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A. Humors that determined the body’s health or illness
B. Zones of the habitable world
C. The races of man
D. Features of the human face
2. What sources did Medieval European scholars consult to gain knowledge about the natural world?
3. According to Grafton, what did Galileo, Bacon, and Descartes all agree upon?
C. That practical experience and observation were more reliable than books
B. They tried to make their interpretations of new worlds synch with what they had read in ancient texts.
6. According to Grafton, early Modern Europeans saw the people of the New World:
B. Through their own biases and frameworks
7. Besides instructing us how to get from ‘here’ to ‘there’, Harley claims that maps are all of the following except:
A. Reflections of social orders
B. Reflections of cultural values
C. Reflections of political power
D. Reflections of reality
8. Which of the following was most emphasized by 16th century maps makers?
A. The hunt for gold
9. The word 'cartography' means
10. What most defined European maps from those of indigenous Americans?
C. They were more practical and technical
1. Who was Giovanni Arnolfini?
B. A wealthy textile merchant
2. Each of the following are reasons for the explosion of learning and creativity associated with the Renaissance EXCEPT:
A. A repressive government
B. A prosperous middle class
C. A new interest in the natural world
D. A Humanist interest in individual personalities
3. ____ perspective describes the technique by which a painter represents objects in the 'background' of a painting with paler color and less defined outlines.
4. What city was the commercial center of Northern Europe during the 15th century? ______.
5. All of the following impacted the rise of Flemish art in the 15th century EXCEPT:
A. Strong economy based on the textile industry and international trade
B. Strong guilds whose members were also involved in local politics
C. Cities that were largely governed by the monarchy
D. Patronage by town councils, civic groups, and merchants
6. Which of the following is NOT a feature of the Mérode Altarpiece?
B. The depiction of the pope
7. What did the paintings of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden have in common?
B. The use of subdued color
8. All of the following resulted from the development of the printing press in the 15th century except:
A. The ability to re-produce images and texts
B. The production of books in multiple copies
C. The production of relatively inexpensive devotional images for pilgrims
D. The production of expensive books copied by hand
9. Engraving requires the use of a tool called a ____.
10. What is the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)?
__A book produced by Anton Nuremberg in collaboration with scholars and artists that illustrates the history of the world through woodcut prints and text written by physician Hartmann Schedel__.
4. Van Eyck worked exclusively for the Duke of Burgundy
5. Nearly all of the members of the Bruges painters‚Äô guilds were natives of the city.
6. In addition to complex alterpieces, portraits, and small private alterpieces, van Eyck and his Netherlandish contemporaries pioneered the representation of ______________.
7. Italian artists commonly______________________ Flemish landscapes.
8. As the examples discussed in pages 86-92 illustrate, Flemish painters never compromised their artistic traditions to please foreign patrons.
9. Rulers of European countries could attain Netherlandish-style artworks in each of the following ways except:
A. Commissioning artists who lived in the Netherlands
B. Sending their court painters to the Netherlands to study
C. Commissioning artists from the Netherlands who lived abroad
D. Establishing local schools dedicated to teaching the Netherlandish style
D. Artists in Antwerp were heavily influenced by Italian Renaissance art
A. Cities grew in wealth and independence
B. Mercenary armies were led by military commanders called condottieri
C. Patronage of the arts became an important public activity with political overtones
D. The arts were a secondary concern of wealthy merchants and the nobility
8. Which guild commissioned Donatelo's sculpture of St. George in the Orsanmichele?
___Amorers and Sword-makers guild___________________________
9. Why was the story of David and Goliath important to 15th century Florentines?
Because David defeated his much larger, more powerful enemy with intelligence, virtue, and wit (Florentines were small Republic under constant threat of attack from larger, more powerful city states)
1. According to Richardson, all of the following are true of single-point perspective EXCEPT:
C. It was the technical skill that made Italian artists superior to their Northern European counterparts
2. How did Leonardo da Vinci describe single-point perspective?
B. As “two horses running towards their goal along parallel tracks”
3. Which of the following best characterizes how artists such as Giotto and the Lorenzetti brothers used perspective?
C. They used visual observation to create convincing relationships between objects and figures in space
4. Why were landscapes particularly difficult to depict realistically?
C. Because of the lack of orthogonal lines
5. Who is credited with the discovery of single-point perspective?
D. Filippo Brunelleschi
6. How did a viewer test the accuracy of Brunelleschi’s perspectival painting?
D. By looking through a hole in the back of the painting and comparing its reflection in a mirror with the actual Baptistery
7. In single-point perspective, what does the ‘vanishing point’ correspond to?
A. The eye level and focal point of the viewer
8. Who was the first to write down instructions for artists on how to use single-point perspective?
C. Leon Battista Alberti
9. What is unique about Piero della Francesca’s Flagellation (1450-60)?
C. It adheres to formal single-point perspective over and above other artistic concerns
10. The relationship between the _______and the _______ is fundamental to single-point perspective.
B. Viewer and artwork
11. In the single-point perspective system, what dictates where the horizon line is located?
A. The vanishing point
12. According to Richardson (p. 88), why did Northern European painters not adopt single-point perspective until after the 1450s?
D. They had other priorities for their paintings
13. What medium (type of paint) did Leonardo da Vinci use for the Mona Lisa (c. 1503-06), allowing him to achieve subtle aerial perspective?
