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WilliamMorris, Daisy wallpaper, 1862, Victorian Age
Admirer of Ruskin, shared interest in medieval art & arch. Mid Ages: art madeby people for people. Advocate of handmade products: counter negativeaspects of manufacturing. Inspired Arts & Crafts mvmt through writings& lectures & promoted pre-industrial craft. Active as wallpaperdesigner in later life. Not at Intl Exh. Early exh of output. Flower motiffavorite: simple, stylized inspired by folk art. Hand-printed. Very expensive(conflict w/ art for people).
E. W. Godwin,Drop-leaf table with shelf, c. 1872, Victorian Age Exh of1862: Japanese Court (new for this exh). Matthew Perry signed convention, Jap goods shipped to West. Most articles utilitarian.Craftsmanship/ simplicity attracted designers who saw asalt to Gothic style. Wanted to abandon historic eclectism to developauthentic 19th c style. Devoid of ornament, owesattractiveness to craftsmanship & design of structural elements. Asymmetry: charctrstc
The interiorof the Palais de l’Industrie at the Universal Expostion of Paris, 1855, French2nd Emp French mostfully realized potential of intl expo: instrument of national propaganda& showcase of innov. Napoleon III saw expo as way to consolidate imperial power & enhance France’sprestige. Not in single hall (like Crystal Palace): aim to surpass. Glass used moredaringly. Ctrl hall: enormous iron arches support vaulted glassceiling, allowing wider span.
The exteriorof the Palais de l’Industrie at the Universal Exposition of Paris, 1855, French2nd Emp French mostfully realized potential of intl expo: as instrument of national propaganda& showcase of innov. Napoleon III saw as way to consolidate imperial power/ enhance France’sprestige. Not in single hall (like Crystal Palace). Exterior main diff from CP: clothed intrad stone structure w/ arched windows (Beaux-Arts norms): lessprogressive.
The Hall ofMachines at the Universal Exposition of Paris, 1855, French 2ndEmpire In addition toPalais de l’Industrie devoted to industrial produces, exh of 1855 featuredseparate Hall of Machines. Along bank of the Seine. Narrower than Palaisde l’Industrie, almost 1 mile in length. Lined upon on one side oflong gallery was series of enormous machines: fascinated visitors thathenceforth, machine galleries would be a standard feature of intl expo.
GustaveCourbet, The Painter’s Atelier: A Real Allegory of Seven Years of my ArtisticLife, 1854—55, French 2nd Empire Intl Exh: ImperialCommission courted artists they felt would make good show. This refused. Org own exh on grounds opposed Palais des Beaux-Arts. Novel scope & context: no jury. On role as modern artist, R; gathering of friends, collectors, crit. L: motley grpwaiting. Subtitled: A Real Allegory of 7 yrs of my Artistic Life:parallel btw him & Nap III.
HenriValentin, The Opening Ceremony of the Universal Exposition, 15 May 1855, French2nd Empire
Napoleonattempted to place himself at ctr of political world throughout 1855 Paris exh,which was culmination of 7 years of his reign over France.
Alexandre Calame,Lake of the Four Cantons, 1855, French 2nd Empire
At Intl Expo of1855. In Swiss Pavilion, visitors drawn to his wk. Awarded 1st classmedal. Appealed to public’s growing interest in travel facilitated by expansionof railroads & development of tourist industry: travel agencies, hotels,printed travel guides.
Jean-BaptisteKrantz and Frederic Le Play, Exhibition Building and Pavilions, 1867, French 2ndEmpire
During regime ofNap III, 2nd exh opened in France on Champ de Mars. Planned tobe round like globe, site restrictions forced ellipse design: 7 concentric galleries, outermost: machines. Next5 move inward: clothing, furniture, raw materials, hist of wk &fine arts. Innermost: garden w/ palms & statues. Circle: go around world, all people here, enemies side by side.
The HokusaiSketches (Denshin Kaishu Hokusai Manga), vol. 3 of Etehon, 1815, JapanesePavilion, 1867 Universal Expo of French 2nd Empire Like London exh, w/ participation of Japan. Handmade furniture, decorativeobj for home: most admired items in Japanese sec: ptgs & woodblockprints after sketches by deceased artist Hokusai. Multi-volwk reproduce random sketches w/ wrestlers. Western viewersstruck by reduction to bare essence.
Anonymous,The Fallen Vendome Column, 1871, Paris Commune, French 3rd Republic,Early PhotojJ 1870 Prussianchancellor Otto von Bismarck provoked political crisis to induce France todeclare war. Franc worried united Germany would underminedominanc & declared war, troops not prepared. Paris no surrndr, est Commune. Aftrmth. Communards behind fallenstatue of Nap in Roman imperial garb. Toppled symb of imperial power toerase memory of Nap & nephew.
Andre-Adolphe-EugeneDisderi, Cadavers of the Insurgents, 1871, Paris Commune, French 3rdRepublic, Early Photojournalism
Contrast toproud img of rebellion. Lined up for burial after mass execuation ordered byVersailles gvmt. Stark expose of gvmt that methodically killed its own people.Tradition of documenting horrors of war & political brutality that wentback to Goya. Anticipates modern photo-journalism.
Auguste-BrunoBraquehais, Hotel de Ville, May 1871, Paris Commune, French 3rdRepublic, Early PhotoJ Photo'dParis in wake of war. City in ruins, many mjr bldgs & thoroughfaresdestroyed. Photo of burnt-out town hall of Paris shows charred abandoned bldgthat stands silent, ghostlike in aftermath of war. Imgs like this not intended for repro in newspprs or mags. Halftone process forrepro photos not yet invented. Instead sold in shops: indiv oralbums.
AugusteRodin, La Defense (The Call to Arms) 1879—80, French 3rd Republic,Romantic Sculpture 1879 2 compet by city council of Paris: 1 of 2. 2-fig sculpture to honorcitizens for defending against Prussians. 1stmonumnt: alleg of defense. Submitted plaster cast w/ winged fig w/Phyrgian bonnet: mixed alleg of Lib, France, Victory, urges nudewounded soldier not to give up. Continues Romantic trad ofRude & Carpeaux. Dramatic contrastbtw allegorical fig & passiv soldier.
Jules Dalou,Triumph of the Republic, 1879—89, French 3rd Republic 2ndcompet for multi-fig monmnt to Repub. Ex-Communard. To be placed atctr of Nation Square. Ctrs: larger than life allegory of Republic w/ Phrygiancap & fasces. Globe, rests on chariot pulled by 2 lions. Symb: strngth of pple. Lions led by Librty, yng boy w/ torch inraised hand. Additnal alleg. figs: Labor, Justice, Abundance (Peace).Rep of sculpture since Romantic per. Abandoned staticneo-cl forms.
Frederic-AugusteBartholdi, Statue of Liberty (or Liberty Enlightening the World), 1875—84, Fr 3rd Rep Orig: LibertyEnligtg World: colossal fig commem frdship btw Fr &US. Bedloe’s Isl NY harbor: seen from afar. Simple form not Baroqu. Clsscl alleg w/ 3 non-trad attires. Phyrgianbonnet = ref to slavery & Fr Rev radicalism so chose helmet = Colossus orRhodes, sculpture of sun-god Helios. Torch = enligmt, beaconfor world. Tablet: law, protect frdom.
Stage ofconstruction of the Statue of Liberty, French 3rd Republic
New method ofproduction: beaten copper sheets riveted. Couldn’t be cast in bronze. ArchitectViollet-le-Duc & engineer Gustave Eiffel served as technical consultants onproject. Executed in Paris, dismantled for shipping. Americans raised funds forgigantic pedestal designed by well-known American architect Richard MorrisHunt.
Pierre Puvisde Chavannes, Legendary Saints of France & the Pastoral Life of St.Genevieve, 1877, Fr 3rd Repub French gvmtmural commiss: art for pple, propaganda of repub ideals. Mostcelebrtd artists asked to do mural cycle of Pantheon. 2/4 dedicated to life of St. Genevieve.1 w/ scenes of her childhood incl episode when Bishop Germainin Fr countryside drawn to 7 yr old girl seems marked for sainthood.Underplays perspective. Insp by Ital Ren frescos.
Pierre Puvisde Chavannes, The Childhood of St. Genevieve, right panel of The Pastoral Lifeof St. Genevieve, 1877, Fr 3rd Rep Fr gvmtmural commiss: art for pple, propaganda of repub ideals. Mostcelebrtd artists of time asked to do mural cycle of Panth. 2 of 4 murals dedicated to life of St. Genevieve. Underplysperspec. R: childhood in Fr ctryside: woman milkingcow, men plowing land, little girl watching ynger siblings, old man limpingaround crutch.
WilliamBouguereau, Young Girl Defending Herself against Eros, 1880, Fr 3rdRep, Acad Art 3rdRepub crisis in state-sponsored Salon led to demise: exh ormketplace. Ministers wanted return to showplace of excellence. Gvmt gave org to artists: run by Society of Fr Artists = polished, seductiveness of acad ptg in last decades of 19th c. Subj absurd: yng girl wards off Cupid: alleg of male libido. No conviction in struggle, shows off nude body. Not dramatic, tense, but pretty.
Jules Breton,Song of the Lark, 1884, French 3rd Republic, Realism Popular Realism:more sentimental in course of 1870s & 80s became popular w/ gen public.Yng peasant girl, sickle in hand, on way to work early morning. As sunrises dramticlly behind, listens to song of skylark. Positive img of pesant girl awakening to beauty of world, appealed tobourgeois public. Liked to think of lower classes as content w/ littlepleasures of life. Popular in US, inspired novel.
JulesBastien-Lepage, The Haymakers, 1878, French 3rd Repub, Naturalism Peasant ptrsemerg at Salons of 1870s & 80s. Best-known. Exact definition debated,considered a revised form of Realism. Devoid of ref to past art.Carefully staged scenes imitated real-life situations. Careful detailunlike Impress. Young peasant couple resting in field after midday soup.Man fast asleep, straw hat pulled over eyes, woman dazed from nap. Freshtonality unique. Plein-air.
JulesBastien_lepage, Joan of Arc Listening to the Voices, 1879, Fr 3rdRepub, Naturlsm Used photogs as aids. This naturalistic though historic subj. Mixed receptn Salon of 1880:ambiguous: btw history ptg & reallife. Joan of Arc pop 19thc. Renewed poignancy after Franco-Pruss war, Germans annexed Lorraine, was born. Abnormal depict: Lorraine peasant receives divine calling. Spinning wheel: ethereal form of sts Michael, Margaret,Catherine.
EdouardManet, Railroad (Gare St.-Lazare), 1873, Impressionism Abandonedshocking subj matter of early 1860s. Only wk by him admitted to Salon of1874. Contemp urban life. Young woman & little girl wait near black ironfence: spans width. Woman: simple dark-blue dress & black hatsits on masonry base & anchors fence. Aware of our presence, looks up fromreading. Little girl fascinated by life beyond fence. We: cast in roles ofpassersby. Fleeting momnt of modern life. Some parts unfinished.
EdouardManet, A Bar at the Folies Bergere, 1881—82, Impressionism Last major ptg.Submitted to Salon of 1882. Centered on young barmaid: glances at viewer frombehind marble counter w/ bottles & glassware. Behind: mirror w/ reflectionof Folies Bergere, 1 of most famous variety nightclubs. Incorrect angle, seeback & man w/ droopy mustache, stand-in for us the viewers, ordering drinkor propositioning her. She’s aloof & emotionless, showing boredom/indifference to countless men. Essence: fleeting encounter.
E. Bichon,Exhibition of Watercolors in the Durand-Ruel Gallery, 1879, French 3rdRepublic, wood engraving Art galleriesbring art to attn of public. Exh in galleries couldn’t compete w/salons but offered more pleasant viewing experience. Expensive textile wallhangings & gas spotlights for evening viewing. Dealer exh surpassedsalons in tasteful presentation of art works & in coherence of arrgmts.Unlike Salons, galleries open year round.
Claude Monet,La Grenouillere, 1869, pre-Impressionist Wanted toeliminate distinction btw sketch & finished ptg. 2 ptgs of popular bathingplace on River Seine, The Frog Pond. Anticipates Impress, Sunrise in loose,spontaneous brushwork, intended as preliminary sketches for lg tableau orfinished ptg that he intended to submit to Salon of 1870 but nevermaterialized. Retained freshness/ freedom of sketch. Showed 4 years later at 1stImp exh.
EugeneBoudin, The Beach at Trouville, 1865, pre-Impressionism
Plein-airpractice becoming common: invention of paint in tubes. Encouragesd Monet’spleinair practice. Local Norman ptr who produced fashionable beach scenes forsale to summer tourists. Based on numerous sketches made outdoors often incompany of Monet. Encouraged other artists to leave studio.
Pierre-AugusteRenoir, La Grenouillere, 1869, pre-Impressionism
Befriended Monet& wked w/ him at La Grenouillere. Joined Monet in founding the PrivateCompany in 1873, had similar difficulty in being admitted to Salon.
CamillePisarro, White Frost, 1873, Impressionism
Joined Monet in PrivateCompany in 1873; similar difficulty in being admitted to Salon. Rural lndscp near Pontoise, outside Paris (home in early 1870s). Diff brushwork was resultof specific subject matter. Monet’s broad horizontal strokes effective forwater. Pissarro: short, fuzzy dabs of paint. Sensitive to light & atmos.Long, watery-blue shadows cast invis row of poplar trees: suggest clear, thinlight of bright winter day.
AlfredSisley, Inundation at Loge Island, 1872, Impres Joined Monet inPrivate Company 1873; similar difficulty in being admitted to Salon. Interestedin water like Monet. Never ptd harbors, sea, fascinated by rivers. Alwayslived close to Seine/ tributaries. Exh at 1st Impress exh.River flooding: frequent in Seine system & common subj forSisley: ptd vast expanses of water w/ vertical elements: houses, trees,telegraphpoles. Liked subdued, gray light of rain.
Claude Monet,Gare St-Lazare, Paris, 1877, Impressionism Throughoutcareer focused on ldscps: new ways to render light/ atmosphere. 3rdImpressionist exh of 1877. Far removed from earlier harbor, sea, rivercanvases. Dark locomotives, glass roof, dirty gravel. Made 12 ptgs of stationfrom various views & times. Exemplify moder life in chaos &instability” coming, going, billowing steam clouds, hurrying on platforms.
Claude Monet,Manneporte, Etretat, 1883, Impressionism 1883—1886 insummers on Atlantic coast made ptgs of steep chalk cliffs. Fascinatedby effects on rocks of changeable light caused by mvmt of sun & inconstantweather. Close-up of dramatic rock: thin, straight strokes of orange,pink, blue, violet, green, yellow. Tried to forget beige-gray as he knew it tobe. Scientific theories of Hermann von Helmholtz: Handbook of PhysiologicalOptics: brains adjust to what we see, perception is inadequate.
Claude Monet,Women in the Garden 1866—67, pre-Impressionism Imp w/ humanfig: in contemp bourgeois clothes engaged in leisure activity. Emphasis: leisure life sets them apart from Realists/ Naturalists. By-product ofcapitalism. Bourgeois women main protagonists. Launched Impr outdoorfig ptg. 2nd attempt at emulating Manet’s Déjeuner.Refused Salon 1867. Wife model. Unprecedented: ptd entire pic outdoors. Capture accuracy of light effect.
