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Chiaroscuro in art is characterized by strong contrasts between light and dark. It is literally the italian word for “light and dark.” It uses bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. It is also a technical term for using contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in modeling three-dimensional body.eg: Da Vinci, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503-1505
Expressive use of color, light, and shadow; soft forms and contours. Color is “toned down”
Portray or show (an object or view) as closer than it is or as having less depth or distance, as an effect of perspective or the angle of vision.
eg: Mantegna, Camera Picta, 1465-1474
a full-scale drawing used to transfer the outline of a design onto a surface (such as a wall, canvas, or panel) to be painted.
the method by which the cartoon would be transferred, from one surface to another. It is similar to tracing, and transfers a sketch outline to produce a finished work. Here, holes were pricked along the principal lines of the cartoon and a fine charcoal powder was forced through the holes (placing the outline on the wall).
Virtuosity, Beautiful figures + grace, Complex compositions + variety, Scholarly subjects
Refinement, and appealing to sophisticated tastes (paid for by princely courts/powerful elite)
Proportion, Ideal figure types, Unusual compositions, More expressive.
See The Last Supper (Da Vinci vs Tintoretto)
Dalí and Buñuel, An Andalusian Dog (or Un Chien Andalou), 1930 (*film still)
Lawrence, In the North the African American Had More Educational Opportunities, 1940
GIOTTO, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1300
MASACCIO, The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John and Two Donors, ca. 1420
BRUNELLESCHI, Dome of Florence Cathedral 1420-1436
HUBERT & VAN EYCK, The Ghent Altarpiece, 1430
VAN EYCK, The “Arnolfini Portrait” ca 1434
VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban 1433
MANTEGNA, St. Sebastian, ca. 1450s
DEL POLLAIUOLO, Battle of the Nudes, ca. 1470
MANTEGNA, Camera Picta 1464-1474
DA VINCI, The Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1490
DA VINCI, Vitruvian Man 1487
BOSCHI, The Garden of Earthly Delights 1480-1515
DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, 1500
MICHELANGELO, The Creation of Adam 1508-1512
MICHELANGELO, David 1501-1504
RAPHAEL, The School of Athens 1508-1511
RAPHAEL, La Belle Jardinière 1507
DÜRER, Self-Portrait 1500
BRÜNEWALD, Isenheim Altarpiece, ca. 1515
CORREGGIO, The Assumption of the Virgin, ca. 1530
DA PONTORMO, Pietà 1526-1528
PARMIGINANINO, Self-Portrait 1524
PARMINIANINO, The Madonna with the Long Neck 1535
HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER, The Ambassadors 1533
TITIAN, Venus of Urbino 1538
MICHELANGELO, The Last Judgement, 1540
BRONZINO, Allegory of Venus 1546
TITIAN, The Rape of Europa, ca. 1559-62
TINTORETTO, Last Supper, 1594
CARAVAGGIO, The Calling of St. Matthew 1599-1600
CARAVAGGIO, The Conversion of St. Paul 1601
RUBENS, The Raising of the Cross 1610-1611
GENTILESCHI, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, 1619-1620
TERBRUGGHEN, Singing Lute Player 1624
BERNINI, David 1623
PEETERS, Still Life with Fruit and Flowers 1612
DAVID (DE HEEM), Still Life with Exotic Birds, late 1640s
BERNINI, The Ecstasy of St. Theresa, 1645-1652
REMBRANDT, The Night Watch 1642
JAN STEEN, The Feast of ST. Nicholas, ca. 1660-65
JAN STEEN, A Man blowing Smoke at a Drunken Woman 1660-65
REMBRANDT, Self-Portrait 1658
VERMEER, Woman Holding a Balance 1664
VELÁZQUEZ, The Maids of Honor 1656
POUSSIN, The Death of Germanicus, 1630
POUSSIN, The Abduction of the Sabine Women, ca. 1630
MANSART, Louis Le Vau, and Charles Le Brun, The Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, begun 1680
MANSART, Louis Le Vau, and Charles Le Brun, Palace of Versailles, 1700 (*aerial view)
WATTEAU, A Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1710
HOGARTH, The Orgy, scene III of The Rake’s Progress, ca. 1730 (*painting)
BOUCHER, Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1760
STUBBS, Lion Attacking a Horse, 1770
GOYA, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, 1780
FUSELI, The Nightmare, 1780
DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1790
GOYA, The Third of May, 1800
FRIEDRICH, Abbey in an Oak Forest, 1800
INGRES, Grande Odalisque, 1810
GERICAULT, The Raft of the Medusa, 1820
DELACROIX, Death of Sardanapalus, 1820
WASHINGTON, John Brown, ca. 1840
SEURAT, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1880
CÉZANNE, Still Life with Apples in a Bowl, 1880
VAN GOGH, The Potato Eaters, 1890
GAUGUIN, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, 1890
KLIMT, The Kiss, 1900
James Ensor, Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889, 1888
Neoclassicism continued the connection to the Classical tradition because it signified moderation and rational thinking. Neoclassicists take it upon themselves to follow Winckelmann’s influence, and to become great by imitating ancient forms to create moral works of “noble simplicity and calm grandeur”eg: David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784
An artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe. It was heavily influenced by the Enlightenment thought of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who advocated a return to nature and that humans are essentially good. However, here, feelings determine human choices, not rational thought.Eg: Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781
A genre of painting defined by subject matter rather than an artistic style, depicting a moment in a narrative story, rather than a static subject such as a portrait.Eg: David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784
