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the upper part of the nave, choir, and transepts of a large church, containing a series of windows. It is clear of the roofs of the aisles and admits light to the central parts of the building
pillar that is part of another architectural element and take the form of a statue of the god Osiris on the pillar's front surface.
Aula Palatina, Trier
Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, Sant’Apollinare Nuovo
- 18 stories high
- has both Muslim and Christian symbols
- sub-domes support the main dome
- “dome of the heavens”
San Vitale Church, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547
- centrally planned church
- abnormal plan
- sensory overload; so many details and active mosaics
Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, mosaic on the north wall of the apse, San Vitale,
Ravenna, ca. 547
- quintessential depiction of Justinian; purple robe w/ a nimbus, crown, imperial gems, surrounded by 12 attendents
Transfiguration of Jesus, apse mosaic, Church of the Virgin, monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt ca. 548-565 ce
- shooting out “lasers of holiness”
- the sky is gold
- around his body is an almond shaped void
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, icon, monastery of Saint
Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt, sixth or early seventh century
- much more three dimensional and classical than what else we see
Katholikon, Hosios Loukos (exterior view and plan)
- Two churches sat net to each other
Interior of the Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece, ca. 1090-1100 (note: figure 9-23 is part of this view)
- Crucifixion mosaic; happening in the abstract world, gold background, skull on the ground
- Blood and water had separated in two streams from his side
Pantokrator, Theotokos and Child, angels, and saints, apse mosaic in the cathedral at Monreale,
(Sicily), ca. 1180-1190
- Norman stronghold, multiple artists from multiple traditions: a basilica with and apse
- Central mosaic of Christ was done by Greeks
- Elements of the Islamic influence
- Islamic, Latin, Byzantine influence all in a single church
Vladimir Virgin, late 11th to early 12th century, tempera on wood, Moscow
- emotional response: a mother holding her baby, orange background
Rubylev, Three Angels, (Old Testament Trinity), ca. 1410, Tempera on wood, Moscoq
- nearly 5 feet tall
- intense contrasting colors
- three angels that come to visit Abraham
- early version of the trinity: pre-Jesus
A position assumed by the human body in which one part is turned in opposition to another part.
A small illustration or portrait photograph that fades into its background without a definite border.
• a small ornamental design filling a space in a book or carving, typically based on foliage.
François Vase (Athenian black-figure volute krater), from Chiusi, Italy, ca. 570 BCE. General view (top) and detail of centauromachy on other side of vase (bottom). 2’ 2” high. Museo Archeologico, Florence.
EXEKIAS, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (detail from an Athenian black-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 540–530 BCE. Whole vessel 2’ high; detail 8 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
ANDOKIDES PAINTER, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 525–520 BCE. Black-figure side (left) and red-figure side (right). 1’ 9” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
EUTHYMIDES, Three revelers (Athenian red-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 510 BCE. 2’ high. Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich.
Temple of Hera I (“Basilica”), Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE.
Gigantomachy, detail of the north frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 2’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Delphi.
West pediment from the Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Greece, ca. 600–580 BCE. Limestone, greatest height 9’ 4”. Archaeological Museum, Corfu.
Seer, from the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, full figure 4’ 6” high; detail 3’ 2 1/2” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’ 6” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria.
POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
Parthenon friezes, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447–438 BCE.
KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (looking southwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427–424 BCE.
Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, 3’ 6” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
REED PAINTER, Warrior seated at his tomb (Athenian white-ground
lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 410–400 BCE. 1’ 7 1/4” high. National
Archaeological Museum, Athens.
PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, 5’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6’ 9” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella, Greece, third century BCE. Marble, 1’ high. Archaeological Museum, Pella.
Hades abducting Persephone, detail of wall painting from tomb 1, Vergina, Greece, mid-fourth century BCE, 3’ 3 1⁄2 ”
PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy (Alexander Mosaic) from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Tessera mosaic, approx. 8’ 10” X 16’ 9”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
PAIONIOS OF EPHESOS and DAPHNIS OF MILETOS, Temple of Apollo, Didyma, Turkey, begun 313 BCE.
Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, from the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey ca. 175 BCE. Marble, 7’ 6” high. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 230–220 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale Romano–Palazzo Altemps, Rome.
Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure 8’ 1” high. Louvre, Paris.
Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek, Munich.
Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 650–640 BCE. Gold, 1’ 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Apulu (Apollo), from the roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, Italy, ca. 510–500 BCE. Painted terracotta, 5’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome.
Sarcophagus with reclining couple, from Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 520 BCE. Painted terracotta, 3’ 9 1/2” X 6’ 7”. Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome.
Interior of the Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia, Italy, ca. 480–470 BCE.
Chimera of Arezzo, from Arezzo, Italy, first half of fourth century BCE. Bronze, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.
Sarcophagus lid with portraits of Ramtha Visnai and Arnth Tetnies, from the Ponte Rotto necropolis, Vulci, Italy, ca. 350–300 BCE. Nenfro, 7’ 1 3/4” long. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Aule Metele (Arringatore), from Cortona, near Lake Trasimeno, Italy, early first century BCE. Bronze, 5’ 7” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.
Portrait of a Roman general, from the Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 75-50 BCE. Marble, 6’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.
Second Style wall paintings (general view left, and detail of tholos right) from cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50–40 BCE. Fresco, 8’ 9” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE. Fresco, frieze 5’ 4” high.
Portrait of a Roman general, from Tivoli, Italy, ca. 75-50 BCE. Marble, 6’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.
Portrait bust of Livia, from Arsinoe, Egypt, early first century CE. Marble, 1’ 1 1/2” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.
Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace, looking northeast), Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE.
Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE. Marble, 2’ 1” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE.
Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE.
Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114– 118 CE.
Rome, Italy, 118 – 125 CE.
Al- Khazneh (“Treasury”), Petra, Jordan, second century CE. late first century BCE.
Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, 8’ 1 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, 11’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
the central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the congregation. In traditional Western churches it is rectangular, separated from the chancel by a step or rail, and from adjacent aisles by pillars.
(in a cross-shaped church) either of the two parts forming the arms of the cross shape, projecting at right angles from the nave: the north transept.
a painting, esp. an altarpiece, on two hinged wooden panels that may be closed like a book.
a picture or relief carving on three panels, typically hinged together side by side and used as an altarpiece.
a curved triangle of vaulting formed by the intersection of a dome with its supporting arches.
a straight or arched structure across an interior angle of a square tower to carry a superstructure such as a dome.
a luminous cloud or a halo surrounding a supernatural being or a saint.
a pointed oval figure used as an architectural feature and as an aureole enclosing figures such as Jesus Christ or the Virgin Mary in medieval art. Also called vesica piscis.
the action of attacking or assertively rejecting cherished beliefs and institutions or established values and practices.
Mother of God (used in the Eastern Orthodox Church as a title of the Virgin Mary)
a niche in the wall of a mosque, at the point nearest to Mecca, toward which the congregation faces to pray.
a short flight of steps used as a platform by a preacher in a mosque.
a tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer.
the direction of the Kaaba (the sacred building at Mecca), to which Muslims turn at prayer.
an ornamental design consisting of intertwined flowing lines, originally found in Arabic or Moorish decoration
decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering.
an early angular form of the Arabic alphabet found chiefly in decorative inscriptions.
decorative work in which enamel, glass, or gemstones are separated by strips of flattened wire placed edgeways on a metal backing.
a vault forming a half cylinder.
a gallery or arcade above the arches of the nave, choir, and transepts of a church.
-a vertical recessed triangular space forming the center of a pediment, typically decorated.
-a triangular space over a door between the lintel and the arch.
an Italian bell tower, esp. a freestanding one.
-ornamental stone openwork, typically in the upper part of a Gothic window.
-a delicate branching pattern: a tracery of red veins.
Lancet: A tall, narrow window crowned by a sharply pointed arch, typically found in the Gothic architecture
a section of wall or a pillar between two openings, esp. a pillar dividing a large doorway in a church.
a horizontal support of timber, stone, concrete, or steel across the top of a door or window.
the square the area of the intersection of the nave and apse
(in a church) a lower part parallel to and at the side of a nave, choir, or transept, from which it is divided by pillars.
the part of a cathedral or large church between the altar and the nave, used by the choir and clergy.
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