FredericBazille, The Family Gathering, 1867, pre-Impressionism Ptd after Monet’sexample of Women in the Garden. Fellow student in atelier of Gleyre. Exh atSalon 1868, Zola who wrote a reiview: “painter loves his time… believes one canbe an artist while painting a frock-coat.” Gathering of bourgeois on terrace inSunday best. Not casual but (Bazille) family portrait. Like photos of holidaygatherings, stiffly posed. View: sense of informality. Not in row, freelydistributed. Not yet choppy brushwk.
Edgar Degas,Dancing Class, 1876, Impressionism
Shown 2ndImpress exh of 1876. Differs from other Impressionists. Founding memberof Private Co. New vision:n artist’s scrutiny of perception of reality. Notinterest in light & atmos, but field/ angle of vision & moving bodies.Ptr of urban life, focused on indoor scenes. Ballerinas wait turn to dance forteacher. Old man beats rhythm w/ long stick. Body lang: tedious.Bkstage aspect, glamorous, ethereal brought to realty.
Edgar Degas,Dancer with Bouquet, 1876—77, Impress Calls to mindJapanese prints: especially viewpoints; oblique bird’s eye view. Increasinglydaring. Impressionist exh of 1870: ballerina greeting public, holding thebouquet of an admirer in her upheld hand. Top: fuzzy cloud of tutus representsthe corps de Ballet. More exaggerated than in Dancing Class. See her from operabox close to stage. Explanation for sliced-off tutu: rest is hidden below. Inpastel: fave technique after mid 1870s; luminosity of stage.
Edgar Degas, Café-Concert,1876—77, Impressionism
Mid 19thc gas limelight made operatic & stage performances at night possible.Illuminated from overhead & by footlights. Exh at Imperess exh of1879, effects of bright illum & deep shadows he achieved w/combo of pastels & oils. Represents 1 of numerous outdoor cafes fashionablein Haussmann’s Paris. Provides variety show of singers accomp by smallpit orchestra. Worm’s eye view.
Edgar Degas,In Front of the Stalls, 1866—68, Impressionism Another modernsite par excellence. Counterpart of ballet: exterior scene dominated by men.Watching was important activity. Early example of horse race pics. Representsfasionable track at Longchamp. Jockeys parade horses in front of spectators’stalls before race. Crisp summer day, flowering of colorful parasols protectsviewers from sun. Dribbling hroses cast fuzzy shadows on ground. Factorychimneys emit plumes.
EadwardMuybridge, Horses Trotting and Galloping, Reproduced in La Nature, 1878, WoodEngraving from photographs Degas masteredrepresentation of moving horse: challenge to artists. Horses move fast:requires powers of observation. Preoccupation w/ this challenge: led him tostop-action images of Brit Muybridge’s photos. Reproduced in 1878 Frenchjournal La Nature. Copied these photos, incorporating new knowledge in laterwks w/ equine themes such as Jockeys before the start.
GustaveCaillebotte, Paris Street, Rainy Weather, 1877, Impressionism Like Degas,interested in reproducing randomness of casual glimpse at reality.Compositions: unexpected viwpoint. Younger than most Impressionists, waswealthy, also patron. Best known for street scenes w/ flaneurs traversing modernParis of Haussmann. Numerous start intersec part of plan. Pedestrians walk& look at shops & people. Modernity, not color, light, mvmt. Bird’seye, random framing. Used photos. Traditional execution.
GustaveCaillebotte, Floor Scrapers, 1875, Impress Close toNaturalists in group of ptgs about workd. Exhibited at 2ndImpressionist exh of 1876. Combines bird’s eye view of Japanese prints w/verisimilitude of Naturalist ptg. Reintroduces male nude, updated. Not heroes of antiquity, but modern life. Stooped poses would bedemeaning if didn’t convey sense of masculine strength & honest labor.Male nude linked to presumed homosexuality, but was lgr trend.
Pierre Puvisde Chavannes, Sacred Grove, 1884—89, Symbolism Classic, timeless distinct from modernty. Impressed Seurat in “pictorial majesty.” Admired for arrangements of figs. Parallel spacing of figs in La Grande Jatte. Exh at Salon of 1884 before installed as mural in Museum of Lyon. Intended it "to welcome the visitor to the threshold of the Museum, as a baptistry to the threshold of a Church." Muses in a tranquil setting: contemp term museum originated in the Greek word mouseion, or home of the muses.
GeorgesSeurat, Le Chahut, 1889—90, Post-Impressionism, Pointilism/ Divisionism Imparts form w/meaning. Colors, brushstrokes, lines meaningful as content. Would carry furtherin later wks. Subject similar to Café-Concert. Angle of spectator, identical w/viewer: seated right behind base player in orchest pit. Stage lit by gaslamps. Chahut: variety of Cancan, involves both men & women. Strict rulesof geometr. Theory: psychological effects of color: Charles Henry: upwardmoving diagonals give pleasure.
GeorgesSeurat, Bathing Place at Asnieres, 1883—84, Post-Impressionism, earlyPointilism/ Divisionism
First major ptgexhibited at first Salon des Indépendents (one of founders). Didn’t yet showdevelopment of Pointilist method; demonstrates preoccupation w/ capturingessential, permanent qualities of contemporary urban life. Made big impressionon artists who saw it. Gained followers.
Paul Signac,Gasholders at Clichy, 1886, Post-Impress, Divisionism Follower ofSeurat. Exh 11 ptgs at 1886 Impress exh. Shows his Divisionist veign.Most orig: both subj & formal qualities. Rusted gastanks at Paris suburb where gas for city’s street lighting stored. Modern Indus. Landscapeconsidered unsuitable as pictorial subj. Modern indust not absent, incidental in late 19th c. ptg. Here: main subj. Perhaps linkedto political convictions; monument to indus. Workers.
Paul Signac,In Times of Harmony, 1894, Post-Impress Divisionism Later in careertired to imagine new harmonious world he & his friends hoped anarchy wouldbring about: natural, unspoiled by industry. People of diff class, gender, ageenjoyed leisure time together. Originally intended title: Times of Anarchy.Tradition of La Grande Jatte & Puvis’s Sacred Wood. Timeless dream ofgolden age. Celebration of modern utopia, beautiful clean, natural world: men,women, children live in peace & harmony.
CamillePissarro, Picking Apples at Eragny, 1888, Post-Impress Divisionism Concentrated onrural life starting 1870s. Increasingly turned to peasant ptg. 1880s: newformal approach, influenced by scientific ideas about color Seurat & Signacpioneered. Peasants labor in peace & harmony. 1 of later versions ofsubj he treated frequently. Exemplifies ptgs of harvesting scenes:each person performs necessary task. Man shakes tree to make apples fall, womenpick up & put in baskets. Labor joyful form of social cooperation.
Claude Monet,Haystack, 1890—91, Impressionism
Crisis in Imp:innovations of Seurat, Signac, Pissarro: doubts validity of Imp to capturereality presented to human eye. Monet’s approach evolved from pictorial obj tosubj. Increasing attn to personal vision. 1890s ptgs: samesubj at diff times of day, seasons, weather cond. 1stseries. Nearly 30. Unprecedented simplcty & monotny. No longer indivpieces. Haystacks: common signifiers of rural prosperity, in Barbizon ptg.
Claude Monet,Haystack, Sun in the Mist, 1891, Impressionism
Subtitle pointsto effects that occur in nature when light & atmos cooperate to formpoetic. Smaller number of dominant colors. Interest in aesthetic rather thandocumentary aspect. More orderly treatment of paint. Increasingly finished instudio.
Edgar Degas,Rearing Horse, 1888—90, Impressionism
Few exhibitedsculptures. Explored relation btw form & space. Wax & plasticene,sometimes reusing materials for new figs. Interest in exploring ways horsesmove in reality. May be based on actual observation of horse or study ofphotos of Muybridge. Unlike carefully orchestrated rearing or trotting horses in 18th & 19thc sculpture. Complexity of mvmt: simultaneously rears front legs &turns head.
Pierre-AugusteRenoir, Bathers, 1887, Impressionism
Early 1880s felthe reached end of Impressionism, retraced acad training, studied Ingres.New emphasis on streamlined contours, return to smooth surface. Culmination ofIngresque period: recalls subject matter. Consequence of “anxiety ofinfluence.” Harold Bloom’s term: feeling of awe artist feels inpresence of wk of older artist. Can lead to creative impotence. Removed falseperfection: included dimples, spines, joints. Same timelessness/ permanence.
Pierre-AugusteRenoir, Gathering Flowers, 1890, Impressionism Late 1880sretreated from linearism/ stylization of Bathers. Return to looser brushwork& contemporary subject matter. Yet lacks snapshot quality of earlier ptgssuch as Moulin de la Galette. Poses seem carefully studied rather than snatchedfrom reality. Turned w/ back to viewer. Seem completely engrossed in makingwild-flower bouquets. Contemplative absorption is far cry from action/theatricality of earlier wk.
Paul Cézanne,A Modern Olympia, 1874, Cézanne's Impressionist Pd Wanted to make Impressionism solid & enduring. Belated ex. of move from vaguely Romanticmode via Impressionism toward mature style. Nude reclining on white, shapelessmount. Unveiled by black woman for enjoyment of balding middle-aged man seatedon couch absorbed by nude. Attempt to update Manet’s Olympia. Deliberately childlike. Ambiguous context. Outdoes Manet in flouting definition of high art.
Paul Cézanne,The House of the Hanged Man, c. 1873, Cézanne's Impressionist Pd
Shown at exh of1874 w/ Modern Olympia & 2 other ldscps of houses in country setting. Donein Impressionist style owing to Pissarro w/ whom he wked previous year.Resembles Pissarro in subject matter & form. Applied paint in shortstrokes, yet while former had light touch, Cézanne applied heavy dabs, creaingthick encrusted surface.
Paul Cézanne,Plate of Apples, c. 1877, Cézanne's Impressionist Pd (late) Returned to Imp exh 1877 w/ new wks (this may be 1) show desire to renew his art & add newlink to tradition. Still life fave subject for pictorial exp: lowest inacademic ranking of genres. Could be arranged. Corner of table w/ white ceramic plate w/ red & green apples. Patterned wallpaper, flowered tablecloth, rumpled napkin: visual interest. Broken brushwork recalls Imp. Not haphazard:org serves new purpose: suggest 3-dimensionlty.
Claude Monet,Still Life with Apples and Grapes, 1880, Post-Impressionism Loose, seemingly haphazard application in comparison to Cezanne's broken brushwork. Calls to mind flickering reflections of light in irregular,shiny surface, rather than Cezanne's carefully organized brushstrokes which suggest three dimensionality. Uses highlighting/ shading instead of brushwork in combo w/ color to express vol &mass.
Paul Cézanne,The Gulf of Marseilles Seen from l’Estaque, c. 1883—5, Post-Impressionism New approach toperspec, only faintly visible in wks of late 1870s, further developedin 1880s in still-lifes, ldscps & figure ptgs. Shows Mediterranean Seaseen from village where he ptd early 1880s. Shows meticulous way he built up his ptgs: short diagonalstrokes for roof, curved strokesfor trees, heavy lines for sea. Unconcerned w/capturing effects of weather. Generic view, condensation of sensations.
Paul Cézanne,Woman with a Coffeepot, c. 1890—95, Post-Impressionism Demonstratesprogress in structural brushstroke. From 2890—5: evolution of his use ofmultiple viewpoint. Seem to sit “knee to knee” w/ middle-aged peasant woman,probably in his native reigion in Provence. Our eyes same height as hers: look straightat her face. Want to see her apron but look down on lap. Refuse to take time& effort to do this: suspended in mid-air, neither standing nor sitting.Table appears distorted.
Vincent vanGogh, Potato Eaters, 1885, Post-Impressionism Until arrival inParis, practiced form of peasant ptg inspired by Millet, but rawer & moreuncouth. Completed just before coming to Paris & hoped it would make hisreputation which was yet non-existent. Peasants from native region of Brabantaround frugal meal. Light from oil lamp across gloomy faces, coal-black eyes,huge noses, protruding jaws: like caricatures, conveys poverty & hardphysical labor. Respect for peasant life.
Vincent vanGogh, Interior of a Restaurant, 1887, Post-Imperssionism Stay in Paristaught him brushwork & color equally or more effective at conveyingemotions as contour & tone. In avant-garde artists milieu, must have becomeacquainted w/ ideas of Chevreul & Henry concerning psychological impact ofcolors which impressed Signac & Seurat. Adopted Pointilist method. Prime exof departure from Potato Eaters: promise of a genteel meal in cheerful bistro.Cheerful relaxation Henry dubbed “dynamogeny.”
Vincent vanGogh, The Italian Woman, 1887, Post-Impressionism Represents further stage in evolution of vanGogh’s style during his 2 yr stay in Paris. Woman dressed in colorful regionalcostume, silhouetted against garish yellow bckgrd No longer Pointilist, isbuilt up of short straight strokes: volume & texture. Method assoc. w/Cezanne. Exclusively local colors: contrasting. Strokes & touches ofreddish pink alternate w/ turquoise to suggest effects of light & shade.
Vincent vanGogh, Arles: View from the Wheat Fields, 1888, Post-Imperssionism Representativeof period. Foreground: on stretch of field already reaped,sheaves of wheat leaning against one another. In mid distance: farmer cuts grain w/ sickle. Silhouette of town further back. Mix of municipal gasworks,medieval bldgs & new bourgeois homes part hidden by train chugging alongedge of field. Juxtaposition of old & new, country & city, &prominence of reaper (symbol of death). Chging seasons.
Vincent vanGogh, Night Café, 1888, Post-Impressionism Brushwork,color, comp all wked together to lend meaning to ptgs. Saw formal elements so crucial to production of meaning that he felt jusitified departing from actually observed reality. Colors exaggerated, even untrue & strange perspective. Heavy contours around figs crudely drawn, distoriting their proportions. In 1 of many letters to bro Theo: explained he tried to express powers of darkness in low public house by the soft.
J. Kuhn, The Champ-de-Marsand the Eiffel Tower, 1889—90, Victorian Structuralist Expressionist
Mid-1880s, gvmtof 3rd Republic org monmntl intl expo for centennial of French Rev. Wanted to rep event as departurefor world of new era. Planners wanted monmntl gateway at entrance toexpress: rev, renewal, progress. Combined Romantriumphal arch & Gothic spire: entrance & beacon. Tallest structure attime. On “field of Mars” (Roman god of war).
Anonymous,Gallery of Machines, 1889
Past archedopenings of Eiffel Tower, vast courtyard formed by main exh bldg in rear.Immense Gallery of Machines was behind: glass & steel 350 ft wide &nearly 1/3 of mile long. Surpassed all previous structures in length &width. 2 floors housing vast array of exhibits. To gain acces, visitors steppedon moving crane that transported them from one end of hall to other: rollingbridges. Interest in machines & progress they thought to bring.
