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before writing and recorded history.
the Stone Age
Paleolithic known for?
earliest + longest stage of human cultural development
· small scale societies, hunter-gatherers, used stone, wood + bone tools
· nomadic. Not really living in caves. Huts transportable with hearths. Use of materials show creativity. Innovation. Lots of remains found in caves because of preservation.
new age following the stone ages
· development of agriculture, pottery, polished stone tools. More complex settlements develop (everything kind of stems from it)
large stone used to build ceremonial structures + tombs.
present day Iraq along the Euphrates river
o Not earth-mother goddess
o The form is very popular in Paleolithic Art. “Venus” of Willendorf (don’t call it that) evidence originally painted and worn as necklace
· Neolithic period
o Temperature warmings environment changing affects animals and humans farming and agriculture invented
o Surplus becomes population boost (not everyone has to be a farmer and what-not
o People living longer
o Domestication of animals. The first not ear dog (to eat sheep)
o Permanent settlements
o Beginning of patriarchal society…
o Social order/ government/ Hierarchy
Female Pharaoh in New Kingdom.
Represented as man in writings and art.
Traded with the South (Upper Egypt)
Egyptians tried to erase her from history ( this is important socially)
expanded trade (economic)
one of two female pharos
what 3 things did Hatshepsut change
no more pyramids and masibus, opened up trade routes to more southern parts of africa
son very young.
son was militaristic.
issues with mother.
1st thing when he took over? her name eradicated from everything.
how did they find that Hatshepsut was a women
statue with boobs.
Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 18, c. 1478-1458 BCE
name? from? dynasty?
Akhenaten, from Karnak, Dynasty 18, c. 1353-1350 BCE, Sandstone
Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings- necropolis, Dynasty 18, 1336-1327 BCE, Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones
Khafra, from Giza, Dynasty 4,
c. 2500 BCE, Diorite
Great Pyramids, Giza, Dynasty 4, c. 2601-2515 BCE, Granite and limestone
Very strange. Curations. Maybe had deformity? Many did… but never rep. this way, When he claimed sun god is only god, all opposites are blended into one. Going for androgynous look? Female, male -> both, Everything is encompassed., Sun looks like disk and babies look like aliens, Odd depiction, Never see parents with children,
development of agriculture, pottery, polished stone tools. More complex settlements develop (everything kind of stems from it), Temperature warmings environment changing affects animals and humans farming and agriculture invented, Surplus becomes population boost (not everyone has to be a farmer and what-not, People living longer, Specialization, Domestication of animals. The first not ear dog (to eat sheep), Permanent settlements, Trade, Ownership, Warfare,Beginning of patriarchal society…, Social order/ government/ Hierarchy
c. 2750 - 1500
Stele of Naramsin
Iraq, c.2254 - 2218
Stele of Hammurabi
Iran, c. 1792 - 1750
left side? right side?
Palette of Narmer, from Hierakonpolis, Dynasty 1, c. 3150-3125 BCE, Slate
Left: “Upper Egypt Side” Right: “Lower Egypt Side”
upper is bowling pin
lower is effile tower
You wind up with gaps. Inside they would put up animal skin that acted as an insulation, Roofs would be made out of various materials (timber, Pete moss, animal skins)
what is it?
Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid and Sham Buildings of the Funerary Complex of Djoser
Theist names artist in western art history 37 acr. Various courtyards, etc. Royal palace for Djoser’s after he died, Step pyramids grandpa to great pyramid,200 ft. tall, he wanted to stack, Dossiers funeral use of columns, Clerestory- windows above eye level, Allows light & air into space, Egyptians credited arch, element
stone henge is made this way, vertical are posts and horizontal ones are lintel)
Nana Ziggurat, Ur, Iraq, c. 2100 - 2050
Temple was tastefully appointed, Living room, buffet table, bed, etc., entice gods to come to earth and answer prayers, Beer= #1 offering, Also created beer, brewing was a religious event only done by women (priestesses)
Plow wagon wheel,
The forerunner of out written language
Sumerian power based on agriculture,
Foundation of authority,
Sumerians figured out irrigation , Allowed them to irrigate copious land,
Composed of independent city states,
Each Sumerians city was own independent entity ,
Shared common language and religion.,
No king or anything,
At center of every Sumerian center was the ziggurat
· Mesopotamia- land btw 2 rivers (Tigris and Euphrates)
· Present day Iran
· Silt along River banks after floods = incredibly fertile soil
· Sumerians come (ancient Sumer)
· Plow wagon wheel
· The forerunner of out written language Sumerian power based on agriculture
· Foundation of authority
· Sumerians figured out irrigation
· Allowed them to irrigate copious land
· Composed of independent city states
· Each Sumerians city was own independent entity
· Shared common language and religion.
