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Narmer's palette, from Hierakonpolis, depicts joining of Upper Egypt (left) and Lower Egypt (right), ca. 3100 BCE
Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, ca. 2630-2611 BCE
Diorite statue of Khafre, Gizeh, Egypt, ca. 2500-2494 BCE
General view of Zoser's funerary complex, showing shrines in Jubilee court, step pyramid in the background
Menkaura and Queen Khamerernebty
Gizeh, Egypt, ca. 2500 BCE
Limestone funerary statue of Seated Scribe, from Saqqara, Egypt, ca. 2450-2350 BCE
Tomb of Menna, Thebes, hunting and fishing, ca. 1400 BCE
Relief of Akhenaton and Nefertiti with their daughters in a garden, from Amarna, Egypt, ca. 1350 BCE
Head of Senusret III, from Medamud (near Thebes), Egypt, ca. 1850 BCE
View of Queen Hatshepsut's burial site at Deir el-Bahari, ca. 1500 BCE
King and Queen of Punt and attendants, relief from the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir- el-Bahri, Egypt, ca. 1473-1458 BCE
Queen Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaton, Amarna, Egypt, ca. 1350 BCE
Gold funerary mask of Tutankhamon, Thebes, ca. 1330 BCE
View of ziggurat with early Sumerian temple, White Temple and Ziggurat, Uruk, Iraq (modern Warka), ca. 3500-3000 BCE
Head of goddess, probably Inanna; Uruk (modern Warka), ca. 3500-3000 BCE
Alabaster vase from early Sumerian temple showing cult scenes; Uruk, 3500-3000 BCE
Upper register shows goddess Inanna
Victory Stele of Eannatum, Girsu, ca. 2600-2600 BCE
Royal Standard of Ur, Sumer, ca. 2700-2500 BCE
Believed to actually be the sounding box of a harp
(Top panel depicts war, bottom depicts peace)
Stele of Akkadian king Naram Sin, grandson of Sargon, found in Susa (in Iran), but probably originally displayed in a Mesopotamian city, ca. 2200 BCE
Standing statuette of Gudea, from Lagash (modern Telloh), Neo-Sumerian period, ca. 2150 BCE
Fresco from Zimrilim's palace, showing investiture of king, landscape scenes, Mari, ca. 1800-1750 BCE
Seated statuette of Gudea holding a plan of a temple in his lap, from Lagash (modern Telloh), Neo-Sumerian period, ca. 2150 BCE
Relief of an ssault on a city near a river, Palace of Assurnasirpal II, Assyria, ca. 900-612 BCE
Bronze daggers inlaid with gold and silver, using niello technique, from Grave Circle A, Mycenae, ca. 1600-1550 BCE
Man fighting centaur, Olympia, 750 BCE
Herakles and Nessos are wrestling. The hero is larger than the centaur to indicate his eventual victory. The hero's full nude body is meant to emphasize his natural beauty.
Protoattic amphora, Nessos Painter, Athens, 625 BCE
The painting depicts Herakles, whose name is inscribed beside him, battling a centaur on the neck of the vase. On the body is Perseus and the Gorgons, creatures with large wings and snakes in their hair, powerful enough to turn foes into stone.
Mantiklos Apollo, Thebes, 700-680 BCE
The position of the left arm suggests that it once held a bow, making the figure most likely Apollo. Mantiklos dedicated it to Apollo, inscribing his message on its thighs. The defined hair draped over his body and carved muscles on his torso suggest an interest taken in accurately representing human form.
New York Kouros, from Attica, near Athens, 600 BCE
Emulates the upright posture found in Egyptian sculpture, with stiff shoulders and arms close to the body, and left foot forward. The statue was for a funerary purpose and stood over a grave in Attica. The figure is, like the Mantiklos Apollo, in full nude to express the absolute perfection of the male human body.
Moscophoros (Calf-bearer), from the Acropolis in Athens, 560 BCE
Dedicated to Athena, a man carries a calf to her as a sacrifice. The man extends his left foot forward like the youthful kouroi statues, but his beard indicates that he is a mature, older man.
Anavyssos Kouros, from a village in Attica, near Athens, 540-530 BCE
Made to honor Kroisos, a young man who died heroically in battle. The body is more realistic than earlier works of the same type while retaining the standing pose of Egyptian sculptures. The body has defined flesh and muscular lines, the cheeks are fuller, and the facial features are pronounced.