ArtistUnknown, Panorama of the 1889 Exposition, from Magasin du Printemps, 1889 Tech progress exemplified in Eiffel Tower & Gallery of Machines juxtaposed w/History of Habitation street: walkway along Seine lined w/ 44 dwellings thattold story of the “slow but inevitable march of humanity” through ages.Contemporary illustration: reproduces several of dwellings, included grottoes,tents, straw huts, cottages, villas from diff parts of world. Designed byCharles Garnier (Opera). Rep of bygone past.
Henri-JulesSaladin, The Tunisian Palace at the 1889 Exposition, Illustration in E. Monod,L’Expo Universelle de 1889 (vol. 2), Non-Westernexhibits took on greater importance as Eur nations incrsingly imperialistic. In fantastic styles, combined Western plans w/electically borrowed native motifs. Palace had façade derived from Great Mosqueat Kairouan, a dome & minaret resembling Islamic center of Sidi Ben-Arus inTunis, and verandas borrowed from traditional Tunisian domestic architecture.
Pascal-Adolphe-JeanDagnan-Bouveret, Brittany Pardon, 1886, Naturalism Both DecennialExh & Salon of 1889 dominated by Naturalism, became intl style acrossEurope/ Americas. Torchbearer for Naturalist mvmt. 1 of most admired wks atexhibition. Depicts religious custom practiced in Brittany. Villagers moved inprocession around church, some barefoot, others crawling on their knees, inorder to show penitence for their sins. Brough use of photography to naturalsm.Followed trad of prelim drawings.
JulesBastien-Lepage, The London Bootblack, 1883, Naturalism Contemp criticspraised photographic exactitude of ptgs. Admired more as applied to subjectmatter that recorded rapidly disappearaing national & regional traditions.Didn’t focus on natural rural scenes. Ptd urban types, mostly children forcedto make living on street. Ptd during trip to London. Young boy dressed in redcap & jacket of London Shoe Black Brigade leaning against street cornerpost. Attention to detail for authenticity.
ErikWerenskiold, Peasant Burial, 1883—85, Nordic Naturalism Fine Arts Palace, 1889 exh Nordic Pavilion: Nordic countries better represented than ever. More bound w/ ntnalism: pref for rural life, coincided w/ mvmts:political/ cultural indep. Group of male peasants of diffages stand around freshly dug grave mound. L: young schoolmaster, stand in forclergyman. Behind: single woman. Comparable to Courbet’s Burial: nointerest in making more grand. Recorded Nord countryside,untouched by industr
AlbertEdelfelt, Old Women of Ruokolahti on the Churh Hill, 1887, Nordic Naturalism
Winner of GrandPrize of Honor at 1889 exh. 4 women from small town in south-eastern Finlandchatting after church. Resembles Bastien-Lepage: close friend, wrote about himto Finnish press. Divided time btw Finland (found subjects) & Paris wherehe exh & marketed wk.
WilhelmLeibl, Women of Dachau (Bavaria) or Three Women in Church, 1882, GermanNaturalism/ Realism
Wk formedcrucial link btw mid-19th c german Realism influenced by Courbet& intl Naturalism that triumphed at Salon of 1889. Well represented at exhw/ wks like this. Unlike earlier generic imgs of peasant life. Both throughtitle & careful attn to costume reflects new interest in pics celebratingnational identity.
MaxLiebermann, Amsterdam Orphan Girls, 1882, German Naturalism Represents newgeneration of German ptrs. Familiar w/ French ptg, close friends w/ severalFrench Naturalist ptrs: Bastien-Lepage & Dagnan-Bouveret. Knew wks ofImpressionists. Admired for plein-air effects. Many wks depict Netherlands,where he spent summers. Shown at 1889 exh. Courtyard of orphaniage duringrecess. Clearly representative of Naturalism, shows interest in capturing light& atmospheric effects.
LéonFrédéric, Chalk Sellers, panels: Morning, Noon, Evening, 1882—83, BelgiumNaturalism Among 1stptrs to lend symbolic overtones to Naturalism. Triptych format harksback to medieval & Ren ptgs: but obj img of ordinary life. Ctr: family bless roadside meal, boiled potatoes. L: gray town w/ church; R: smokestack. Fate ofcommoners in new indust age. Bereft of trad havens: church, land,home: displaced by rev supposed to improve lives. Inescpbleroutine.
JozefIsraels, Peasants’ Mealtime, 1889, Dutch Naturalism, Hague School
On view at 1889exh. Like the sculptures of Meunier & ptgs of Leibl, closer in style &spirit to mid-19th c Realism than Naturalism of Bastien-Lepage orDagnan-Bouveret b/c born in 1824 & closer to age of Realists thanNaturalists. Theme treated early as 1882, may have inspired van Gogh’s PotatoEaters.
Ilya Repin,Barge Haulers on the Volga, 1870—73, Society of the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki) Anti-acad mvmt developed mid-c Russia. Society called the Wanderers: reference to foregoingacad exh to org traveling ex in Russian countryside. Anti-Academic,anti-romantic. Debut in academy w/ this wk. Team of 10 men towing heavybarge on still waters of river. Ptd 10 years afters serfdom abolished Russia: shows edict done little to alleviate fate of underclass. Yoked to bargew/ leather straps & robes, do wk of animals.
Ilya Repin,Ivan the Terrible and his Son Ivan on November 15, 1581, 1885, Society of theWanderers (Peredvizhniki) Away from Realist subjects to thmes from Russian hist. Growthof Russn ntnlsm folklore. History ptg. 1st Czar, murdered son & heir infit of rage. Imprtnt historicly: led to “Time of Troubles”: pd ofcrisis, ended w/ est. of Romanov dynasty (ruled Russia 19thc.) Contemp events: 1881 Alexander II murdered by terrorist. Senselessnessof killing.
VasiliSurikov, The Moring of the Streltsys’ Execution, 1881, Wanderers(Peredvizhniki) Most famous formulti-fig history ptgs: epic proportions. Notorious moment in Russian historywhen Peter the Great ordered execution of hundreds of Streltsy, mmbrs ofcorps of musketeers from which the czar’s bodygurd traditionally recruited. Peter the Great’s distrust of the Streltsy related to political influence intended to crush by having them exiled/ executed. Placeetched in historic consciousness.
IvanKramskoy, Christ in the Wilderness, 1872, Wanderers(Peredvizhniki) Modern Russianrelig ptg. Trad form of icon: Byzantine style.Preoccup w/ modern Russian img of Christ = new attitudes to relig among Russn intelligentsia last decades of 19th c. Tolstoy: distrust Orthodox Church & clergy, new emphasis onpersonal faith. Not of divine Trinity, moral being. After 40 days fasting, declares “man shall not live by bread alone.”
AlphonseMucha, Journée Sarah (La Plume), 1896, La Belle Époque:last decade of 19th c-WWI: arts, music, lit flourished; pleasures for rich & super-rich. Actress embodied glamour of pd: intlfame when performed roles by Victorien Sardou: femme fatales. Owes rep to Czech artist Mucha:designed costumes, jewelry, posters for her plays. 1 of most pop imgs:reused for posters, mag illus.: queen/goddess w/ tiara: speaks of beauty, power,success.
Théophile-AlexandreSteinlen, The Wretched Man, cover illustration for Gil Blas, November 19, 1897,Belle Époque Politicaldivisions, Dreyfus affair & social & econ inequities. Many lived at orbelow poverty level. Steinlen, illus. w/ socialist/ anarchist sympathies, drewattention to this in L-wing newspapers. Cover of paper Gil Blas, depicts socialoutcast peering angrily through restaurant window, behind which overweightpatron eats lavish meal. Many saw excessive luxury as sign of moral decay.
Paul Abadieand others, Church of the Sacred Heard (Sacré Coeur), 1876—1914, Paris, BelleÉpoque, Neo-Romanesque Indicative ofperiod’s contradictions. Outer district of Montmartre: recently urbanized areainhabited by wkg-class & young artists. Vow made by group of religconservatives to build church to thank God for delivering France form Prussians& Commune. Inspired by Romanesque churches in S. France he restored. Represents end to revivalism. Response to need for relig transport& mysticism.
HectorGuimard, Metro Entrance at the Louvre station, 1899—1905, Paris, Belle Époque,Art Nouveau
2ndmajor fin de siècle project: netwk for undergrnd train. Exampl ofLondon’s tube. Competition organized for design of metro entrances 1896. Didn’twin, but got commiss designed diff entrances. Louvrestation 1 of standard designs. Not based on histcl models, butnatural forms. Mass prod of plant forms possible w/ newmaterials: cast iron, molded glass.
Emile Gallé,Screen, 1900, Belle Époque, Art Nouveau
Precedence forinterest in natural forms in wk of William Morris & revived interest inRococo. Looked upon arts of 1st half of 18th c as modelto be adapted to modern aesthetic. Like Rococo furniture, is simpler &lighter than most, but less abundantly decorated.
Jules Chérét,Loié Fuller at the Folies Bergere, 1893, Belle Époque, Art Nouveau Poster Impact ofJap art visible in new commercial art form of picture poster: striking,simple imgs easily recognizable from afar. Increasing manufacture of consumerproducts made advertising necessity. Litho: more attractive pictorial mode. Collector’sitems. Poster tyupe w/ minimal text, lg img. Famous American dancer,spectacular “serpentine” dance: billowing folds of silk; controlled lighteffects. Lg areas of color in single hues.
Henri deToulouse-Lautrec, Le Divan Japonais, 1892—93, Belle Époque, Art Nouveau Poster Poster for 1 ofnumerous nightclubs in Montmartre. Unusual comp. Unlikeearlier reps by Degas & Seurat, emphasis not on performers, buton spectators. Beautiful redhead w/ tight-fitting black coat w/ mid-agedgentleman w/ cane & monocle. Viewer would know headless singer on stage wasYvette Guilbert & spectator was Jane Avril (also Mélenite): singer/ dancer.Lg areas of unmodulated color like Japanese prints.
Henri deToulouse-Lautrec, In the Salon of the Brothel of the Rue des Moulins, 1894,Belle Époque, Post-Impress Deformed: pitiedby women in social circle; preferred prostitutes: strictly business. Ptd themhonestly & sympathetically. 1 of most expnsv in Paris. 5 jadedprostitutes sit & wait. Henna hair & faces w/ lead-white,rouge, lipstick: grotesque & pathetic. Like masks. False gaiety. Doesn’t conceal sketchlines. Rapid strokes. Mixed oil& turpentine: looked like pastels. Technique to suit subject matter.
HenryLemasson, Young Tahitians Making Straw Hats, 1896 Shows howfaithful Gauguin’s ptg Women: On the Beach was to reality of Tahiti. Fewyears after Gauguin’s ptg by Henry Lemasson: French director of postal servicesin Tahiti: amateur photographer & writer. Wrote articles on the island,which w/ photos would be featured at World’s Fair of 1900 & Colonia Exh of1906. Like Gauguin, recently arrived colonial posed natives to create imgs w/semblance of authenticity. Interest in recording native craft.
Paul Gauguin,Fatata te miti (Tahitian for “Near the Sea”), 1892, Synthetism Closer to idealvision of pre-col Tahiti. Earthly paradise of dreams. Synthesis ofimagination & form. 2 women go bathing in sea. 1 throws herself into waves,other unwraps her pareu. Bkgrnd male bather stands in waves. Impression:culture that knows no shame, accept nudity as normal. No longer true in Tahitiof Gauguin’s time. Earthly Eden confirmed by richly colored frgrnd of ptg.Colors not based in reality forms abstrct pattern.
Paul Gauguin,Manao tupapau (The Specter Watches over Her), 1892, Synthetism Teenage mistressin moment of panic alone at night, imagines surrounded byghosts. In Noa Noa Gauguin describes incident: returning from Papeete, foundhis home dark. As he lit match, saw Tehura immobile, naked, face dnward onbed w/ eyes lg w/ fear. Seemed not to recognize him. Spiritual world embodiedin tupapau the ghost: her hallucination. Subverts reclining nude. Seems morechaste than Olympia, but more scandalous.
GustaveMoreau, Salome Dancing before Herod, 1876, Symbolism Reaction against naturalism & realism. Emphasis: spirituality/ imaginatn. Recalls Romntcsm. Exh at Salon of 1876, saw more than romanticized & imaginative rendering of biblical story. Stepdaughter of Galilean ruler Herod Antipas: danced for him for head of John the B. Femme fatale. 1stinstance of lit symbolism; meaning inherent in subject. Zola claimed his talent in recasting subjects from Bible.
Odilon Redon,Vision, plate 8 of In the Dream, 1879, Symbolism Pursuedprimordial ideas via fantasy/ free assoc. (unlike Moreau who looked toClsscl myth & Bible). Launched career 1879 when publishd album of 10 lithos: In the Dream, Vision. 8th print:typical of Redon (eyeballs, disembodied heads). Colossal arch space, eyeballhovers btw 2 columns. Series of visual exp closer to ultimate vision ofthe: viewer, couple, & the eye (looks to sky). Leaves up to imagination.
Odilon Redon,The Convict, 1881, Symbolism
Wake ofpublication of In the Dream: organized exh of charcoal drawings: developeddreamlike imagery. Became more varied/ fantastic. Charcoal drawing twice thesize of earlier prints. Fig behind bars, crouched in embryonic position btwfig’s drawn-up knees & oversize head, small hand points to spectator.Linked to illus. in pop French mag La Nature of Maori mummy. This type of imgfascinated Redon, inspired by anthro illus.
MauriceDenis, Climing Mount Calvary, 1889, Nabis
Nabis differedin subject matter: certain formal characteristics in common. Harmoniousensemble of lines/ colors, areas w/ single color/ pattern separated bycontours. Devout Roman Catholic, specialized in relig ptg. Highly personal, moving rep of Christ w. cross, Rapturous vision. Contrasts dark earthbound nuns w/ light,ethereal fig of Christ: kneels in flowering meadow. Trad symbol of Paradise.Diagonal comp: striving toward God.
EdouardVuillard, Misia Natanson in her Salon, rue Saint-Florentin, c. 1898, Nabis Photo shows hisptgs are surprisingly accurate depictions of late 19th c. interiors(take a moment to decipher collage like effect of the juxtapositions ofpatterns). Express something about duality of late 19th c. women’slives. Interiors exude sense of coziness & intimacy. Message that woman’srole is hommaker & mother can be experienced as restricting.
PierreBonnard, Man and Woman, 1900, Nabis
Expressesanxiety. Interior of bedroom w/ naked woman seated on bed & naked man inforeground putting on dressing gown. Separated by screen. When woman on Lbrightly lit, man is dark fig on R. Filled w/ sexual tension, perhaps just hada row or man suffering shame of impotence. Interior space w/ screen sign forruptured relationship btw 2 people inhabiting it.
AugusteRodin, Fugit Amor, 1887, Modern Sculpture
Models for Gates of Hell modified as indep sculptrs. Dante: Francesca married todeformed Gianciotto, fell in love w/ his handsome younger bro Paolo. Kiss for 1sttime, Giancotto saw them, stabbed to death. Strict morality of MidAges: in hell for adulterous behvr. Tragedy of unconsum love. Unconvent pose, vain attempt at embrace. In round indep from support. Emerge from block. Emphasis: sculptural-ness.