· No king or anything
· At center of every Sumerian center was the ziggurat
a type of writing made out of pictures (Mesopotamian writing system, oldest discovered writing system)
Samarian writing cuneiform,
Using wooden stylus incision into vet, Clay -> fire it and there ya go!, Development of written word is pictographic. (Started off with fish=8(shape of fish)),
Tomb cut into mountain side, Hoping it would be less conspicuous, Pyramids’ attract looters
room in which worshippers could communicate with disease
2700-2190 (dynasties 3-6) In old kingdom priests powerful figured, Most pharos came from priestly families, Fight between 2 religious leaders, Not built by slave labor of aliens ;)
Pharos from priest families
pharos from military family, Generals now becoming pharos., Battle fueled conquest
Woman from Willendorf. Limestone. Austria, c. 22,000 – 21,000
Votive Statue of Gudea from Lagash
c. 2120 BCE, Diorite
David, 1446-1460 Artist Donatello. Florence. Bronze.
Produced first life-size male nude since antiquity. Clearly draws on Classical tradition of heroic nudity. Some think it has homoeroticism, especially in the feminine conception of David and the way the feather from Goliath's helmet caresses his inner thigh. Others see angular pose and boyish torso, a sense that he is poised between childish interests and adult responsibilities.
Birth of Venus
1482 (Early Italian Renaissance)
able to depict nudity because of mythological
born in seafoam
Earliest example of law code., Punishment depends on social standing and who it was committed against,
h law code ratio?
Only 20/300 have to do with physical violence, About 60 have to do with domestic problems, Rest are contact and business law
collects + exhibits work for museum to educate people
preserve and repair work
study and interpret works based on historical context. Analyze and interpret artwork meaning.
Natural caves. Not a permanent settlement. Generations (either not connected or returning groups) of décor. Not really images of humans but animals.Straw blow pigment into wall. Some evidence of smearing ground mineral with fat. Body profile, head frontal not representational or naturalistic. Symbol -> how do I depict a bull? Problem solving upper level critical thinking. Lots of animals depicted not hunted (we know by looking at ancient poop)
· Catal Huyuk 6000 BCE
o Planes layout/ architecture
o Sense of community
o In the bull tooms, heavily decorated, for religious purposes
o No fire pits to sustain life ( we don’t know if/ how religious)
o Wall paintings. Humans hunting animals. Power shift to humans. We’ve learned how to control our environment.
· taking food (raw) from other animals. We didn’t do it much. we’d eat decaying meat “savory” safe
· Neolithic settlement sense of community court year for gathering.
· Some rooms for “spiritual” purpose- devoted to something
· No textual evidence- we don’t know how organized practices were
· We don’t know- caution with term “religious purpose”
· Part reason they think they weren’t residents- no fire place.
· -wall painting there- active role of humans
· In process of humans- controlling environment.
· (Paleo Art no humans, natural depict of hands only. Neo- humans-no hybrids. Just human.)
Skara Brae.3100 BCE
· In Orkney Islands Scotland
o Northern most island tip. Rugged, out of the way
· Population fluxuated 50-100 people
· Village is composed of 7 buildings.
· Archeological records- practiced fishing
· Several family’s living in one building together
· Also evidence- root of entry sewage system. Through stone trenches slosh water and wash away.
· some debate about village- some like to suggest this is independent community. Other- this is out post of larger Neolithic community on mainland.
· courses of stacked stone. Inset every layer. The weight of each course holding itself.
o You wind up with gaps. Inside they would put up animal skin that acted as an insulation
o Roofs would be made out of various materials (timber, Pete moss, animal skins)
o Shelves used for storage/ display of precious/ personal objects not like a pantry pottery, beads, etc.
o Fire pits always valuable. People burned anything. Most evidence there.
o A single person could build this. It’s possible but it would take forever. Group of people working together to build a settlement. Major turning point. Humans actually working together.