Tripod vase, C Painter, 590 BCE
The painting shows the birth of Athena from the seated Zeus' head. Gods have gathered all around to witness the birth. As Athena springs forth, she is holding her characteristic spear and shield, ready for battle.
Amphora, Amasis Painter, 560 BCE
Dionysus dances with menads, crazy women who are eating the raw flesh off an animal as the god watches in approval. Dionysus is depicted in his usual appearance of an old man with a scraggly beard and holding a wine cup. The jar was used for storing wine, an appropriate function given the god's dominion over wine and agriculture.
Amphora, Exekias, 540 BCE
The attention is drawn to the two figures in the center by the swirling motifs that frame them. Achilles on the left in black thrusts his spear into the Amazon woman in white, Penthesilea. Exekias captures the emotional moment when the spear pierces her chest and the two figures' eyes are meant to meet, spurring a love that ends in tragedy.
Interior of Kylix (drinking cup), Exekias, 540 BCE
Dionysus is sailing on a boat with a sail featuring a grapevine and another of normal appearance. The boat's structure is reminiscent of a dolphin, indicating Exekias' skill as an artist at combining natural with supernatural features. The cup was used for drinking wine.
Krater, Euphronios, 515 BCE
Zeus' son, Sarpedon, has fallen in battle against the Greeks in the Trojan War. Sleep and Death carry Sarpedon's stiff corpse off the battlefield. Hermes guides them in the center as the god who leads the dead to the Underworld.
Amphora, Kleophrades Painter, 500-490 BCE
A scene of Dionysus with the menads and satyrs. A red figure vase, the type that was often made by slaves and thus not highly valued.
Bell krater, Pan Painter, 480 BCE
The painting is a comical narrative of an infatuated Pan, god of the woodlands, chasing Hermes. Pan is half-man and half-goat, and his goat half stimulates his sexual drive. Hermes is at a loss of how to react to Pan and flees.
Kylix, Brygos Painter, 480 BCE
Revelers. (Missing notes.)
Interior of Kylix, Brygos Painter, 480 BCE
Showing the morning after a party. (Missing notes.)
Bronze statuette of standing male, dedicated by Mantiklos to the god Apollo, the so-called Mantiklos Apollo, from Thebes, 700-680 BCE*
*3. Bronze statuette group showing man fighting centaur (Herakles and Nessos??), Olympia, ca. 750 BCE
Protoattic amphora by the Nessos Painter, from Athens, ca. 625 BCE: Perseus and the Gorgons (body); Herakles and Nessos (neck)
Anavyssos Kouros, funerary statue from a village in Attica, near Athens, ca. 540-530 BCE
Amphora by the Amasis Painter; 560 BCE; Dionysos and menads;Attica
8. Amphora by the Kleophrades Painter; 500-490 BCE; Dionysos and menads;Attica?
Kylix by the Brygos Painte, 480 BCEr;Attica?
Tripod vase by the C Painter; Birth of Athena; 590 BCE, Attica?
Interior of kylix; Dionysos on a boat with a grapevine for a mast;Attica?
Peplos kore, votive statue from the Athenian acropolis; Athens, ca. 530 BCE
Apollo and centaur;Temple of Zeus at Olympia;470
. The seer, east pediment of the temple of Zeus,Olympia;470-450
Funerary stele of Hegeso, Dipylon Cemetery in Athens, ca. 400 BCE
10. Part of the Nike balustrade, a sculpted frieze which ran around the exterior of the southwest wall of the Acropolis, completed ca. 410 BCE. Scene of a Nike bending down to adjust the strap on her sandal.
Peplos kore, Athens, 530 BCE
A votive statue of an unknown goddess wearing four different garments, one of which only a goddess was allowed to wear. Her missing left hand would have held the item that identified who she was. Small holes on her head indicate where a tiara would have been inserted.
Pediment of the west facade of the temple of Artemis, Corcyra, 600-580 BCE
Medusa is at the center with two panthers on either side of her, serving as guardians of the temple. The gorgon has a hideous face, threatening to turn anyone who looks at her into stone. She poses in the conventional Archaic manner of bent limbs in a pinwheel-like posture to suggest running or flying.
Reconstructed facade of the Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, 530 BCE
The building is of the Ionic order and features columns in the shape of elaborately dressed korai. The abundance of gold and silver mines on Delphi made this building especially luxurious. 10% of the people's incomes were directed toward its construction.
Detail of the north frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, 530 BCE
Battle of the Gods and Giants showing the lion chariot of Themis. Herakles and Themis fight together to defeat the Giants.