AugusteRodin, Le Penseur (The Thinker), Modern Sculpture, 1902
Plan for Gatesof Hell included rectangular area above 2 doors. Equivalent to tympanum:dominated by Le Penseur. Meaning ambiguous. Dante himself meditating over whathe has seen? More generically thinkingman or allegory of thought includingcreativity & conscience? Questions over nudity & powerful build arise:perhaps suggests thought is highest form of being.
AugusteRodin, Monument to Honoré de Balzac, 1892, Modern Sculpture Commission forpublic monument (by French literary society); rejected. Early part of 19thc star of French lit: recorded tragic, comical aspects of human life inhis time. Unfortntly short & fat: difficult to create majestic &realistic sculp. Many exprmts w/ grotesq nude: gave him monk’s robe:illus of cape/ toga: classical grandeur. Controvrsl at Salon of Soc Nat des Beaux-Arts 1898. Told: no style.
Victor Horta,Maison du Peuple, 1897—99, Brussels, Belgian Art Nouveau Belgian artnouveau most aligned w/ dev in France. Among 1st architectsin Europe developed non-historical, non-eclectic style. Interiors, furniture = stylistic unity: antithesis of eclectcism of prev era. Exposesstructrl elements of bldgs: most advcd design. Headqurtrs of SocialistParty. Modern: combo glass, iron like Crystal Palace. Irreg plot:angled façade. Anticipates 20th c arch
Henri van derVelde, Poster for a food concentrate manufactured by Tropon, 1899, Belgian ArtNouveau
Wked for time in Paris, recruited by Siegried Bing. Versatile artist,architect & ptr, interior & graphic designer. Most orig exof 19th c graphc dsgn. Diff from most Fr Art Nouveau posters in highly stylizedabsract ornamntion. Viewer not invited to focus on recognizable pic of product. Drawn into poster by upward sinuous lines. Precede 20th c non-rep art.
Antoni Gaudi,Casa Batllo, 1905—07, Barcelona, Spain, Modernisme Reaction toeclecticism that dominated Spanish art & arch 19thc. Borrowed from historical sources: Spanish medieval & Islamic art.Returned to nature 1900. Multi-story apt bldg w/ softly undulting façade w/colored cement. 2nd flr tribune spanning house. Irregcurved, overhanging edge w/ bone-shped columns. Higher floors : indivbalconies each rm. Top 3 floors irreg curved balustrades pierced w/ holes.
Antoni Gaudiand others, Façade of the Nativity of the Templo Expiatorio de la SagradaFamilia, 1893—1930, Barcelona, Spain, Modernisme Idea: localrelig grp, raised funds for expiatory chapel for St. Joseph & HolyFam. Begun 1882, took charge 1883. More deeply involved as more relig.Imposed own vision: overlaid framewk w/ fluid sculpt dec, likeliving orgnsm. Straight lines: serpentines & curves. Façade ofNativty: 3 portals devoted to Faith, Hope, Love. Spires dedicated to SS Barnabas, Simon, Thaddeus, Matthew.
CharlesRennie Mackintosh, Salon de Luxe, Willow Tearoom, 1904, Sauchiehall Street,Glasgow, Scottish Art Nouveau, The Four 2 female, 2 malestdts from Glasgow School of Art formed mvmt The Four. Mack chief amongthem. Tearooms: popular at turn of c., spent leisuretime. Designed for restrnt entrepreneur Catherine Cranston. Epitomizes integrated look so important at turn of c. Flourishingcurves of Fr & Belg Art Nouveau substituted by straight lines & Rangles. Contrast: horiz talbes & vertical chair backs.
FernandKhnopff, Caresses, 1896, Salons of the Rose + Croix Rose + Croix:Salons attracted intl group of exhibitors, startling subjects butconserv form. May be called neo-Romantic, stylisticaly remvd fromRomanticism, more aligned w/ 19th c acad ptg. Among Péladan’s faveartists. Leopard w/ woman’s head rubbing cheek against temple of youth. Oedipus solving riddle of sphinx; inspred Ingres.Diff: seducd confused. Femme Fatale; contemp female head.
JeanDelville, The Treasures of Satan, 1895, Salons of the Rose + Croix 1 of moreoutrageous wks. Satan: athletic male w/ fiery hair & octopus tentacles,leaps over sleeping women: seductive, nudes tied togeth w/ strings ofbeads. Under water: fantastic rock, coral formations, strange marine creatures.Eerily lit by fiery glow Satan emits. Delville sums up as: spiritual beauty(condemnation of sexual excess), plastic beauty (idealized rep of bodies),technical beauty (way rendered submarine effect & illum of bodies).
GustaveKlimt, Medicine (ceiling painting for the Aula of Vienna University), 1901,Secession Group
Secession: brokefrom assoc of Viennese artists, form exh society: help public appreciate new,modern art. Series: alleg rep of Philosophy, Medicin, Jurisprdnce. Hygeia:Greek goddess of health. Golden snake drinks from glass dish. Behind: nudes.Her closed eyes suggests they’re asleep. Woman escps. Crtczd: strange,monstrous. Body hair & preg nudes frowned upon. Withdrew commiss.Formally conserv.
GustaveKlimt, “Choir of Heavenly Angels” from the Beethoven frieze, 1902, SecessionGroup For Secessn’sspecial Beethoven exh 1902. More intrst in dec aspct. Frieze: visual paraphrase of Ode to Joy, last mvmt of Beethoven’s 9thSymphony. Final Section inspired by line “Let me embrace you O millions!/ Thiskiss is for the Whole world!”: chorus of women, bkdrop for couple in embrace.Bodies in halo = ecstasy, suprme joy when soul freed from bod.
GustaveKlimt, The Kiss, 1908, Secession Group
Theme of kissfirst seen in Beethoven frieze. Leitmotiv for Klimt next several years. Man& woman in ornately patterned gowns kneel down in glowered garden, hold 1another in embrace. Elaborate use of gold leaf, variously treated for diffeffects. Recalls Byzantine icons & medieval altarpieces. Stresses analogybtw scene of sexual abandon & traditional relig ptg. Artist may have wishedto suggest similarity btw erotic & religious.
FerdinandHodler, Lake Silvaplana, 1907, Secession Group Correspondent Swiss:correspondent not a reg member. Trained in Geneva. View of nature influced byGerman Romanticism & poets Goethe & Schiller. Ptd during stay inEngadin region of Switz: view of Alps across lake. Reflected inmirror-like surface. Emphasized double symmetry along vertical/ horizontalaxis. Details minimized: imposed order to appreciate underlying structure. Missionto express eternal elements of nature: essential beauty.
Palace ofElectricity, 1900, Postcard, Paris Intl Exposition of 1900
Retrospective& prophetic event: summation of noble 19th c & manifestationof continuing, lively faith in progress. Main prupose: coming understandingamong nations. Technological marvels: phantasmagoric Palace of Electricity litup at night by 5,700 incandescent light bulbs & moving sidewalk drew mostattention.
CeciliaBeaux, Mother and Son, 1896, Academic, Society Portraiture Final decades of19th c, feminist groups fought for representation in intl exh. In Philadelphia Centetnnial Exh 1876 & Chicago Columbian Exh 1892, American women had special Women’s Pavilion. Europe: slow progress. Among prize winners in Intl Expo 1900 (Decennial). Amerian ptr Beaux received gold medal for entry of 3 lg portraits. Trained in acad of Julian & Colarossi: Paris.
Henry OssawaTanner, Th Annunciation, 1898, Academic Painting, Naturalism
Decennial Expoincluded wks by non-whites. Expatriate, spent career in Paris. Wksindistinguishable from French colleagues. Resembled wks of Naturalist painterswho had turned to religious subject matter.
Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida, Sewing the Sail, 1896, Spanish Naturalism Naturalism touchedby Impress dominant trend. Star at exh of 1900. Winner of 1stclass medal & outstanding representative of virtuoso plein air Naturalism.Veranda opening up on Mediter shore. Among rows of flowering plants, 5 women & 2 men repair enormous canvas sail: 1 side btw 2 posts, rest heaped on ground. Folds absorb/ reflect summer light: blue & green tones of surrdgs.
John Singer Sargent,Portrait of Mrs. Carl Meyer and her Children, 1895, Grand Manner
Americanexpatriate ptr. Suggests play of light across cascade of pink satain of skirt.More than a hint of Rococo style. Mde influence felt in serpentine forms of ArtNouveau design & turn of c ptg & sculpture.
PabloPicasso, Portrait of Pedro Manach, 1901, Abstraction, insp by Cloisonnism,Synthetism, Symbolism Nearlycontemp to Sargent. Distance in 1900 btw fashionable &avant-garde. Vstd Paris 1900 for Intl Expo, showed trad style ptg. Ptd after trip. Simplified forms, contours, saturatedprimary colors: familiarity w/ trends. Sets tone for 20thc abstrctn. Authority of artist to reinvent nature. Simplifiedexagg forms of Post-Imp & fantasies of Symbolists.
WinslowHomer, Long Branch, New Jersey, 1869, Realism Mjr change in style. Eliminated unessential, captured essence, avoided sentimentality. Wked as anillus, detached from subject. After Civil War went to France & became familiar w/ Courbet, Manet, apprec brushstrk, obsv of nature & interest in light effects. Pop beach resorts of mid-Atlantic region in Pres Grant era. Homer drawn to subj of young women engaged in casualsocial activities – playing croquet or strolling along the bluffs, overlookingthe ocean.
WinslowHomer, Snap the Whip, 1872, Realism
1870s, 1 of fave themes yng boys at play, wk, or idly musing. Reached wide pop audience when engrvd as illus for Harper’s Weekly. Group of 9 boys playing their game during recess from the one-school bldg behind them. Set on floor of valley prob Adirondack Mountains. 2 girls obsv frolicking boys interpreted by feminists as exclusion from a male- dominated event. Focus on unheroic, thoroughly American subj.
Winslowhomer, The Gulf Stream, 1899, Realism
After 1881, Escape New Eng winters went to Caribbean. Dramaof a man’s struggle for survival against the sea and awesome powers in natureis underlying theme. Blackman rests helpless on deck of small boat w/ lostmast & rudder. Means to control mvmt of boat, drifts at whim of waves & current of Gulf Stream. Sets up triangular tension among raging wrath of storm, possible rescue of ship, &foreboding sharks that circle the boat. No saccharine melodrama.
Dramatizes commonplace event in life of Gross, commissionedportrait to express range of talents. Set in surgicalamphitehater of Jefferson Medical Collge. Light from the skylight theatrically controlled by artist, draws attn to the surgeon’s headand bloody hand. L: relative of charity patient, attendance during operation required by law shields her eyes. Precedence in Rembrandt’s Anatomy Lesson ofDr. Tulp. Low-keyed tonality. Reaction unfavorable.
1880s & 90s concentrated on portraiture that allowed him to explor depthsof humn soul in introspec: subj absorbed in worlds ofmusic, science, lit. Rarely commissioned, could experiment as hewished. Ex of moody, melancholy portraits. Pianist someone he knew well: Susan HannahMacdowell, one of his students , who would become his wife. General pub & criticsdidn’t care for vitalized realism, but had great influence on hisstudents, such as Thomas Anschutz.
Thomas EakinsMiss Amelia van Buren, 1886-90, Realism
Like ThePathetic Song, this is an uncommissioned work that allowed Eakins the freedomto experiment and develop his somber, introspective style. The subject sits alone, absorbed in herown thoughts. An overwhelming quiet pervades the portrait – permitting nodistraction from the subject’s reverie. He plumbed the depths of humanemotional and psychological experiences.
Intl fig. 1st settled in Paris. Infl by Courbet & Manet. Came into contact w/ Preraphaelites in London. After returning to Paris he ptd this: rejected by Salon; showed at Salon desRefuses 1863 greater notoriety than Dejeuner sur l’herbe. Early exper in whit on white. Model: Whistler’smistress Joanna Heffernan. He added the subtitleten years later stresses the importance of the abstract elements over subj matter.
John SingerSargent, Luxembourg Gardens at Twilight, 1879, American Impressionism Born Florence, Italy, came to America at 20. Studied artin the Parisian atelier of Emile auguste Carolus-Duran who had his studentspaint directly on canvas from obsv w/out prep studies. Led to fluid painterly stroke that chrctrzed style. Early wk that demos freedom & loosenessof technique. an informal comp w/ figs, urns, trees, balustrades. Informlity, everyday quality of scenesuggests familiarity w/ Impressionists.
John SingerSargent, The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, Grand Manner Infl by Velazquez: naturalism & brushwk. Daughters of frnd & fellow artist. Asymmetrical comp, w/ emptyareas around figs & dark void behind too unconven for most crits. Reaction at Paris Salon 1883 focused on young Amer for 1sttime. Understanding ofcolor: balance of red-orange of standing screen at R. Reduce to abstract color w/ red of dress. Craze fororiental art: blue & white Jap porcelain vases and Chinese carpet.
Henry OssawaTanner, The Seine, 1902, American Imp African Am artist, found acceptance in Paris. Studied w/ Eakins at PAFA. At Academie in Paris studiedw/ Benjamin Constant: influenced his broad, loose brushwork. Shows his attachment to Paris from quay across river turned golden in twilight toward thePont Royal and the Louvre in the distance. It is a study in harmonies of hue in the traditions ofWhislter and Monet. He would beelected associate member of the National Academy of Design in 1909.
Mary Cassatt,The Bath, 1891-92, Impressionism
Went toPAFA then moved to Paris. Studied w/ Gérôme, copied Old Masters, camein contact w/ Impressionists. Degas invited her to join. Style close to Degas. Chose casual vignettes of everyday life. Saw a lg exh of Japanese prints at Ecole desBeaux-Arts, impacted her use of bold patterning. Brings together diversepatterns in carpet, wallpaper, clothing & design of waterpitcher. Had coll. ofprints by Hokusai, Hiroshige, Utamaro.
Mary Cassatt,The Boating Party, 1893-4, Impression Employedopen-air scenes using natural sunlight, became saturated w/ brightcolors. Bold patterning ofcolor areas primarily for dec effect. Diff from express experiments by Gauguin. Reminiscent of Manet’s Boating. Cassatt instrumental in formation of Amer collections: collected herwork & became introduced to the wk of Courbet, Manet, Monet, and Degas. Expatriate American painter who partook in newinfl of the art world – rejection ofhistoric styles.
WilliamMerritt Chase, Idle Hours, c. 1894, American Impressionism After 1870 youngAmerican artists increasingly went to Paris not Rome to study. Imprss came late to Amer. 1 of leading figs. Acquired dark palette,loose fluid brushstrokes, heavy impasto in Munich. Best knownfor outdoor scenes of Ctrl Park & Prospect Park. Area aroundShinnecock, E Long Island: palette of bright blue sky & water, vibrant green grasses. Scene bathed in fresh air & sunlight. Technical execution = pure color looselyapplied.