· One building not residence. What did they use it for? They had locking mechanism on the inside, but this building locking is on the outside. Special zone. (Religious space? jail? Place to isolate members? Pregnant women?)
· One residence under neither bed they found human remains.
o Berried prior to constructions? Afterwards?
o 2 community members- powerful. They died- bodies used for blessing. House built around burial site. “protective capabilities”
Megalithic tradition Ca. 3000-1500 BCE (still Neolithic)
· Stonehenge + Menhir + Dolmen + Passage grave + cairn
o Pile of stone used as memorial or land mark
o Associated with burial sites or important place
o mark burial sties
o stone pointed up with Horizontal stone
o Level of sophistication
o Underground structures
o Central underground tomb. Long Avenue leading up to.
o Most famous: Newgrange 3000-2500 BCE
o Newgrange 3000-2500 BCE
§ 280ft diameter 44ft tall
§ Created by corbeling (to the max)
§ The sun shines through opening into the depths of tomb.
§ Very organized society
§ Oriented in way sun comes in through opening- studied the stars!
§ Tomb interior with engraved stories
§ Symbols(spirals) on stones found on inside too
§ Now we may see organized religion maybe spiral speaks to sense of continuity
· Spiral= birth-> death -> rebirth ->death?
§ Very interested in passage of seasons. Cycle of the seasons the movement of moon and sun. Same concepts applied to beliefs in afterlife. Walls not covered- not decorative. Spiral significance. May suggest org. religion
§ Some observational of celestial bodies.
Stone henge 2750-1500
o Salisbury plain England
o Henge means circle
o 97ft in diameter
o In each-> 3
o Stone construction 23/24 ft high (large ones)
o Dug a ditch around it
o This form is post and lintel construction (vertical are posts and horizontal ones are lintel)
o Tenon and mortie (fit together like a Lego)
o Stone not native to region. Mined -> brought
o Astrological significance.
o Debate about how transported “track of logs”
o Maybe something about colors of stone to make them chose them
o Stone henge began as piled of rocks and mounds of dirt.
§ Site of human sacrifice as start? Found bodies
o Avenue leading up to
o Big stones by themselves
o Menhir alignments at Menes, Carnac France.
o Act as landmarks
Bronze Age, began ab. 2300 BCE
· with appearance of metalwork
· Bronze= tin+ copper
· Bronze is much harder and stronger
· Farming, swords, helmets, etc.
· Example: horses and sun chariot. Denmark. Ca.1800-1600 BCE
White ziggurat, Uruk 3100
o Ziggurat= temple. Each dedicated to each cities Patron deity
o They became mud brick
o One issues with arch. With Sumerian sites. They wore down and rebuilt them.
§ HARD TO DATE
· Nana Ziggurat, Ur. Iraq. C, 2100-2050
o Crowning temple
o 50ft. 100 stairs
o Sodom Husain spent money and time preserving
o Required responsibility for everyone had to take part in ziggurats
o The only people that got to go up steps priests and priestesses up the steps with offering to temple, city states ruled by priests and priestesses
o Temple was tastefully appointed
o Living room, buffet table, bed, etc.
o entice gods to come to earth and answer prayers
o Beer= #1 offering
§ Also created beer, brewing was a religious event only done by women (presteses)
· Samarian votide statues
o Offer prayer to deity?
o Have statue (is always awake lol) hands in prayer, come down. Have something to eat. Up to 2 ½ ft. tall. Wealthier you are more you can spend.
o Prayer inscribes on statue
o Carved vessel c.3500-3000 BCE
o Abbaster stone
o Samarian goddess of fertility
o Big eyes, bald, stylized hair
o Everyone shaved all of their hair. They would wear false beards and hair.
o Bald statues are priests
o Black outlines= men /women wore makeup
o Makeup? Sunscreen/ ward off curses
o Using wooden stylus incision into vet
o Clay -> fire it and there ya go!
o Development of written word is pictographic. (Started off with fish=8(shape of fish))
o When 2 Sumerians would enter business agreement. Seal figurines in a ball or pot then smash the pot if they forget. Then they wrote on pot what was inside. Then they did just writing and said hey, let’s create new letters!
o Priests only legible ones
o Explains why they were wealthy
o Pay to have something written
o 2 types of cuneiform:
§ Religious (25%) or business
o Important item was a cylinder seal.