Temple of Athena Aphaia, island of Aigina, 500-480 BCE
Erected in dedication to both Athena and Aphaia, a local nymph goddess of the springs. The island was very prosperous with its hand in trade, and had enough capital to construct offerings and temples for the deities.
Central figure of Athena, west pediment, 500-480 BCE
The sculpture of Athena shows her garbed in her distinctive helmet, breastplate, and shield, with her right hand most likely having held a spear at some point. She stands perfectly straightforward in a garment of multiple folds and is in the traditional kore style. She has a flat, symmetrical face with an Archaic smile.
The Delphi Charioteer, sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, 470 BCE
The feet turned opposite ways, the twist of the waist, and his deep pensive expression all evoke the Severe style. He is dressed in the charioteer's garment, with vertically falling folds that emphasize the figure's composure and upright stance, resembling a Greek column. The original piece was part of a whole group of bronze figures including the chariot, his horses, and a groom.
The god found near Cape Artemision, original provenience unknown, 460 BCE
The identity of the god is unknown, but may be either Zeus or Poseidon. His right arm is in the midst of hurling some weapon, perhaps a lightning bolt or tident, or possibly even a javelin. His right foot is slightly lifted from the ground to accentuate the hollow-cast bronze material's light, stable qualities.
Riace Bronze Warrior, found in the sea near Riace, southern Italy, 460-450 BCE
The warrior is posed naturally with his weight shifted, head turned, and arms swinging freely away from his sides. Originally, it would have been wearing a helmet and wielding a spear and shield. Signs of age are made apparent in the sunken cheeks and the long beard.
East pediment, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BCE
Chariot race between Peplos and Oinomaos. The story is of Oinomaos setting up the chariot races in order to find his daughter the most worthy suitor. Peplos has bribed the charioteer into rigging the chariot so that Oinomaos will be killed during the race.
The seer, east pediment, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BCE
The seer is depicted as an old man, a rare choice of figure for Classical sculpture. He has had a shocking vision of what will happen to Oinomaos during the race, but it is already too late to do anything.
West pediment, Apollo and centaurs, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BCE
Two centaurs drunkenly attack each other and the guests at a wedding. Apollo reaches out his hand in a commanding gesture to stop the battle between them.
Temple of Athena Parthenos (Athena the Maiden), northwest view, Iktinos and Kallikrates, Acropolis in Athens, 447-438 BCE
The Parthenon's every dimension was calculated to mathematical “perfection” by Iktinos in accordance with the belief that harmonic numerical ratios equated beauty. The temple was a dedication to Athena as well as a testament to the power of the Athenians.
South metope of centaur and lapith, Parthenon, 447-438 BCE
A relief of a nude Greek warrior/lapith battling a centaur. It alludes to the triumph of Greek civilization over the barbaric Persians.
Frieze, east pediment, Parthenon, 447-438 BCE
Birth of Athena; she emerges from Zeus' head armed and ready for battle. An assembly of the gods watch the main scene, including Poseidon, Apollo, and Artemis.
Temple of Athena Nike (east view), Kallikrates, Acropolis in Athens, 424-421 BCE
The temple is amphiprostyle, featuring four columns on both the east and west sides. The temple is dedicated to the Athenian victory over the Persians.
Nike balustrade, Temple of Athena Nike, 410 BCE: A sculpted frieze that ran around the exterior of the southwest wall of the Acropolis. It depicts very human scene of the goddess Nike bending down to adjust the strap on her sandal. The draping folds of her dress create numerous intricate patterns that cling to Nike and expose her form.
Erechtheion (east view), Athens, 421-405 BCE
Temple dedicated to Athena, Poseidon, and Erechtheus (a legendary king of early Athens). The temple was erected on the very spot where Athena and Poseidon had their contest to lay claim to Athens. The plan of the building was uniquely asymmetrical compared to a typical Greek temple, featuring four sides that all rested on different ground levels.
Porch of the Maidens, Erechtheion, 421-405 BCE
View from the southwest showing the Caryatid porch. Caryatid columns stand with their weight shifted and their garments draped fluidly over their bodies, merging the rigidity of a column with the soft flexibility of a real, living human body.
Funerary stele of Hegeso, Dipylon Cemetery in Athens, 400 BCE
The stele commemorates the death of a young woman known as Hegeso, as written on the epitaph on the cornice of the pediment. Hegeso sits on a fancy chair as a maid brings her a jewelry box, possibly the dowry her father Proxenos would have given to her future husband. The scene is one of unassuming tranquility, representing a single moment from the daily lives of the women.