The excessively ornate, elegant, fluid style, most associated with early 18th century in France. Sometimes called the “late Baroque” period.The style used pastel colors, and the decorative arts to emphasize the notion of fantasy (dainty figures). Focus on the lifestyle of the aristocracy, representing an artistic shift from monarchy to aristocracy. Rococo is smaller in scale, and fantastical. It depicts enchanted realms existing outside of real-life.eg: Fragonard, The Swing, 1767
A type of painting that shows groups of elegantly attired men and women, in an outdoor setting, engaged in amorous play (flirting, dancing, etc.)eg: Fragonard, The Swing, 1767
They believed that strong drawing was rational, and therefore morally better, and that art should be cerebral, not sensual. Followers of Poussin were rooted in disegno and believed philosophy of line is most important. (drawing, refined finish, clarity, logic, order) and that painting is for “experts”.eg: Poussin, The Death of Germanicus, 1627-1628
Rooted in colore, color is most important (color, brushwork!). Painting can be enjoyed by “everyone”. History painting (mind + reason) versus Pleasure (senses/eye + truer to nature)eg: Watteau (greatest of Rubenistes), A pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717
eg: Hemm, Still Life with Exotic Birds, late 1640s
From the italian tenebroso (murky), (also called dramatic illumination) is a style of painting using very pronounced chiaroscuro. There are hard and sharp contrasts between light and dark. Here, darkness becomes a dominate feature of the painting.eg: Caravaggio, The Conversion of St. Paul, 1601
Closely associated with tenebrism. Artists from the Dutch Republic who were influenced by Caravaggio and his “followers” (often studied or travelled in Italy).Qualities included: Dramatic use of light (divine light as a spotlight), involvement of the viewer, we witness precise moments, depicting everyday or common people in religious scenarios, painted directly onto canvas (no preliminary drawings, directness/immediateness quality?)
A phase of Gothic art where artists and portable works, such as illuminated manuscripts, traveled around Europe, creating a common aesthetic among the royalty and higher nobility. Reduced variation in national styles among works produced for the courtly elites. Such works had complex, iconographies, possessed exquisite craftsmanship, highly detailed and elaborate naturalism.eg: Limbourg Brothers, January page, Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413-1416
A manuscript in which the text is supplemented decoration, such as decorated initials, borders (marginalia) and illustrations. According to a strict definition, an illuminated manuscript only refers to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver. Now, in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term refers to any Western decorated or illustrated manuscript.eg: Limbourg Brothers, January page, Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413-1416
Thickly applied (oil) paint, where the paint looks like paste. Means “to make into a paste” in Italian.eg: Titian, The Rape of Europa, 1559 - 1562
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance was influenced by Classic Greek and Roman styles. Renaissance artists glorified and celebrated the naked human body. Here, Leonardo is interested in the man’s position in the world.eg: Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, 1511-1512
The use of electronics and robotics in mechanized puppets to simulate life.
The revival of a classical style / treatment in art. (mid-18th c. - Early 19th c.)
A genre of painting defined by subject matter rather than an artistic style, depicting a moment in a narrative story, rather than a static subject such as portrait.
An artistic, literacy, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th c in Europe.
A quality that generates awe in the viewer, thru obscurity, darkness, power, vastness, and terror.
The Western fascination w/ the cultures of the Muslim world of North Africa and the “Near East”: Turkey, Greece, the Middle East.
a belief in the value of what is simple and unsophisticated, expressed as a philosophy of life or through art or literature.
An officially-sanctioned exhibition of members of the Royal Academy held biennially in the Louvre.
Salon of the Refused. Additional exhibition of refused art from the French Academic Salon.
*MANET, The Luncheon on the Grass, 1860
A late 19th c. art movement that originated w/ a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870 & 80s. the impressionists held 8 exhibits b/w 1874-86.
Coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of avant-garde art after Impressionism.
Rejecting the conventions of naturalism, symbolist painters believed that art should reject an emotion /idea rather than represent the natural world in the empirical manner of realism and impressionism.
A term coined by French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1886 to describe an art movement founded by Seurat.
A technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color are applied in patterns to form an img.
*SEURAT, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884
An expression of positivism and the new interest in descriptive accuracy, photography as developed as a way to “fix”, or make permanent, imgs produced on light-sensitive material.
Invented by Daguerre, silver iodide and the use of mercury fumes are used to fix the img on a copper plate.
*WASHINGTON, John Brown, ca.1850, Daguerreotype
Modernity tends to refer only to the social relations associated with the rise of capitalism.
The term describes the Modernist movement in the arts, or Modern Art.