WilliamMerrit Chase, In the Studio, c. 1880, American Impressionism In NY took quarters in Studio Bldg w/ leading ptrs. Series of artists' studios interiors, environs of cultivated,cosmop taste. Fashionabe young woman beside Ren-Baroquestyle credenza. Oriental carpet on floor & Jap fabrics hang on wall. Small shiny brass basins & pics w/ gilt frames around. Print of Hals’s Malle Babbe, the Witch of Haarlem hangs to L. Knew & admired that pic w its darkpalette, shiny metal container and exotic bird.
Julian AldenWeir, The Red Bridge, 1895, American Impressionism, The Ten On Shetucket River near Windham CT. Chose subj b/c of its contrast w/ its lush greensurrdgs. Like Monet had taken a cast-iron trainshed for 1 of his mostfamous subj. Flickering color & light present & surface reveals passing sensationsof color. Weir was considered oneof the leading American painters working in Impress by 1897 and was one of founders of the Ten American Ptrs most of whom painted in French mode.
ChildeHassam, Union Square in Spring, 1896, American Impressionism, The Ten Impressionism: accepted style in American art. The Ten: left Society of American Artists, saw them as devaluing Impress & exh lacked quality. Had own studios in the early 1880s began to paint scenes of Boston in rain or snow. In NY wkd in Imp manner w/ tiny strokes breaking up form into flickers of color & light in momentary glances of city life. He painted the city much like Camille Pissarro painted Paris: gaiety.
EadweardMuybridge, Female Figure Hopping, 1887, American Renaissance, Early Photography
After hisexperiment proving the movement of horses running – captured in a series ofphotographs Muybridge was invited by the University of Pennsylvania to documentmovement. This is one example froma series of innumerable studies. Thomas Eakins would work closely with him and apply what he learnedabout natural motion to his paintings.
ThomasEakins, Mrs. William H. Macdowell, c. 1882, Amer Ren, Early Photo Eakins knew andcorresp w/ Muybridge & learned from action series. Stieglitz determined to makephotog art & Eakins involved. Used camera to record effects he achieved in his ptd portraits. Photo of his mother-in-law, careful ctrl of light from 1 side against dark bkgrnd rendered his subj pensive & still. Lost in her own thoughts. Marv study of mood & personality. Saw camera as capable of producing aesthetic imgry in own right.
ThomasEakins, Walt Whitman, Seated in a Chair, c. 1890, American Renaissance, Early Photo
Whitman was afriend of Eakins – and employs the same crossover of influences as the portraitof Mrs. William H. Macdowell. Itfeatures qualities also found in his painted portraits – one version of whichis at the Pennsylvania Academy. Another study of mood and personality.
Jacob Riis,In Poverty Gap: An English Coal-Heaver’s Home, c. 1889, Social Documentary Photography
Portraitureremained 1 of primary areas of photog. In book, How the Other HalfLives (1892) by Jacob Riis. Diff pic of America (from Denmark). As police reporter for NY Tribune his wk took him into tenement slums & unsavory hideouts of city where ppl lived w/out daylight, ventilation, or sanitation. Not romanticized, the camera’s obj eye: brutalrealism. Docum wretched cond of wig poor – causing reform mvmt to follow.
Jacob Riis,Bandits’ Roost, Mulberry Street, New York, c. 1888, Social Documentary Photo
Riis considered sole purpose of his photog: document plight of poor. Didn’t think of it as related to art. Sometimes, such as w/ Bandits’ Roost. Took photos at his peril: clearly senses suspicion directed at intruder. In a back alleyknown for gangs and murders. Pic used as evidence in murder trial moved the policecommissioner of NYC, Theodore Roosevelt. Public social conscience awakened to need toreform.
Augustus Saint-Gaudens,The Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, Boston, MA, 1884-1896, Naturalism
Wk infl by Euro experience. Felt straightforward naturalism arose from American soul. Studied w/ Francois Jouffroy at the Ecole desBeaux-Arts. Italy: infl by 15th century Florentine sculptures Ghiberti & Donatello. Marching procession of Af-American soldiers inhigh relief. Perfectionist in technical aspects: attn to lgr org of comp & smallest detail. Known for his equestrian & Civ War memorials.
AugustusSaint-Gaudens, The Adams Memorial, 1886-1891, Rock Creek Cemetery, Wash,D. C., Naturalism Memorial forMarian, invalid wife of author Henry Adams: suicide. Set in a holly grove. Didn’t want portrait, or usual personification of grief: aboundedin Amer cemeteries in form of quasi-clsscl variants. Adams: Boston Brahmin, understood Nirvana. Rep: tranquility of mind from meditativewithdrawal from world. Final escape into nonexistence in spiritual trance. Noble monumntl form, in timeless garment.
AugustusSaint-Gaudens, The General William Tecumseh Sherman Memorial, Central Park,NYC, 1892-1903, Naturalism 1 of his lastmjr wks. Supreme ex of equestrian statuary in American art. American descendant ofDonatello’s Gattamelata & Verrocchio’s Colleoni. Sculpts form & manipulates light, shadow: interplay of projecting massaccentuated by cavernous recession: folds, drapery & Victory’s wings revealed. Created goddess, truly American, even in idealized form. Perfect foil for fig of Sherman.
DanielChester French, The Minute Man, Concord, MA, 1874, Naturalism Wealthy classdevlpd in Amer late 19th c & cultivation of artsbecame a passion & accepted noblesse oblige of American high society. Intl exh of Philadelphia Centennial 1876. Had severalConcord men pose to achieve realism that a clsscl statue couldn’tprovide. Set a plow beside him: farmer who left fields to defend hisliberty. Clothing renderedauthentically, face = defiance, hand holds rifleresolutely. Cast in bronzefrom melted cannon.
DanielChester French, Abraham Lincoln, The Lincoln Memorial, 1922, Washington, D. C., Naturalism In Henry Bacon’s classical temple. Appearsacademic, entrenched against the avant-garde. Judged on its own terms however,showing the Great Emancipator burdened by his troubled times, grave & pensive,dignified in raw, unsophisticated way. Deanof American sculptors – bestowed by the conservative group centered around theNational Sculpture Society in New York.
Carrere andHastings, New York Public Library, 1897-1911, Beaux-Arts Style Time: end of Beaux-Arts Revivalism & beginning of modern arch inAmerica still usedin D. C. Ren-Baroque revival style shows influence of theEcole was alive. Same style for Frick residence. Were students together at Ecole & wkd at McKim, Mead, & White before striking it outon their own. Won competition to design the library in 1897 – a few years after the World’sColumbian Exposition in Chicago, featured the Beaux-Arts style.
Cass Gilbert,Woolworth Building, New York City, 1911-13, Modern Gothic Revival Skyscraper: 1st Beaux-Arts stage, grew into towering glass box, also moreeconomical,& appreciated by corp execs. Ww: owner of chain of 5 & 10 c stores wanted a corporate hqrtrs. Set out to displace Singer Tower and set a new worldrecord for height (50 floors, tallest), impressed by VictoriaTower of Houses of Parliament. Glistening terracotta veneer on steel frame. Each verticalmember culminates in a Gothic canopy or finial.
Howells andHood, Tribune Tower, Chicago, IL, 1922-25, Gothic Revival, Beaux Arts In the early decades of the twentieth century New York and Chicago competed w/ one another in the dev of skyscraper. 1st realization Wrigley bldg, across st. 1922 competition, attracted 200 entries. Variety of solutions. Deign selected by John Mead Howells & Hood: slender, vertical piers accentuating height, culminates in Gothic tracery, finials, flying buttress. Eclectic. Studied at École BA. Infl setbacks.
Frank LloydWright, Larkin Company Administration Building, Buffalo, NY, 1903, Am Modernism On Wisc farm learned nature’s systems, saw in arch’s organic laws. World’s Columbian Expo 1893 saw Jap house: infl by intimate scale, naturl materials & free flowing spaces. Bold, block-like masses = infl of Sullivan. Due to unpleasant urban area, turned bldg on itself, few windows to & lg ctrl open court allow light. Historcm purged. Form evolved from use. Lg blocks at corners = stairwells & buttresslike forms = vent shafts.
Frank LloydWright, Unity Church, Oak Park, IL, 1904-6, Amer Modernism Experimented further w/ abstract geometric form & materials. Lgr block houses the sanctuary,while smaller is a social hall. Exterior is an arrgmt of bold massesinterrelated. Eaves reduced tohoriz planes cantilevered over windows. Cubist quality. To control costs poured concrete for walls. Pebbles =texture & natural quality. Interior = symphony of abstract forms, planes, lines wrought w/ restraint. Absence of details assoc w/ hist styles.
Frank LloydWright, Frederick Robie House, Chicago, IL, 1908-9, Amer Modernism Arrivedat new forms of domestic arch early. The Prairie House so-called b/c most exmpls in prairie states & seemed to grow organicallyfrom land. That astructure is integral to environ ctrl to Wright’s theory of design. Book: An Organic Arch. Horizontals mirror horizon of prairie. Chimneydoesn’t interrupt horizlty of cantilevered forms & low pitch. No basements b/c dark, damp. On concrete platfoms raised above ground level.
Frank LloydWright, Dining Room, Frederick Robie House, Chicago, IL, 1908-9, American Modernism
The interior wasinnovative eliminating box form or the idea of interior as a clusterof boxes. Arrangedaround the central core of fireplace, flows freely from living room to dining room, a quality that arose from his interst in Japanesearchitecture. Each archctrl project a totality that included the surrounding landscape externally & furnishings internally. Hedesigned many built-ins w/ same rectilinear chrctr.
Frank LloydWright, Fallingwater, or the Kaufmann House, Mill Run, PA, 1937, American Modernism
Career resurgence post Great Depression w/ this. Outcroppingof natural bedrock emerges before hearth, emphasize organic quality. Walls of glass= oneness btw int & ext & woodedenviron, horiztlty of lines, geo planes. Interplay of arch form & space through cross-axes & cantilevering, In woodedspace, so one feels as if stdg in woods or above waterfall. Warm, humanistic compared to machine for living.
Frank LloydWright, S. C. Johnson Wax, Racine, WI, 1936-1939, Amer Modernism Bldg turned upon itself most distinctive feature is open secretarialsection w/ unique, tapering toadstool columns. Geometric shape of circle = leitmotif of design seen in flaring disks that crown each column. Indirect lighting from the skylightsbtw the great disks fill room. Also designed steel furniture = unityof bldg & furnshgs w/ rounded ends echoing corners of bldg exterior.
RichardNeutra, Philip Lovell House, Los Angeles, CA, 1928, 2nd Gen CA School of residential arch
Distinctive style responding to the lifestyle,climate, local bldg materials of CA. Next gen brought change: hardedged, machine-age, severe. See infl ofLoos & Wright. Steel frame & enclosedw/ poured concrete & glass. The aesthetics = clean, sharpedged. Precision, proportioning, open flow ofspaces. Components from catalogue. Part of rev machinemade,prefab replaced handmade.
Marcel Beuer,Armchair, designed 1928, manufactured 1933, Bauhaus Breuer inGermany 1928 teaching at Bauhaus when he designed the chair. Chromeplated steel tubing used w/ canvas for the seat and back. Acantilevered frame eliminated the necessity of back legs. It looks like a product of the machineage but required a lot of handwork. Such pieces were produced under the direction of the designer – and werevery expensive – weren’t well known in the United States until the early 1930s.
John Sloan, Fifth Avenue Critics, 1905, etching, Ashcan, The Eight The Eight: Realist group begun by Robert Henri who studied at Ecole des Beaux-Arts, turned to Impres & Realism. Practiced in divergent styles. Urged by Robert Henri to paint life of Philadelphia, city he knew intimately. Began as staff artist for newsppr – familiar w/ realities of urban scene. Interested in etching after moving to NYC. 1 of best known: an indictment of a snobbish class. Belongs in social satire trad of Honoré Daumier.
Maurice Prendergast, Central Park, probably 1908-10, American Post-Impressionism, The Eight Grew up in Boston went to Paris when new mvmts appeared like Post-Impres & Nabis. Struck by decrtv treatment of color made many watercolor sketches in Paris. Moved back to NYC & became part The Eight. Patches of brilliant color suggestive of natural forms. In Central Park: vision had become a tapestry of pattern & color, space condensed. Stroke of brush = important component of aesthetics. Not complete abstraction.
George Bellows, Both Members of This Club, 1909, Ashcan School, The Eight From Ohio. Wkd Henri at Chase’s NY School of Art. Mastered broad, slashing brshstrk & fluid flow of paint: heir to Hals-Munich trad. Subj matter: realist trad. Prizefighting illegal in NYC, in private clubs like Sharkey’s, which he frequented. Title from practice of making them temp mmbrs to give fight legal status. Women not allowed. Unsavory from viewpoint of Academy. Bodies undealized. Brushwk brusque = dynamic energy.
George Bellows, Cliff Dwellers, 1913, Ashcan School, The Eight Bellows sympathies for poor of slums led him to socialistic outlook. Huddled masses of LES. Filled w/ ppl who can’t escape summer heat of city. A satirical title given to the preparatory drawing, published in the Masses, leading socialist periodical. The words supposedly were spoken by a wealthy Fifth Avenue socialite – “Why Don’t They All Go to the Country for Vacation?” Attacked idea that poor were happy with their lot in life.
Edward Hopper, Eleven, A. M., 1926, American Scene
Hopper studied under Robert Henri & NY School of Art acquiring a fascination w/ urban scene. Typical of Hopper interior: window looking on urbanscape: sense of loneliness & isolation. View closed off by tall buildings. Viewer: unidealized nude: darkly erotic element often present in his ptgs. Lost in loneliness of her own thoughts. Silence fills scene, room lacks personal objects suggesting austerity of a hotel room & the low-keyed palette = atmos of depres.
Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942, American Scene
Loneliness of the city & unrequited relationships were enduring themes in Hopper’s wk. Exhibits the characteristics that made him unique. In contrast to gloominess of redbrick storefronts across street a café filled w/ garish, stark fluorescent lighting clearly exposes the isolation of 3 people at counter. The man & woman seem uninterested in one another. Reduced details to the bare essentials to force our concentration on the stark loneliness of the scene.
Archibald Motley, Jr. Black Belt, 1934, Harlem Ren
Born in New Orleans & raised in Chicago attended Art Inst of Chicago unable to find wk as artist due to race. 1929 awarded a Gugg fellowship, went to Paris & began to blend jazz w/ discovery of abstract ptg. When he returned to US he synthesized this style w/ subj taken from urban black experience. Area of Chicago known as Bronzefille found rich pageant of black community in nightclubs, dancers, horn players, speakeasies, and Saturday-night street scns.
Thomas Hart Benton, Missouri Mural, section 1936, Regionalism Born, raised in Missouri before going to Chicago to study in the AI. Went to Paris where infl by Cubism & Synchromism & elongated figs of Michel & El Greco. Mural ptg in US given boost by ex of Mex artists. Diff from quasi-clsscl Beaux-Arts murals of preceding gen. At Missouri State Capitol bldg style matured. Theme: hist of state: buckskin hunter, steamboat traffic on Mississippi, to RR, plowing, comm dinner socials. Smalltown democracy at wk.