· Cylinder seal
o Carious carvings and writing for signature stamp. If you engage in a lot of contracts. Worn as necklaces. Symbol of standing (luxury items) name and occupation.
o Round stone 1 ½ inches high
· Bull lyre Ur. C 2685
o Kind of like harp.
o Bulls head and plaque
o Found at grave site for wealthy Sumerian.
o Shows the guy who owned it, animals in party
· Standard of Ur 2500ish
o Decorative box
o Shows up responsibility of wealthy Sumerian
o Leading troops into battle
o Samarian society- priests and priestesses ruled to invade- nominate big man. Strong/ powerful.
o He would become temporary dictator
o Sometimes came back and wanted to be permanent dictator. Not fond of dictators.
· AK Kadian
o Sargon I c.2370
o Akkadion warlord sargon I conquered all of Samaria
o Spoke AkkadianSamarians thought they were unsynilized. Most famous example
· Stele of Naramsin
o Iraq c. 2254-2218
o Son/grandson whatever
o Related to sargon I
o 6’ 7” carved rock
o Divine kingship introduced to Mesopotamia
o 1st time in west history evidence of a divine king.
o (Narmissan climbing up mountain killing enemies)
o Hieratic scale. Biggest thing= most important.
o Represent divine kind to make him stand out
o 4 stars up top representing N E S W (compass)
o Declares Narmisin king of the world
o Ancient Akkadian forerunner for modern day Arabic and ______
o Adopt Sumerian writing/ deity.
o Common trend of conquering and stealing Sumerian writing
· Seated statue of Gudea c. 2180
o Diorite (material, stone)
§ HARD, ancient Egypt
· Samarians come back to power but keep divine kings
· Votive statue of gudea km9i
· Most famous :Steel of Hammurabi
o Iran c. 1792-1750
o 7 ½ ft. tall
o Border crossing- Hammurabi’s law code scribes on it
§ Punishment depends on social standing and who it was committed against
§ Only 20/300 have to do with physical violence
§ About 60 have to do with domestic problems
§ Rest are contact and business law
· Over rule Babylonians
· When invade Mesopotamia most foreign invaders
· Public relations problemVery “no-nonsense.”
· Rebuilding city’s
· Fordable deported people
· Keep down revolt. Take random people and split them up. Bladed.
· Mesopotamia turned into near east.
· Adopted Mesopotamia names
§ Sargon II (not related to Sargon 1)
· Show up at town “you can surrender, if not take everyone in particular order.
· Torture, burn, flay (pull of your skin), mutilate you, and behead you. Impale head, impale body.
§ 10 ft. 2 inches
§ Guardian figured
§ Winged human headed lion’s portraits of kings or gods or deities? Was that important?
· Theist names artist in western art history 37 acr. Various courtyards, etc.
· Royal palace for Djoser’s after he died
· Step pyramids grandpa to great pyramid
· 200 ft. tall, he wanted to stack
· Dossiers funeral use of columns
· Clerestory- windows above eye level
· Allows light & air into space
· Egyptians credited arch, element
Great pyramids, Giza, C. 2601-2515
· Tention btw pharro & priests
· In old kingdom priests powerful figured
· Most pharos came from priesty families.
· Fight between 2 religious leaders
· Not built by slave labor of aliens ;)
pharos from military family, generals now becoming pharos, battle fueled conquest
· Aten= sun God
· 1370- Makes announcement: (declares there is only one god and I am his profit.”
· Closes temples
· Where he got monotheistic idea? Maybe picking some up from Hebrew settlers no strong evidence
· Introduces new style of Art. Very strange. Curations. Maybe had deformity? Many did… but never rep. this way,
· Followed aknotin, died young (20’s)
· *Egypt goes right back to way before.
· Only complete tomb ever discovered.
· Buried in Valley of the Kings, necropolis.
· Sarcophagus- decorated last minute. Just grabbed what was laying around.
