dome
4. multiple arcade galleries
rich marble incrustation
1. elongated bodies
2. cross legged dancing, jerky movement
3. bending of hands against the bodies
4. animation of individual figure, contrast with stately monumental of composition as a whole
Subject: The last judgment
Purpose to terrify the people entering the cathedral to repent, etc.
Jan Van Eyck
The general theme is redemption and salvation from the original sin of Adman and Eve.
Classic Late Gothic style, uses flowing drapery and weightless figures to show fluid motion, specializes in showing anguish and pain
This statue clearly demonstrates contrapposto, a weight shift where the figure creates a natural S curve with their body. This stance was very common during the classical (Greek and Roman) era.
While Ghiberti ended up designing the doors of this cathedral, Brunelleschi designed the rest, including the great dome. Due to the large size of this dome, he could not place a wood centering of butress during its construction, so he instead used an ogival (pointed arch shaped) dome to redirect thrust.
This building demonstrates Brunelleschi's mature style. The interior resembles classical architecture, including mathematic planning, rhythmic harmony, and a lack of decorations.
The rusticated (rough) stone on the bottom makes the building look larger and stronger, while the finished stone on top makes it look lighter. This helps combat it from looking top-heavy.
The layout of the courtyard is heavily influenced by Brunelleschi's Santo Spirito.
This statue depicts Erasomo da Narni, a condottieri (military leader) in Italy. It was erected in Padua, a city close to Venice, and was commissioned by the Republic of Venice to commemorate Erasomo.
This church shows a major deviation from traditional Gothic architecture. Rather than the traditional isled nave with columned arcades, this church has a single massive hall with independent chapels branching off at right angles.
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