Grant Wood, American Gothic, 1930, Regionalism
Trips to Europe exposed to modernist mvmts. Because of socialist views, considered radical, crits labeled him rightwing. Other crits found his wk praiseworthy free of insanity of Cubism & Fauvism. Uses sister & dentist as models portrayed a type he perceived as backbone of rural Midwstern America. Against farmhouse of carpenter Gothic style, imposes relig element & constancy of unchanging ways. Heroic img w/ humor. Unidealized.
Morgan Russell, Synchromie Cosmique, 1915, Synchromism Synchromism: most orig contribution by Americans in Paris pre-WWI. Carries connotation of symphonic color harmonies. Studied at PAFA then Paris. He & Standon Macdonald-Wright infl by Impress & Post-Impress. Russel & Macdonald-Wright believed their own exprmts more adventurs than Delaunay's Orphism. Showed in 1st joint exh. Titles suggest new directions in color. At time Americans in Paris ptd nonobj pics, no ref to natural form.
Max Weber, Rush Hour, New York, 1915, American Cubism Stieglitz’s circle. Came to America from Russia studied at Pratt. Went to Paris & participated in expmts of Cubists & Fauves. Returned to NYC 1910 & his wk took increasingly Cubist chrctr sometimes primitive element. Expmted w/ # of modern styles ranging from Synthetic Cubism to Futurism. Sought to capture energy of NYC in abstrct forms, rhythms. Such art was too progressive for American critics. Turned increasingly to representational imgs.
Arthur Dove, The Lobster, 1908, Abstraction
Another member of the Stieglitz group. Saw the work of the Fauves in Paris, he painted The Lobster in the rural area of Cagnes, which he exhibited at the Salon d’Automne. His study of Cezanne was apparent as well as the influence of Matisse. He returned to NYC and showed at the 291 Gallery. His work would later take on subjects independent of the natural world – placing him in the realm – the likes of Kandinsky.
Marsden Hartley, Portrait of a German Officer, 1914, American Modernism Brought diff dimension to modernist grp clustered around Stieglitz & 291. Moved to Europe 1912, met Der Blaue Reiter in Munich. German art est form of modernism highly chgd emotionally w/ subjective feeling. Before WWI, series. Sought to capture militarism, nationalism that seized Germany. Abstractn, amalgamation of military decorations, insignia = bold dedication to militarism. Developed frndship w/ German officer killed in 1914.
Georgia O’Keeffe, Evening Star, III, 1917, American Modernism Mmbr of Stieglitz group. Studied at AI of Chicago & took classes at Columbia w/ Arthur Wesley Dow: opened her eyes to abstract beauty of form and color. Wasn’t directly infl by European modernism. Avant-garde wks she saw at 291 reinforced her inclination towards abstraction. In 1916-17: produced a series of watercolors inspired by nature that treats color, form as entities. Reduced hilly countryside & firmament above to a few strokes of color.
Georgia O’Keeffe, Black Iris, 1926, American Modernism In the 1920s evolved the genre for which best known: close-ups of flowers, evokes abstrcns of sensuality w/ connotations of eroticism. Shifted from abstraction to figuration: created alternate, modernist notion of embodiment. Img is recognizble, but shapes & colors defy literal reading. Edges: ambigous undulating forms dissolve into unknown spaces. Sugsts bodily forms w/ folds & crevices. Flower ptg considered suitable for women. Challenges this.
Man Ray, The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with her Shadows, 1916, Dada Foremost of American Dada grp. Visits to Stieglitz’s 291 Gall acquainted him w/ modernism. Met Duchamp in NYC. Though ptd, grew out of collage expmts. Orig comp insp by tightrope dancer in vaudeville performance. Cut colored paper into shapes resembling dancer’s acrobatic mvmts, discarded scraps on floor. Noticed they formed abstract pattern. Comparing them w/ accidental pattern w/ shadows that dancer might have cast.
Joseph Stella, The Brooklyn Bridge: Variation on an Old Theme, 1939, Precisionism Revisits Voice of the City of NY Interpreted. Spent 1909-12 in Italy then Paris, infl by Boccioni. Expmted w/ Futurism after return to NYC w/ brilliant/garish color & abstractd forms. Lines of suspension cables dominate comp. Through Gothic-like openings of pylons, abstrctns of skyscrapers reveal Futurists’ fasc w/ NY as dynamic, archetypal city of 20th c. Optimism of vert reaching forms. Modern life transf into spiritual experience.
Charles Demuth, I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold, 1928, Precisionism Studied at PAFA & style conservative. 1917 dev Precisionist style: roots in Cézanne’s analytical approach w/ mechanistic element arising from a fascination w/ machines, indust. Late 1920s he expmtd w/ streetsigns of commercial posters. Inspired by poem by friend William Carlos Williams. Presented in carefully oriented planes lines evoke an exp of ordinary contemp life, dynamic spirit, expressed in Williams’s poem The Great Figure.
Charles Sheeler, American Landscape, 1930, Precisionism In Arensberg circle. 1st attended School of Industrial Art & then PAFA where he acquired style of teacher Merritt Chase. In Italy & France disc structural harmony in wks of Old Masters & Cézanne. Wk w/ photo img led him to naturalistic vision, as in American Ldscp. Machines, trains, grainstorage treated as rural ctrpart to city w/ skyscrapers & urbn scene. Reduced typically Amer scene to harmony dominated by powerful horiz & vertical lines.
Stuart Davis, Visa, 1951, American Modernism
Assoc w/ Precisionism, proud of Amer heritage. Studied w/ Robert Henri, taught to seek subj matter in city. Acquainted w/ Euro modernists at Armory Show in 1913. Considered himself realist of abstrctn rather than illus. Cutout highly colorful forms of Matisse’s art, parallel in Davis. Inspir from comnplac, a matchbox ad brand of batteries “Little Giant.” Wds like “champion” leitmotif in Davis’s work, integrity of pic plane respected. May have symb connotations.
Gertrude Kasebier, Portrait of Alfred Stieglitz, 1902, Photo-Secession, Pictorialism Portrait of Stieglitz reveals her sensitivity in interpreting personality in photog portraiture. 1st studied ptg in France & tried to make her photog portraits vie w/ ptd portraits through retouching negative. Many saw as mistake, believe photogs ought to exploit medium’s specific qualities. Photo-Secession grp formed after exh called “An Exh of Amer Pictorial Photog Arrngd by Photo-Secession.” Hdqrtrs: Little Galleries at 291 Fifth Ave.
Alfred Stieglitz, The Steerage, 1907, Early Modernism “straight photography” Insisted that photog be taken seriously as art form. Published in Camerawork. Huddled masses of immigrants about to arrive in Amer. Taken Eastbound ocean crossing, traveling 1stclass, from Amer to Euro. Title sugg kindered intrst in lives of lower classes shared w/ Henri. Spontaneity: shows aesthic sensibilities about abstract quals. No cropping, retouching to look like ptg: honest, straight photo, way camera be used.
Alfred Stieglitz, Georgi O’Keeffe: A Portrait-Head, 1922, Straight Photography, Photo-Secession Married O’Keeffe 1924: 1 of his primary subj in series of portrait studies that spanned 2 decades. Good example of straightforward exploitation of medium. It captures both intense character of the subject and a fascinating juxtaposition of textures seen in the soft human form against the grain of the weathered wood. It was no longer necessary for Stieglitz to be spearheading modernism in America at this time.
Clarence White and Alfred Stieglitz, Nude Figure, 1910, Pictorialism, Photo-Secession Attempted to compete w/ aesthetic effects of ptg. 1st interested in photog when he saw exh at World’s Columbian Expo in Chicago in 1893. 1906 moved to NYC. Nude Fig is an ex of type of artistic effects he sought not considered to be radical at time b/c they arose from infl in ptg & known for decades: Impress & Whistler’s tonal harmonies. Nude scarcely been considered proper subject matter, gained acceptance w/ this gen.
Lewis Hine, Child in Carolina Cotton Mill, 1908, Social Documentary Photo Exposed social inequities. Riis’s successor. NYC from Wisconsin & practiced straight photography. His Ellis Island pics brought him to attn of National Child Labor Committee, sent him traveling around country to document the abuses of child labor in factories, mines, mills. Early example. Reminds one of the industrialist who observed that children good laborers b/c small hands could reach into machines, sometimes get caught.
Charles Sheeler, Drive Wheels, 1939, Precisionism
Brought his camera’s lens to focus on machinery, indust sites out of aesthetic motivation: relation btw sharply focused photo, technique involved, & machine. Term Precisionist applies equally to his photog work. The abstract shapes, patterns of powerful locomotive appealed to him as a readymade composition, object: primary agent of culture of its era. Artistry in recognition of it as an important symbol. Monumentality belies actual size of print.
Charles Sheeler, Rolling Power, 1939, Precisionism
Relationship btw camera wk & canvases virtually symbiotic: seen in comparing this wk w/ his photo Drive Wheels. Oil comes across almost literal transcription of photo taken in preparation. Altered composition & suppressed details such as grease on piston box in keeping w/ love of immaculate surfaces & purified machine imagery. Made for Fortune mag as commissioned series: Power (portraits of power-generating machines), celebration of modern age.
Paul Strand, Church, Ranchos de Taos, New Mexico, 1931, Straight Photography Acquainted w/ principles of abstract art in 291 galleries no matter how sharply reality focused in his pic there was a sensitivity to abstract & formal components. Took while visiting artists’ colony in Taos New Mexico Strand, demos his sensitivity to abstract forms, patterns, planes to surfaces & emotional content of bldg. Solemn monumentality, simplicity of planes, spiritual silence of massive adobe walls.
Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, Farm Security Administration
Had polio growing up: gave her an affinity with people suffered and endured hardships. Studied w/ Clarence White at Columbia. Began to take photos of city street scenes 1930s. Subj: Florence Thompson, a mother of ten children, looks much older than 32. Visualization of suffering of era: see destitute mother surrounded by her children, who seek refuge from harsh world. Took photos under auspices of the FSA.
Walker Evans, Washroom and Dining Area of Floyd Burrough’s Home, Hale County, Alabama, 1936, FSA
Infl by Baudelaire’s realism. Leave of absence FSA in 1936 to go w/ author James Agee, live w/ sharecrpper & his family in AL. Published under title: Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. Washrm: starkness, arrgmt of formal aesthetic elements. Doorjamb = powerful vertical: rich texturing, ctr-directional arcs of sawmarks. Every detail, sharp focus = undeniable reality. Advctd that realism: natural style of photog.
Edward Weston, Oceano, California, 1936, Western School of Photog, f/64 Nature-oriented. Exh of modern art at Panama-Pacific Expo in San Fran in 1915 gave him awareness of abstract quals inherent in nature. 1 of founders of f64: name from smllst f stop on camera: deepest focal range, necessary for ldscp photog, details in distance in as sharp focus as frgrd. Essential that curvilinear forms of mid sand dune be recorded as distinctly as those in immediate frgrd. Sensitive to abstract masses, delicate surface rhythm
Ansel Adams, Monolith, The Face of Half Dome, Yosemite National Park, 1927, Western School f/64 Eye for natural beauty & passionate concerns of consrvtnist. Official photographer of Sierra Club 1928. Preceding yr took 1 of most famous studies: rhythmic, linear striations on surface of geol formation build to majestic climax at mtn’s crest. Est scale of grandeur by incl pine tree dwarfed by them. Snow on high crest gives definition to rounded top.
Imogen Cunningham, Magnolia Blossom, 1925, Western School, f/64
In opposition to Weston and Adams Imogen moved the camera close – sometimes to the point where the identity of the plant form is lost. First inspired by a series by Gretrude Käsebier in a magazine in 1901 – who photographed plants from her garden.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Taliesin West, near Scottsdale, AZ, 1938-59, American Modernism Begun as own winter home near Scottsdale, became qurtrs of his arch school. Taliesin: Welsh word meaning “shining brow”: ref to plcmt on high rise w/in 700 acre desert site. Selected b/c isolated from outside world. Seemed to grow out of desert habitat: local stones, not reshaped, set in rough concrete. Rough timber beams at angle suggest slope of mtn. Canvas btw beams: like a desert camp.
Frank Lloyd Wright, S. C. Johnson Wax Research Tower, Racine WA, 1950, American Modernism
Research tower adjoining Administration Building. Simplicity chrctrzs design Each floor cantilevered out from ctrl hollow core which houses stairways, elevators & utilities. The outer portions left free of necessities, achieves natural flow of space. Exterior finished in brick & glass tubing, admitting light, preventing viewing through it. The starkness of geometric form relieved by rounding of corners.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1956-9, American Modernism
Wright claimed to find his inspiration in natural objects – and claimed that the decreasing spiral of the Guggenheim Museum was suggested by a snail’s shell. The building was sculptural in its conception inside and out – distinguishing it from the International Style. The complexity became apparent in its comparison to the glass box type of structure typical of modern architecture.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Interior, 1956-9, American Modernism
Interior: innovative & revolutionary in solutions to museum design. Est long, continuous, spiraling ramp allowed the visitor to follow w/out interruption the continuity of an exh. The center is a lg, skylit court open from domed top to grnd floor & offers interesting spatial relationships when looked into/ across from. Formed by pouring concrete into constructed forms. He used minimal detailing to free from distractions.
Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer, Walter Gropius House, Lincoln, MA. 1937, Intl Style Gropius: conduit of Bauhaus theory & Intl Style. After leaving Nazi Germany for England, accepted invite to be chairman of dept of arch at Harvard: previous bastion of Beaux-Arts design. Org curric along lines of Bauhaus. Few commiss b/c of Depression, designed house for self: Amer wouldn't appreciate flat roof, rectilinear geom, indust materials, prefab parts, ribbon windows, steel Lally posts for support. Not New Eng bldg trad.
Marcel Breuer, Whitney Museum of American Art, 1964-66, NYC, Modern Stark in massiveness boldness of planes & sharpness of corners give it elegance. Inverted ziggurat w/ 3 stories cantilevered. Sheathed in slabs of granite: warmth & subtle modulation. Broad panes of glass across ground floor, few windows for upper levels truncated, relieve starkness. Inside 2nd, 3rd, 4th floors almost totally open spaces accommodate changing exh. Along w/ Gugg, helped proclaim new era in museum design.
Mies van der Rohe, S. H. Crown Hall, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 1939-1941, Intl Style Classic, archetypal Intl Style. Left Germany WWII to be head of dept of arch at IIT. Btw 1939, 1941 dev masterplan: modular grid system. Following WWII designed several bldgs for school related by position on grid & philosophy that echoed indust arch w/ steelframe construction & membrane walls of brick or glass, unity, simplicity, continuity chrctrze Mies’s wk. I-Beam: basic constructn element reveald.