· Side note: science points towards infection killing them
· Why wasn’t his looted? His tomb, they forgot about it built + one In front of it. Hadn’t been looted
-evidence of paint
-c.a. 2000-1375 BCE
-warehouses for trade
-hall of double axes; maze; legend of Minotaur
-wall paintings of youth
1. Geometric 800-480 bce
2. Archaic 800-480 bce
3. Classical 480-400 bce (most famous, only 80 years)
4. Hellenistic 400-146 bce
-c. 740 BCE
-grave marker for VIP
-purpose is for mixing wine and water
-most popular during the archaic period (650-500 B.C.E.).
goddess of wisdom)
Panathenic festival- celebrate Athena. Major festival.
-c. 1st century
Male lyre player
Marble, Keros (Cyclades)
c. 2700 – 2500
Apprx. 9” high
Center piece of palaze is center port. Magazines are wearhouses. minoans
Called ‘palisis’ . Rooms: “thrown rooms”
No evidence even roayal palace, king or queen.
Every palace, large portion was storage wear house.Filled with goods for trade. Could be fancy shipping depot?Suggestion of running water and flushing toilets.no defensive architecture
no depiction of wafefar in art
olumns made out of wood
Bull Leaping, Knossos, Crete, c.1550 - 1450. minoans
: lion gate. Post and lintal construction weighs 20 tons
Topped with 2 lions on sides of column.
SN looks just like knosis column. Mycineans used lions as power symbol.
Ment to represent conquest of Minoans which is intreging because we have no evidence.
Taking credit of disappearance of city? When they did not
Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, c. 1300-1200
Tomb, known for “bee hives” tombs (not treasury)
Famous corbred vault 43 x 47 ft
Corbeled vault and barrial vault
Great grandfather of dome
Gold stuff found
Geometric krater,,Symmetric of Athens, vase in particular shape: krater
Shape: consumption of wine. Mixing bowl for wine.
Ancient greek wine: moonshine lol Didn’t drink by itself.,Always cut with water.
But this one wasn’t used for wine, not inended to actually use for wine. Funerary purpose- grave marker .Practiced cremation Remains used almost like erbs put into vases. Later on, drilled hole in base poured wine/ water into it.
Suicide of Ajax
Black figure amphora
obsessed with "duty, obligatiom, and honor"
Standing Youth, Kouros. archaic
Ancient people smaller then us
IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES,
Freeze (exterior/ interior)
Interior- panathenaic perception of festival taking place at the Parthenon on a horse/ owning one equivalent to riding a hover craft.
Athenian= democracy. Based on ideas of obligation
Males who owned property could participate
Young Warrior c. 460 – 450 bronze
Holding shiled/ weapon ?
Ancient Greeks preferred bronze as sculpture material of choice you could get more detail through casting
More exspensive (nicer), detail, and color was closer to skintoneColored metals on lips
Insert stones into eyes into hollow socket
Naturalism and idealism Looking natural, an ideal human body. Best wanted a balance
c. 450 - 40
Don’t make too idealistic
Romans loved making kick off’s
“contrapposto” slightly twisting of body”
Suttle S curve
Based on natural pose. Shifting weight.
Shows alex defeat of army
Hellenistic love dramatic scenes, ment to be contrast of calmness of Alexander, while everything else chaotic
c. 100 – 150
Not classical art
His entire life in physical combat and now showing wear and tear
Apollo, c. 500 BCE, painted terra-cotta, Etruscan, attributed to Vulca
Styalized facial fetures with smirking smile (simple)
Material diff (greek marble, atruscan terricotta0
Less naturalistic, more styalized (Etruscan)
Greek- nude. Playes big role in idealized males
Etruscan- have simple drapery but not like greek artists
Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium, Rome, Late 2nd century BCE
Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium, Rome, Late 2nd century BCE
Villa of the Mysteries, wall painting, Pompeii, c. 50 BCE
Augustus of Primaporta
Marble, 1st century BCE
Convince people of “emporer” idea
Propaganda compaign- youthful (always)
Modeled on greek classical statues
Cupid- son of augustus (venus)
Another shows hm as head priest
Military commender, head legislator
Coliseum, Rome, 72-80 CE
Held 50,000 peopleretractable roof
All 3 types of classical columns. Showing off. Doric, ionic, Corinthian.
They tried everything
Themed around battles
Rome, 118-125 CE
Temple, dedicated to all the gods.