14. Who is thought to be the first Netherlandish painter to use single-point perspective?
A. Jan van Eyck
15. According to Richardson (p. 100), 15th century artists used single-point perspective:
B. Selectively, when it served the larger purpose of the painting
1. What was Pope Julius II’s vision for the art that he commissioned?
B. That it reflect his quest for a worldwide Church based on humanistic ideas
2. What characterizes High Renaissance style?
A. Visual harmony, compositional balance, and Classical ideals
3. Raphael included all of the following people in his painting ‘The School of Athens’ (1510-1511) EXCEPT:
D. Pope Julius II
4. What city attracted some of the greatest Italian artists of the sixteenth century at the beginning of their careers?
5. Leonardo unified his paintings through the use of ____________, a thin layer of varnish that enhanced an overall smoky haze.
6. What is the cause of the extensive damage to Leonardo’s painting of ‘The Last Supper’ (Figs. 20-3 and 20-4)?
B. The experimental technique used in its production
7. In Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Fig. 20-12), the _____________are depicted in the spandrels.
C. Ancestors of Jesus
8. In contrast to Leonardo da Vinci’s beliefs, Michelangelo believed __________to be the most complete means of creating an illusion of the natural world.
9. How does Michelangelo’s David differ from the classical sculpture that inspired it?
C. The figure’s emotional intensity
10. Michelangelo’s Last Judgment (Fig. 20-34) departs from medieval tradition by____________________
C. Not clearly separating the saved from the damned
11. The use of tempera paint gave way to _____ painting in the High Renaissance.
12. The Catholic Church responded to the ___________ with the Counter-Reformation.
Jesus is in the center more formal balance unlike the triangle balance and if we split the painting down the middle you will see that it has balance and not everyone on one side
-three windows in the back stands foe the trinity three points in each group there are four groups of three and there are two groups on each side of him
-the window behind Jesus has a round pediment and that stands for his halo-the guy who is black on the left is the bad guy
chiaroscuro emphasizes play of light and shadow on figures
figures arranged in pyramid form- dense space
-one of his early paintings he divides a specific technique here with a triangle
-he successfully did that by having the virgin at the top and the less important people at the bottom and you cant have a triangle without a balance base
-he makes the balance by having the virgins arm around the baby because on the right there are two on the right and the people on the right there helping us by pointing towards the left and how there body is shaped
“The Idea of the Renaissance”
Renaissance as period of ‘rebirth’
Renaissance as period of cultural ‘flourishing’
Renaissance as period of ‘innovation’ “Realism” (a problematic term)
• Style – way of representing object/idea (with some degree of unity or consistency (period, regional, personal)
• Iconography – “the writing of images”
Representation – to stand in for/give voice to (someone/thing else)
• Personification – the ways in which abstract ideas are given natural (often human form)
Symbol – an image that represents a person, belief, idea, etc. that is oftentimes very different in appearance than the symbol itself
Visual convention/trope – a typical, common, or accepted way of depicting objects/ideas
• Technique – the processes artists use and the
humans assert themselves as the centers of their world, each with an individual perspective or point of view
– specific (patrons)
– potential audience (who would purchase a piece on the open market after it was completed)
– Generalized (who would see and recognize the value of an artwork because it relates to their ‘world view’)
The individual self who is capable of representing his or her own world
– Takes on some of the responsibility that would have previously only been attributed to God
– We’ll refer to this as an ‘invention’ of The Artist—not because it isn’t real but because this particular way of
• The object
– Elements of composition, line, color, shape, technique —the objective formal qualities or characteristics of an art work that convey the message or content
Some socio-cultural aspects: of the renaissance
Introduction to the Idea of “The Renaissance” Some socio-cultural aspects:
● growing concern with the natural world, the individual, and humanity’s worldly existence; develops out of study of classical Greek philosophy
● trade and commerce is robust and now includes trade in commodities, trade in money, and the development of banking, exchange systems, credit systems; a new economic network of enterprising European cities
● this makes possible international trading companies and a wealthy merchant class
● age of world exploration; beginnings of scientific inquiry; invention of movable type
● it’s not all sweetness and light though, e.g.:
two competing popes (at Avignon and Rome) from 1378-1417 Hundred Years’ War between France and England 1337-1453
Black Death (bubonic plague) starts in the 14th century but sporadic
outbreaks continue (during the worst years, kills 25-50% of the population of Europe in 5 years)
● a French term meaning “rebirth” ; in Italian rinascità
● a notion referred to by Giorgio Vasari in the 16th century in terms of artists’ “return” to artistic forms of classical antiquity (ancient Greece and Rome)
● this term is expanded by 19th century historians to address the sense that the era between 1400 and 1700 seemed to hold the basic underpinnings of our modern age; it’s specifically tied to the ideas of nationalism, individualism, humanism. Like all historical categories, it uses the past to explain the present.
● in both instances, the idea of this rebirth necessarily relies on the notion of needing to be reborn from something—that’s the Middle Ages, seen as a decline and an era of superstition and to some degree, irrationality
● a key element is the intellectual development around the idea of the power of human potential—a line of thought known as humanism
● humanism not divorced at all from religious ideals, rather a new way of thinking about the place of humans in the world; this same interest marks the trends seen in art as well with the depiction of the human body and the world around it
● artists’ guilds flourish and are very influential; artists and workshops can produce works for the market; not completely reliant on specific patrons; merchant class a key component now of the art market; art as commodity
● with the increase in trade and travel comes a rich exchange of artistic styles
● notion of the artist as an individual in possession of creative powers that s/he has some authority over in creating his or her own world through art; often only attributed to God in an earlier period
● part of the interest in the natural world includes the close observation of nature, humans, objects and necessarily involves the skills of artists
● development of one-point linear perspective; emphasis/value on precisely imitating what is seen
● technique of painting with oil further enables precision, depth, etc.
N. Europe. low countries
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