Hermes holding the infant Dionysos, Praxiteles, Olympia, 340-330 BCE
Hermes' body is tilted in a smooth S-curve that is typical of Praxiteles' work. The god holds aloft a bunch of grapes like a toy from the infant Dionysus. The scene is very human in nature despite the godly subjects portrayed.
Aerial view of the theater, Epidauros, 350-300 BCE
The open-air theater was built into the hillside, and the sloping of the seats allowed the entire audience an equal view of the center stage. The perfect semi-circular shape of the theater provided perfect acoustics that even the furthest rows from the stage could hear. Plays were performed in the daytime and included tragedies and comedies.
Alexander mosaic, Roman copy of a painting, Pompeii, 310 BCE
The mosaic is an imitation of an actual painting of Alexander the Great's famous victory over the Persian king. The moment illustrated is of Alexander whipping his horse to chase the king, who is terrified at the sight and flees, leaving the Persian army so demoralized that defeat is inevitable. It is intended to be a record of an actual historic event.
Wall painting, the Abduction of Persephone by Hades, tomb in Aigai, Macedonia, 350 BCE
Hades has snatched Persephone to be his bride and rides away into the Underworld on his chariot. Persephone's arms flail wildly in the air as she reaches to her mother, Demeter, for help. The painting is one of very few surviving examples from Ancient Greece.
Galatian chief killing himself and his wife, Roman copy of statue group, Pergamon, 220 BCE
In defiance of capture, a Galatian chief has killed his wife and is now in the moment of taking his own by driving his sword into his chest. His choppy, curly hair, mustache, and the torque around his neck are all distinctive characteristics of the Gauls. The sculptor portrayed them as noble foes reacting dramatically to their defeat.
Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, 180-160 BCE
A long sculpted frieze ran around the entire length of the altar platform, narrating the battle of Zeus and his fellow gods against the giants for control of the world. The gods are meant to represent the triumphant Greeks defeating the Persians, represented as the giants.
Athena has grabbed a hold of Alkyoneos by his hair as his mother, Gaia, looks on in horror. Nike flies in to crown Athena victorious in the battle. The swirling draperies and vividness of the scene all lend an especially violent sense of movement to the great battle.
Stoa of Attalos, Athens, 159-138 BCE
Building donated by Attalos II of Pergamon, an alumnus who studied at Athens as a youth. The ground level columns are of the Doric order while the second story is Ionic. The mixture of both shows the Hellenistic desire for variety and decoration in Greek architecture, as opposed to the strictness of style in the past.
Seated boxer, Roman copy of Hellenistic original, location unknown, 200-100 BCE
The Greek depiction a perfect, handsome young man/athlete has been abandoned in favor of this old, veteran boxer who sits battered from defeat. His face is warped from a broken nose and teeth, and his ears smashed.
Nike (Victory) alighting on a warship, island of Samothrace, 190 BCE
Nike has just arrived upon the prow of a Greek warship to crown the naval victor. Her wings are mid-flap and her garments are swept relentlessly by the wind. The statue was originally placed in a fountain to further amplify the illusion of the goddess settling on the prow as water beat against the ship in waves.
Temple of ArtemisActual State of the sculpture in the pediment of the west facade of the temple of Artemis
Dipylon Krater - pg 108
This is from Athens, Greece
Bronze statuette of standing male, dedicated by Mantiklos to the god Apollo
New York Kouros
Location: Attica, Greece
from Acropolis (sanctuary of Athena)
Black figure technique
Made in Athens
Amphora by the Amasis Painter, 540 BCE, Dionysus and Maenads
Depicts Dionysus holding a large wine cup
Made in Athens
Amasis signed it-meant he was most likely the painter and the vase maker
Scene is basic and popular.
Amphora by Exekias, suicide of Ajax (Achilles and Penthesilea?)
Exekias signed as both potter and painter.
Made in Athens
Kylix with Dionysos
Interior of Kylix with Dionysos on a boat with a grapevine for a mast:
Krater by Euphronios, Sarpedon carried off the battlefield by Sleep and Death
Creator : Euphronios
Amphora with Maenads and Satyrs
Red figure vase
The vases were often made by slaves, artists were not valued very much
by the Pan Painter, Pan pursues Hermes
Pan = god of woodlands
Half man half goat
Lady of Auxerre
Greek naturalism ..?