Reinscribes to himself even though
Cross and oblisque
Dome with hole (oblisque) and round rotunda underneither
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Rome, 306-313 CE.
Huge contantine stature
It’s a bacillica
Long, rectangular shaped building used as courts of law
Dictating law with gesture
Thought to be 30ft high
Constantine 312-315 ce
Arches triamplal declarations
Not original head the replaced heads with Constantine
Peter Striking the Rock
Catacombs of Commodilla
Late 4th century
New one sits on top of it.
Allowed for church to serve various functions. Built on site of St. peter. Layed out in long central sections (nave)
3-4000 people at once
They can shut the gate of this building
When this is being built- great up heval. Keeping exterior out. Limit access.Served as a worship space. Fortified retreat
Hagia Sophia, Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus, 532-537
Mosaic of the Virgin Mary and Christ Child
Gold background. (luxurious, expensive, shiny, makes it look unreal)
No one smiles. Plan face.
was that churches occupied boundary between spiritual world and things. Transitional zone.
Meant to have other world kind of vibe to them.
Emperor Justinian and His Attendants, Mosaic, Ravenna, c. 547
Political propaganda. People don’t want to be part of empire
He is holding platter of which bread for communion is brought out.
He also has army there too.
Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, icon
Encaustic on wood
Encaustic on wood, 6th century
Not very many left
Due to iconoclasm (icon smashing)
Debates whether icons should be legal.
Stoic, static, sever looking people.
Purse Cover, from the Sutton Hoo burial ship, c. 615-625, Cloisonné plaques of gold, garnet and enamel
CLOISONNE( a type of metal work, create tiny compartments into which you put jewels and colored stone, etc. barbarians were really well known and appreciated for metal work even though seen as uncivilized)
Highly stylized lid for a money pouch
Very luxurious, high quality item
Part of a burial ship. If you owned a ship, you were a titan of industry.
Not sure what images mean, guess? Wolfed flanking human- warning to purse snatchers?
No attempt at naturalism, not representational at times.
Emphasis on decoration
Classical culture not lost, morphed and changed in interesting ways
England, c. 698
Groups of monks
Removed themselves from mainstream societies, spent time copying biblical text
Very very very expensive items.
A lot of times these people can’t actually read, they are just copying.
Fusion of Christian cross with pagan aesthetic
Bright rich colors
This is important trying to communicate this. Borrowing from precious metalwork
Pictures of the author with their symbols
(mark-lion, Luke- ox (because it opens with sacrifice of ox) , John-eagle(tied to traditional notion that wrote something else)
Often times you just have symbols
Chi Rho Iota Page from the Book of Kells, Late 8th or early 9th century,
Tempera on vellum
Woven together the Greek initials for Christ into complicated, irregularly shaped cluster
Mimic look of jewelry, metal work
Even if you can’t read the words themselves, you are contemplating on the word of god.
Plan, Palace Chapel of Charlemagne
Classical roman style bath built.
Abby Church at Corvey
Sponsored construction of churches.
Have monumental west work on front of it.
Signifier of imperial project.
Gatehouse at Lorsch
They would create this little house for if he wanted to visit. A safe haven for him to stop in.
Meant to remind you of Constantine roman arches.
People realized how far they had fallen
Page with Saint Matthew, from the Coronation Gospels, c. 800-810, Ink and tempera on vellum
Mad eby native artists, western, northern, Germanic artisits
Had some sort of contact by italio byzantine artists
Sense of what it would be like to receive the word of god try to scribble down every last little thing.
Through angels and scrolls they got messages
Page with Matthew the Evangelist, from the Ebbo Gospels, c. 816-840,
Ink and tempera on vellum
Began by William the conquerer
Abby church, part of monastic community, but also made to be pilgrimage church.
Pointy tops added during gothic period
Castle feel without tops
Known for bulky heavy look
Churches are gods fortress, engineering isn’t there, lack the skills to build it any other way
Portal, Moissac Abbey
Sculpture is secondary to architecture.
Meant to mimic the shape of the tremaeu (post).
Gives the monks a chance to get outside without having to leave monastery itself.
Trumeau Sculpture, Portal of Mossaic Abbey, 12th century
Gislebertus, The Last Judgement, Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, c. 1120-40
Signed by gislebertus, very recognizable style.