Mies van der Rohe, Apartment Houses at 860-80 Lake Shore, North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 1951, Intl Style Affinity w/ long-deceased skyscraper pioneers. Late 40s early 50s created new form of skyscraper: est general form of most high-rise apts & office buildings. Twin towers, rectangular blocks, w/ 3 bays on 1 side & 5 on the other. Ctrl core for elevatr leave outer spaces unencumbered. Structural system evident in steel skeletal frame: allows flexibility in plcmt of walls. Top flat. No applied dec, grid of façade.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, 1954-58, NYC, Intl Style Assoc in Seagram Bldg: Philip Johnson 1 of most successful interpreters of Intl Stl. Ultimate triumph of glass box skycscraper, steel skeletal slab set w/in its own plaza, make it freestanding from other bldgs on Park Ave. Modular system evolved into delicate linearity w/ unity. Cantilevered rectangular plane marks entrance. Lower level: piers give appearance of lightness. Coloration & materials add tinted dark amber hue.
Philip Johnson, Philip Johnson House (The Glass House), New Canaan, CT, 1948-49, Intl Style
Inspired by Mies’s Edith Farnsworth house in Plano IL. Earliest bldg by American arch in Intl Style. Set on brick plinth, steel frame ptd in black, supports flat roof which echoes the plane of floor. Entire wall area is of glass w/ symmetrical doors. W/in brick cylinder contains bathroom & fireplace, otherwise space is flowing, filled w/ light. Glass walls bring nature into living area, furnishings compatible.
Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, Lever House, 1952, NYC, Intl Style Team approach to arch like McKim, Mead, White. Following war firm set course w/ Intl Style. Erected shortly after Mies Lake Shore Drive Apts. 24 stories high, rectglr glass block of steel-frame w/ green-tinted curtainwalls above horiz slab over open plaza. Broke w/ trad: arch along Manhattn’s aves abutted bldgs to neighbors, cont rows of facades create airy environ & est indep identity of bldg, Desigd glass tower to occupy portion of total lot size.
Eero Saarinen, Trans World Airlines Terminal, Kennedy Airport, 1956-62, Expressionist Expression of structure emphasized. 1-time advocate of Intl Style, asserted a personal flair. Came from Finland studied sculpture in Paris. 4 vaults of roof express yearning to fly, reinforced concrete vaults supported by 4 Y-Shaped sculpt piers. As if he molded forms like in clay or plaster. Inside: manipulation of plastic form w/ voids more evident. Indebted to Italian arch Pier Luigi Nervi: pioneered forms in reinforced concrete.
Robert Venturi, Vanna Venturi House, Philadelphia, PA, 1962, Postmodern Arch Postmodernism: celebr of Pop Culture, historicism, commercialism Younger gen of artists & arch yearned for historic styles assoc w/ middle class values w/ evocations of cultural heritage, whimsy. Book Complexity & Contradictions in Architecture, q's authority of Intl Style. For his mother: manifesto of beliefs regarding form & symb. Recalls shingle-style hses by Richardson & McKim. Arc above is a form that Richardson often used.
Philip Johnson and John Burgee, with Simmons Architects, American Telephone and Telegraph Building, 1978, Postmodernism By 70s Johnson realized that Intl Style run its course. Round-headed arch of entrance reminiscent of Roman triumphal arch or Ren façade, roofline crowned w/ Chippendale-style pediment. Historcsm w/ departure from steel skeleton & glass, return to masonry. Vert mullions of pink granite reach from masonry base to corniced top = link w/ Sullivan’s Wainwright & Guaranty Bldgs.
Michael Graves, The Portland Building, 1980-82, Postmodernism After Harvard spent 2 years at Amer Academy in Rome few architects did since 1930s. Selected by city council endorsed by consltnt Philip Johnson. Sq box sheathed in green tile, overwlmd by decor of 4 facades. Cream wall w/ motifs from ancient clsscl arch: abstract pilasters w/ projecting capitals support oversized keystone; pilaster agnst reflecting glass united by garland design. Intrst in Cubism & clsscl arch. Crit: anti-contextual.
Jacob Lawrence, Harriet Tubman worked as a water girl to cotton pickers; she also worked at plowing, carting, and haling logs, 1939-40, WPA Harlem Ren
Took life of black people in America as subj. At 20 started 1st of several series of ptgs. 3rd series 7th of 31 panels. Tubman shown on 1 knee on log she's sawing: massive physical form nearly fills pic area. Suggests that in her strength lies ability to survive, fight, gain frdom. Shows his familiarity w/ abstrctst technqs, particularly Cubism, forges personal brand.
Romare Bearden, The Prevalence of Ritual: The Baptism, 1964, Harlem Ren Studied w/ George Grosz at Art Students League mid 1930s & at Sorbonne. Paris: acquainted w/ Synth Cubism & other infl. In 1934 in article in Opportunity: Journal of Negro Life, voiced warning that black artist shouldn’t imitate white art, b/c black exp not expressed. Late 1950s began wkg in collage, African element strong despite Cubist form. Importance of church & Christian ritual to Af-Ams & rediscovered heritage of ancestors: continuum.
Arshile Gorky, Garden in Sochi, 1941, Biomorphism Late 1920s & 30s retraced the evolution of modern ptg to better understand its principles. 1941 dev personal form of expr related to Surrealism of Miro, Arp, and Masson. Biomorphism, automatism redirected his art. Sochi: biomorphic forms, anxiety, and psychological disturbance. Couldn’t explain what they represent, flowed from his subconscious, happy accident sometimes present: accidental drippings integral part of comp. Method had enormous impact on Ab Ex.
William Baziotes, Scepter, c. 1960-61, Ab Ex
Surrealist pictures of a different kind, trained in the academic manner at Nat Academy of Design. Disc wk of Miro, Masson, Gorky, converted him to abstraction. Ex of his personal style. Pale symbol stands on mottled ground of muted blues, gray greens, dominate imagery like a monarch while amoeba-like darker form drifts beneath spiderlike line at upper right. Biomorphic forms appear from subconscious unfathomable. Elegant, sophisticated form & hue.
Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm: No. 30, 1950, Ab Ex, Action Ptg Created 1 of most original forms of expression in the history of American painting. Familiar w/ automatic wrtg of Surrealists. Dribbled paint onto canvas, flat on floor rather than upright on easel. Greenberg: indust production contributed to a culture no longer radical, hard, or complicated, art can be hijacked. This is avant-garde creating anew smthg complicated. The overall space w/out depth of space or focal center, action glides across the surface.
Willem de Kooning, Woman, I, 1950-52, Ab Ex
Retains a ref to human fig. Trained in Rotterdam then art academy dev interest in modern mvmt: de Stijl ptrs. Discovered surrealist technique of automatic ptg. Gesture of brush appears wild, uncontrolled & pigment that seems scrubbed in: important features of style. Spontaneity withstanding took two years to complete, ongoing process w/ revisions. Was an existentialist experience, act as important as thing created. Greater emphasis on being than understdg.
Mark Rothko, Orange and Tan, 1954, Ab Ex, Color Field Ptg liberated from obligation to mirror physical world, space freed from trad of 3D illus. Color = independent entity. 1940s discovered Surrealism, Freud, biomorphic forms. Soon pics reduced to single colorfield above another on neutral ground unified in a single plane. Synthesis in Orange & Tan is red-orange field above a pale yellow slightly lgr field lies upon a tan ground. Colors loosely brushed in w/ fuzzy edges suggests action w/ which created.
Vir Heroicus Sublimus, 1950-51, Color Field
More controlled means of wkg to extent of reasoned precision b/c rejected painterly techniques & gestural brushstrkes of Ab Ex. Problem: what to do in geo ptg not already done by Malevich & Mondrian. Single vertical line (zips) separate portions of canvas into colorfields. Mature style, human scale: life affirming, humanist. Zip = sign for upright human being. Cerebral & ctrlld in contrast to emotive action ptgs. Parallels minimalist sculpt.
Ellsworth Kelly, Blue, Red, Green, 1962-1963, Hard-Edge Ptg, Colorfield 1960 several young artists rebelled against emotion, sensualism of Ab Ex. Sought depersnlzd art: hand of artist & arbitrary aesthetic judgments eliminated. Forms in ptg/ sculpture reduced, had precision that purged of all indiv mannerisms. Defined blue form crosses a green field w/ red rectangle anchoring bottom of compo. Didn't intend illus space or recognizable object. No traces of brushwork/ his presence: unlike Ab Ex.
Jasper Johns, Three Flags, 1958, Neo-Dada During this pd: ptg, sculpture, music, poetry, dance, & lit affected by rise of pop culture & challenging of est trads. Unification of pop & high cult in art. Redirected course of American ptg away from Ab Ex. Began ptg familiar obj in fresh visions. Flag lent itself to a flat, planar treatment of bands of red & white or stars on a blue field. Both img of sthg & thing itself became 1 & same. Meaning: stated he had dream one night that he painted a flag. Claimed no symbolic ref in wk.
Andy Warhol, Green Coca-Cola Bottles, 1962, Pop Art
1960s: widespread exploration of themes from pop culture: blurring distinctions. Took most ordinary objects & popular personalities of American culture gave them heroic scale turned into art. Commented that dept stores like art museums & his use of mult imgs of Coca-Cola bottles or Campbell Coup cans are parodies of supermarket. See visions like this every day on tv, billboards, magazine ads. Presents as it would be in the ad media. New kind of still life.
Andy Warhol, Turquoise Marilyn, 1962, Pop Art
Took heroes and heroines from pop culture of day. Made silkscreens of Liz Taylor & Marilyn simply b/c he said they were beautiful & popular. Use of silkscreen suggests repro effects of posters or commercial ads. Photo transferred to canvas in broad, flat, hardedged areas of color. Liked “mechanical” impersonal, effect. Monroe was at height of her career. New form of portraiture of 1960s heir to trad of Copley, Stuart, Eakins & Sargent.
Chuck Close, Big Self-Portrait, 1968, Hyperrealism
Return of human form & of realism post WWII, influenced by photo img, example of rebellion of 1960s against Ab Ex. Took portrait as subj & renders it w/ fidelity, part of technique to produce high detail. Taking 8 x 10 in photo, enlarges onto canvas 8 feet or more in height. Wkg w/ airbrush & minute amounts of paint achieves img that rivals photo but alarmingly confrontational & overwhelming in scale. No idealization or social criticism only presence.
Jasper Johns, Untitled, Painted Bronze (Beer Cans), 1960, Neo-Dada After Joseph Cornell, Johns & Rauschenberg among earliest of younger gen to utilize objects & imgs from pop culture in their art. Sculptures cast in bronze then ptd his intention to take a commonplace subj from real life, 2 Ballantine Ale cans & make them part of rarefied realm of art. Viewer confused when looking at art or reality? The answer is – at least to artists who receive their inspiration from popular culture – it does not matter.
Marisol Escobar, Women and Dog, 1964, New Realism
Pop Art followed diverse aves in sculpture & ptg. Combo trad technique of woodcarving w/ assmblg of real life to create satirical obs on everyday life. Born Paris to Venezualen parents attended Ecole des Beaux-Arts came NYC 1950, studied w/ Hans Hoffmann. Began multimedia sculptures w/ plaster casts, drawings on blocks of wood, ptd details, appld photos, found obj. Dog’s headstuffed, interested in simplified forms & Pre-Columbian art from S America.
Donald Judd, Untitled, 1967, Minimalism Eliminated evidence of artist’s hand, reduced # of decisions of artist, elim comp hierarchy, purged: beauty, emotion, subj. Attn to form. No illus rep of or symb ref. Goal: make sculpture nothing more than shape, vol, color, light, material in rational ordered arrgmt. Series of identical cubic rectangles stacked vertically w/ intervening voids of same size. Untitled: name would give assoc the artist wanted to avoid. Even # would place it in sequence & est hist ref.
Richard Serra, Tilted Arc, Federal Plaza, NYC, 1981, Minimalism, Site Specific Some sculptors moved outdoors felt ltd by scale of studio or gallery. 1st infl by Minimalism, rebels agnst its precision & permnce. Indust prods of no aesthetic uniqueness erecting walls which divide/ alter urbanesque ldscp. Bisected plaza’s space. Pple used to area found it so offensive their complaints caused it to be removed enforcing mutability theory. Intends wk to be intrusive & compatible w/ environ, site taken into account.
Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1969-70, Earthworks Employs natural components: rocks & earth. Fascinatn w/ primal sources appeared in art. Geometric spiral extended in ramplike form. Constructed of boulder foundtn, w/ dirt road on top, 1500 ft total length. Saw in this construct affinities w/ primeval geological forces & ancient mythologies. Though natural materials allowed it to blend w/ surrounding ldscp, perfect spiral betrays hand of human creator. Mutability: lake has since risen.
Walter de Maria, The Lightning Field, Near Quemado, New Mexico, 1971-77, Site-Specific, Environmental Art
Grid of 400 stainless steel poles 20 ft high, in remote area. Human hand creates on vast scale in keeping w/ expansiveness of ldscp & unity. Harmony w/ elemental force of lightning makes contact w/ 1 pole or another. Throughout deserts of SW 1000s saguaro cactuses stand tall agnst sky, metallic poles are paraphrases of natural forms. Precise geo regularity of plcmt, creation distinct from natural environ.
Christo and Jean-Claude, Running Fence, Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, 1972-76, Site-specific, Environmental Art Another form of Earth Art. A Bulgarian came to US committed to certain principles of Surrealism, most importantly readymades & found objects he transformed & gave new meanings. Means of transformation was packaging wrapping anything. Bestknown effort: Running Fence, 18 ft high white nylon band ran for over 24 miles across a northern CA before terminating in Pacific Ocean.
Louis Bourgeois, Femme Maison, 1947, Confessional Art, Feminist 1 of earliest to call attn to plight of woman artist before feminist movement. Feminine perspective asserted itself: not translated as “woman of the house” but “house-woman.” In this img she lost her identity & personality, overwhelmed: confined to house & its care, professional & intellectual challenges unavailable to her. Lower portion makes ref to her role as a sex obj, 2 yrs later Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex.
Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, 1973-1979, Feminist Art Women’s mvmt: no choice beyond homemaking. Militant feminist perspec at UC Fresno, began 1st women’s art program. Celebrates famous women early hist to present, 999 honored. Table: triangular shape, 39 settings visualize some aspect of women’s exp & calls attn to contrib to history. Sexual element: img sugg vaginal forms. Expresses idea that women's art in form of handicrafts, kept at periphery of “real’ art world through male domination. Countered here.
Maya Lin, Vietnam War Memorial, 1981-84, Public Sculpture Naturalistic trad survives. Design calls 2 walls of polished black granite met in a V. On wall inscribed names of 57,692 Amer killed in Vietnam 1959 & 1973. Her minimalist simplcty focuses on sense of loss nation feels avoiding q's on rightsness of Amer action & moral issues. Though selected & approved, was outrage about design by veterans who found it too abstract to convey their emotions, heroism. Appeased w/ grp by Frederick Hart.
Gordon Parks, American Gothic, Washington, D. C., 1942, Photoj Broke color barrier that excluded blacks from professional photog. 1942 awarded Julius Rosenwald Fellowship in Photog, allowed him to wk at FSA. Stryker set him to make a photo essay on subj of racism & interview a black woman employed by gvmt. Found 1, she was educated but sweeping & mopping only job available. Posed before Amer flag, placed broom in 1 hand & mop in other & look of resig on face. Irony: parody on pic by Grant Wood.