Kore With Pomegranate
Hera of Samos
Peplos Kore - pg 114
Votive statue from the Athenian acropolis in Athens
Three dimensional woman is move from before
Reconstructed Facade of Siphnian Treasury
At the sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, 530 BCE
treasuries In ancient Greece, a small building set up for the safe storage of votive offerings.
Siphnian Treasury Frieze - pg 119
We can see Heracles and a chariot with Lions
Ionic feature of the Siphnian Treasury - continuous frieze on all four sides of the building
The pediment would be in the V shape on the roof
dedicated to deity of water nymph
Shows similarity to Kore sculptures
We know that this is Athena from the helmet and breastplate
under life size
These were found in a shipwreck
Found off of the coast of southern Italy
-Herakles and 12 labors
-Herakles - founder of olympic games
-is shown holding up the Earth with help fromAthena
Temple of Athena Parthenos
(Athena the Maiden)/Parthenon
The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates
located in Athens
Metope Illustrating battle of Lapiths and the Centaurs
lapiths(noble) is trying to gouge out the centaur’s eye
located in the Parthenon in Athens
Assembly of the gods Frieze
(Poseidon, Apollo, and Artemis)
6 males deities and 6 female deities having some kind of conference
located in the Parthenon in Athens, Greece
Temple of Athena Nike
dedicated to the goddess of protection (athena nike)
made because of the victory in the persian war
located in Athens
depicts nike bending over to fix the strap on her sandal
her garment clings to her body
sculpted frieze which ran around the exterior of the southwest wall of the Acropolis
located in the in Athens
temple dedicated to Athena, Poseidon, and Erechtheus (a legendary king of early Athens)
L shaped building
Erechtheion Caryatid Porch
"Porch of the Maidens"
six draped female figures (caryatids) as supporting columns
located in Erechtheion, temple dedicated to Athena, Poseidon, and Erechtheus in Athens
Funerary stele of Hegeso Proxeno
Hegeso seating on a Klysmos chair with her servant facing her offering to her a jewelry box
adorning herself for trip to afterlife
calm unemotional pose
she is mourning
found in the Dipylon Cemetery in Athens
Hermes holding the infant Dionysos
Hermes holding what could be grapes to guide baby (dangling grapes)
has grecian face/handsome
found in Olympia
Theater at Epidauros
built on hillside for equal viewing
orchestra=dancing (to dance)
can hold up to 16,000-18,000 people
from the sanctuary of Asklepios (a healing divinity) at Epidauros
mosaic depicting Alexander and Darius, the Persian king at the battle of the Issos
provenience of painting unknown
Tesserae: cubical pieces of glass or tiny stones cut to the desired size and shape
The Abduction of Persephone by Hades
Persephone being snatched away to the underworld
shows that greeks were skilled painters as well
located in Macedonia, Greece
Galatian chief who has killed his wife and then himself
realized army has been defeated. He doesnt want to be captured nor does he want his family to be captured
located in Pergamon
prefer suicide over surrender
Great Altar of Zeus
dedicated to Zeus for saving the people of the Galations
exaggerated emotions and body types
gods obvious winners
from Pergamon altar
Stoa of Attalos
The stoa is identified as a gift to the city of Athens for the education that Attalos received there
large 2 stories
doric order exterior/ ionic order for interior
located in Pergamon
Seated boxer or Therme Boxer
nude male athlete
hands bound up showing that he is a boxer
shows that he has been in multiple battles (boxing matches)
Nike of Samothrace
clothes cling to her body
It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery
marble statue 8ft tall
found on the island of Samothrace
An ornamental pattern in bands of geometric, interlocked motifs. Can also cover broad surfaces.
Ex. Dipylon Krater
Incised linear details on black-glaze silhouettes on vase paintings. The black areas are a slip of finely sifted clay that were originally the same red-orange color as the clay used for the vase. Due to the ceramic firing process that involves three phases, the resultant slip turns black.
Ex. Tripod vase
A simple, long garment made of wool with a belt. Worn by women.
ex. Peplos Kore
A “lost-wax” process that required many intricate steps and repetition. Clay and wax were used to form hollow models that would eventually be filled with molten bronze to create the individual parts of the statue, which were then fitted together.
ex. The Delphi Charioteer
Series of small colored stones assembled to make a narrative scene, as though like a painting.
ex. Alexander mosaic
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