People that trained with him, signing in latin- indicating he is somewhat literate. Big name in Romanesque art scene. Very imitated.
Badges on bags on pilgrimage churches, to show you actually been there.
Meant to be violent and scary.
A lot of visual information to be readable, horror story.
Reinforce importance of Christian beliefs.
Off mainland Greece
Start seeing perminate civilizations 2400 (similar to old kingdom)
Creation of bronze
no text from people, mysterious
Don’t know a lot about them
around 2000 civilizations just stops
central Italy to present day Italy
Language mysterious to us
We can translate it word by word
No understaning of grammar.
Do ot know a lot about plitcal structure
Over saw maritime tradingnaval empire (related to Minoans?
Never got further east then turkey area
Would bring them into conflict
They didn’t want
no knowledge of cyclatic ancient greeece knowledge of manoans
ancient Greece tended to say myceans were ancestors not exactly true.
Shealds, helmets, swords, helmets
Cities are heavily fortified walled cities
From textual evidence: led by priest/ king
1st emperor ofrome
Mark antony and gaius Octavian set out o a grand puerg of responsible for assasionation
They turn on each other
Changes name form gaius to augustus
innovation of romans
Most of what we know of them in tombs
Elaborate burial cit of the dead
Houses, tombs. Houses for the bead.
war ended 480 bce
Greek city states and Persian empire
Persia empire controlled Ionia
Ionian cities revolted against Persian rules
Ionians had problems, asked cousins (Athens) to come help
Greek city ystates prevail
Entire society was based on slavery
Job was to keep slaves working
Needed to resupply- attack places.
Lived in constant fear of slave revolt
Major project after Persian war…
Roman Origin myths
Parthenon of gods that you worship In private
“mystery cults” because rituals were essitaric (sercret) knowledge.
Resort town for wealthy
Mt. mesuvius erupted barried Pompeii in ash
Rediscovered in 1700’s
Wonderfly preserves city
Within stuff found, found beautiful homes.
identify parts of Greek temple
3 bronze age civilizations
written in script that we can’t compare to anything.
volanco, tital wave, earthquake)
SN: ancient greek “loss city of atlantis”
1876 hindric sheamod
Looking for troy came across mycinean culture
arrival of alexander the great
Alexander the great, conquests Persia in 330 bce
love dramatic scenes, ment to be contrast of calmness of Alexander, while everything else chaotic. character shows more.
Republican 509-27 bce
Imperial 27-330 ce
Responsible for a lot of Romanesque art, 1st true international art since fall of Roman Empire
Decedents of viking raiders. Carved out own personal territory
One of the first churches to employ groin bolts (formed by the intersection of 2 barrel volts)
Nave is crossed by transept
Crossing is located where the nave and the transept meet
wall painting. 3rd century
Two Forms of Early Christian Churches
Basillica (West) - Latin Cross
Central Plan (East)- Greek Cross
Continue Roman Art
Emporer Justinian/ (ruled 527-565)
Theocracy- no seperation between Christ and Govt
(ruled 527-565) theocracy. ( no separation of church and state)
Emperor was considered spiritual leader of church
Always a divide in church between east (inspired by classical/ philosophical) and west(skull splitter, more laid back) , cultural differences.
Underground burial sites used by early Christians
Around 200 we see Christians begin to bray dead here
60-90 miles of catacombs. Around 4,000,000 bodies
Knishes in walls in tunnels
Early Christian rituals of rights. Earliest communion, (bread wine)
Community coming together to share bread and wine.
Every small local set of Christian has own rituals. Not standardized.
Early Christians began to need churches:
The basilica, Latin cross plan ( one in which the horizontal intersects higher up) more popular in the west
Central plan, Greek cross plan (one in which the horizontal intersects in the middle) more popular in the east
one in which the horizontal intersects in the middle) more popular in the east
An illustrated book
Two most common material: parchment (animal skin paper) and vellum (animal skin paper that has been scrubbed, washed, etc.)Paint itself tempera paint
Nave Elevation Parts
composed of nave arcade (upside-down U on first level), above that we have the triforium gallery on the second row, clerestory is on third level.
Symmetry to design. Attempt at classical ideas of balance, harmony.Idea of 3 is mirrored in layout, Physical layout mirrored in decoration