Robert Frank, U. S. 285, New Mexico, from The Americans, 1958, Docu Photo, Snapshot Aest Signaled sthg new occurred in Amer photog. Born in Zurich came to US 1947. 1955 Gugg Fellowship crisscrossed country, observing & recording Amer it took an outsider to see. Unemotional imgs result of culture-shock. Impulse less social crit than cynicism that penetrated deeply. Expansiveness of cntry in US 285, NM. Amer stripped of innocence it long believed in. Existentialist imgs. Jack Kerouac wrote intro..
Diane Arbus, Pro-war Parade, 1967, Documentary Photography Aimed her camera at subjects avoided by serious photographers: the subject was the all important element in her art, more than printing effects, she approached life in a straight manner. States of being in the full human spectrum. Married a fashion photographer, asserted her independence w/ choice of subj diametrically opposed to world of fashion. Psychological curiosity: the individual & representative of a group or class of people.
Diane Arbus, A Young Man in Curlers at Home on West Twentieth Street, New York City, 1966, Documentary Photography
Arbus’s observing eye extended from one pole of human behavior to the other as seen here.
Robert Mapplethorpe, Nude, 1981, Aesthetic Photog Gay community came out of the closet w/ its lifestyle. Nudes sometimes blatantly erotic & often sadomasochistic. Some viewers found extremely graphic style objectionable. Inescapable physicality & power explicit in the musculature & implicit in the binding. Sensuality is an integral component of his nudes as well as formal arrangement. Treats partial fig as obj to be composed by artist: model flexing like bodybuilder: reference to physical power.
Cindy Sherman, Untitled, No. 175, 1987, Postmodern Photo Calls attn to signs, symbols, media usage. Shifted to subj of still lifes of horrifying reality & repugnance: waste, litter, filth. Human factor made present img in sunglasses. Scale: disturbing: 6 feet. Negative aspect of humanity. Rejection of refinement of high art. Abjection: cannot be asimilated, eternal repetition of repulsing & expelling. Stimulation from objects of pop culture, creation of imgs: signs or symbols as important as their content.
Camille Corot, Island and Bridge of San Bartolomeo, 1826—1828, French Romantic Landscape Peripherally assoc w/ Barbizon school. Not Easily categorized. Drew & painted from nature, 3 yrs in Italy making open-air studies of tonalities of southern light. 1 of best-known from Rome. Classical balance: demos Corot’s approach to form: interlocking horizontals & verticals & sense of arch geometry. Exerted an infl on devpmt of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: Monet & Cezanne.
George Catlin, Buffalo Bill’s Back Fat, Head Chief, Blood Tribe, 1832, American Realism Early American ptrs lacked critical support systems of art academies. Catlin: concerned w/ national identity. Traveled W of Mississippi creating recording > 50 Native American peoples. Source of curiosity for Europeans. Presented ptgs, costumes & artifacts in “Indian Gallery” that toured US & Europe: nostalgia for disappearance of Native Am while sanctioning their obliteration. Shown Salon of 1846, admired by Baudelaire.
Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Burning of the Houses of Parliament, 1834—35, British Romanticism
Conveys the awesomness of nature rep by fire, which threatens to consummate symbol of a civilization. Had a subj exploration of nature led him toward abstraction. John Ruskin heralded him most significant of modern artists. Gives majority of his canvas to striking play of light & color. Violent subject, retains balance & symmetry characteristic of classical works by Claude and Poussin.
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, The Artist’s Studio, 1837, Early Photography 1 of earliest known photos. In context of a return to realism, dispels escapism of romanticism. Public taste for visual fact a stimulant. Daguerre publicly demonstrated a new mechanical technology: fixing img upon flat surface. Despite use for artistic studies, photog wasn’t accepted as artform & not included in exh. Photogs still found themselves relating their works to ptg: still life genre: spacing conventional to painting since 17th c.
Louis-Jacques_Mandé Daguerre, Boulevard du Temple, Paris, c. 1838, Early Photography
Daguerreotype. Oblique camera angles and random cropping typical of his first street scenes. Depicts bustling life, caught by slow photo-sensitive materials of 1830s and 40s. Contemporaries called it the “city of the dead’ because the only human presence is the man who stood long enough for his shoes to be shined
Jean-Auguste_Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with Slave, 1842, Neoclassicism, Orientalist Mode,
Opponent to most doctrines of Romanticism and Realism, but introduced factors to new artists who opposed him. Drawing was his sovereign quality. David subordinated color to classical ideal, but Ingres used a brilliant and delicate palette, combining classical clarity with Romantic sensuousness – liberated atonal harmonies of sensuous boldness.
William Henry Fox Talbot, London, During the Erection of the Nelson Column, 1843, Early Photog
Calotype. In England Talbot devd process to fix light-reflected image on silver-treated surface of paper. Claimed earliest dated 1835, predate Dagguereotype. Technique converted neg img into positive, which remains central to film photog. Could be replicated many times. Constantly improved upon means of documenting: choice of subj, view, framing, light, & controlling: lenses, shutter speeds, plates, chems.
Unknown Photographer, Frederick Douglass, 1847, Early Photog, Daguerreotype Dagguereotype: popular in US b/c was an inexpensive means for portraiture. Studios set up in NY & Philly. Records of extraordinary personalities such as abolitionist writer, an escaped slave, who informed his public protests against slavery w/ firsthand exp. Adviser to Lincoln. Photo as young man at end of lecture tour he gave in Great Britain & Ireland to avoid recapture. Typical straightforward presentation of sitter.
William Holman Hunt, The Hireling Shepherd, 1851, PreRaphaelite “Truth to nature” in Surrey cntryside, en plein air. Revived 15thc Flemish tech: laid glaze of translucent color over ground. Creates private allegory of need for mid-Victorian spiritual leaders to cease sectarian disputes & be good shepherds to flocks. Symbolic gestures: shepherd pays court to shphrdss, lamb makes a deadly meal of green apples, sheep succumb from being allowed to feed on corn.
Honore Daumier, Battle of Schools: Idealism vs. Realism, 1855, Caricature Illus frm series ‘Fantaisies.’ Illustrates battle btw Realism & Neoclassicism: each hold a tool of an artist of that style: Realist’s coarse brush & the Neoclassicist’s mahlstick. The Realist wears workingclass clothes: reference to subject matter w/ class commentary. Clsscl fig from David’s Sabine Women. Following strict censorship laws that would allow for caricature of only certain groups.
Oscar G. Rejlander, The Two Ways of Life, 1857, Pictorialism
Following Talbot’s development of the calotype. Because the negative could be replicate an image numerous times, Rejlnader was able to assemble elaborate multifigure compositions in stagelike settings – piecing them together from a variety of negatives and arranging them like a historical painter. He emulated ambitions of academic masters but also their pretensions to high moral purpose.
Ando Hiroshige, Moon Pine at Ueno from One Hundred Views of Famous Places in Edo, 1857, Jap Woodblock Print Jap prints: lgst infl after photog in 19th c. Found way to west after Amer naval officer Matthew Perry forced open ports of Japan 1853, ending 2 c's of closure. W/ sharply angled views: snapshot-like croppings, near/far juxtapos & flat-pattern design of solid colors set off from contour. Reinforced belief in west that pictorial truth not in illus but in intrinsic quals & opaque planarity.
Edward Anthony, A Rainy Day on Broadway, New York, from the series Antony’s Instantaneous Views, 1859, Early Photography
Early photography. Contemporary to Boulevard des Capucines. The slow emulsion couldn’t capture the figures in motion. Expresses the dynamism of the bustling crowd.
Eugene Cuvelier, Untitled (View of Fontainebleau Forest in the Mist), 1859—62, Early Photog In circle of Corot & Barbizon school. Photog of Fontainebleau Forest. Render dappled light of forest interior w/ palpable atmos of misty clearing in wood. Photo processes still expmnt. Introduced cliché-verre (glass negative) to Corot, invented by Henry Fox Talbot. Covered it w/ fogged photog emulsion/ printer’s ink, could create degrees of opacity/ transparency.
Eugene Delacroix, The Lion Hunt, 1861, Romanticism
Fr Romantic mvmt came into own w/ Delacroix through exploration of exotic themes, accent on violent mvmt & intense emotions, reassertion of Baroque color & brushwk. Conventional subj drawn from lit & history. Drawn to scenes from Shakespeare, whose chrctrs succumb to passions. Study of nature from contact w/ Eng ptrs. Originality: juxtaposition of colors in blocks of intense complementaries. Would influence van Gogh & Cezanne.
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1864, Studio Portrait, Photo
One of first great photography portraitists. Had access to many illustrious people of the age. Nadar was a prolific writer, caricaturist, hot-air balloon photographer – claimed that photographic theory could be taught in an hour and could be practiced by anyone. Claims that to produce an intimate likeness of the sitter you must put yourself in communion with them – sizing up thoughts and their very character.
Julia Margaret Cameron, Mrs. Herbert Duckworth as Julia Jackson, c. 1867, Early Portrait Photography
1 of early photography’s great portraitists. Liked to dress up her friends and family to reenact scenes from the Bible and Tennyson’s Idylls of the King (poems based on legends of King Arthur) as photographed costume dramas. She approached portraiture with an intense chiaroscuro. Maintained loftiest aims like a good Victorian – sought to ennoble photography, combining the real and ideal.
Charles Nègre, The Gargoyle of Notre Dame, original negative 1840s or 1850s, calotype
Documentary photography – brought camera equipment to top of Notre Dame – created great visual juxtapositions. Realist spirit in photography. Gargoyle's lg features overpower the human figure's. Photo of photographer Henri Le Secq, wear beard (political statement, Uni professors banned from wearing them, for being symbols of anarchy). Also: homage to Hugo, who fled Paris year earlier.
Mathew Brady, Dead Soldier, Civil War, c. 1863, Documentary Photography Gelatin silver print. Photography robbed war documentation, traditionally done in painting of its heroicizism and operatic glamour. Mathew Brady best known for this. The required length of exposure was several seconds so the subject had to be still, battles couldn’t be photographed. Disclosed the harrowing calm brought about by violence. It brought graphic quality to war in a way that no painter would.
Honoré Daumier, The Third-Class Carriage, c. 1863—65, French Realism
Best known for his caricatures, he was concerned with the details of everyday life and politics. Uses chiaroscuro to obtain pathos in this mundane scene. It is sympathetic to the depiction of contemporary working-class life. His paintings deal with themes from the writings of Cervantes and Molière. This work focuses on the separation of classes delineated by their way of dress.
Robert S. Duncanson, Blue Hole, Flood Waters, Little Miami River, 1851, Romantic Amer Ldscp Church’s contemp from Cincinnati, where a lndscp school in trad of HRS developed. Born into a poor family of free Af-Am tradespeople, a serious advocate of abolitionist mvmt. Self-taught, although this was lgly the case w, white artists in 19th c as well. Like his fellow ptrs in east, took the valleys & rivers of his region as subj for ldscps. Miami River: tranquility of mood & symm org of comp suggest a clsscl vision like Lorrain.
Ford Madox Brown, Work, 1852, reworked 1855—1863
Not official mmbr of Pre-Raphaelites. Monumental testament to edifying & redemp power of hard toil. Ctr: laborers dig trenches for new watrwks in suburb Hamptsead. Genre vigntts surround ctrl action: social strata of Vict society. L: ragged flower girl & women distribute temperance acts. Bkgrd: elegant couple on hrsbck. R: philos Thomas Carlyle & Christ Socialist Frederick Denison Maurice, conservative ideas on social reform: wk as fndtn of nat progress, spirit salv.
Winslow Homer, Prisoners from the Front, 1866, American Realism Began as an illus for Harper’s. Assgd to front during Civil War. Illus & oil ptgs drng war, tended to focus on quiet momnts of camp rather than drama of battle. Ldscp laid waste by bttls in setting. L: 3 confed soldiers, disheveled yngstr, old man, & defiant young officer surrender to Union offcr at R. Unremarkable occurrence in war but achieves impact of hist ptg in significance of theme. Chrctrzs classes & types in conflict & difficltis of Reconstrctn.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Symphony in White No. II: The Little White Girl, 1864, Aesthetic Mvmt
Emulation of patterns & forms of Jap prints & textiles, creating fresh lyrical sensibility. Japonisme takes presence in décor & flattening effect of nuanced, whit on white of dress & divisions of arch frmwrk. Off-ctr comp further overrides formalism, resulting in a crop of fig along 2 edges. To emphasize his commitment to Art for Art’s sake he gave his pics musical titles drwng analogies w/ a more immaterial med.
Paul Cezanne, Uncle Dominic as a Monk, 1866 Couillarde period - ostentatious virility, using the palette knife. In fall of 1866, Cézanne painted several portraits of his maternal uncle, Dominique Aubert. He was not a monk, but simply posed in a Dominican habit at the artist's request. In the mid-1860s, the young Cézanne applied paint thickly with a palette knife in order to emulate the paintings of his hero Courbet. Described this style as "unified as impressionism was fragmentary."
Berthe Morisot, Hide and Seek, 1873, Impressionism
Depicts her sister Edma strolling in country with her daughter – bourgeois activity. Typically chose mother and child subjects – realm accessible to her as a female artist. Banished black from her palette, developed unique sketchy style – figures and landscapes become materializations of color.
Claude Monet, Bridge at Argenteuil, 1874, Impress
More classic version of his developed Impressionism. Popular sailing spot in Parisian suburb where he settled 1871. Scenes of contemp leisure a mainstay of Impr subj matter. Ptg gives impression of brilliant hot sunlight shimmering on water. Employed no uniform pattern of brushstrkes to define surface. Boats & bridge drawn in w/ firm, architectral strokes. Complete avoidance of blacks assertion of modulated hues to intro new light & color sensation.
Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, 1873—74, Impress Departed from truth of realist empiricism & toward intuitive grasp of visual exp. Ptd from window in Nadar’s former studio. Rapidly executed to express dynamism of bustling crowd & mist suffused atmos of wintry day, perceived in instant of time. Broken brushwork don't dissolve, deliberated his strokes. Oblique Jap style or photog view. View of modern Paris Baron Haussmann undertook mjr program of urban renewal that widened boulevards.
Auguste Renoir, Moulin de la Galette, 1876, Impress
Fig ptr who applied principles of Impressionism to Paris of the late 19th c. Scene of commnplace Sunday afternoon dance in picturesque Montmartre district. Men & women: ptrs & writers of his acquaintance & wkg-class women with whom they chatted & danced. Lights flicker & sway over colors of figs in haze of brushwork that softens forms. This ptg saturated w/ sheer joy of carefree life: difficult to recall financial problems the artist was suffering at the time.
Eadweard Muybridge, Horse in Motion, 1878, wet-plate photographs
Evidence of new knowledge of animal movement through stop action photograph series. Made “rocking-horse” pose obsolete a long-held convention – showed that the horse lifts all four legs off of ground at a certain point while running. Settled a bet. Influenced Degas.
Edgar Degas, Ballerina and Lady with a Fan, 1885
Best known for his ballet dancers org of figs & motion. Collector of Jap prints, appreciated patterns. Accomplished photog, seen in cropping. Dancers in bkgrd decapitated. Carefully constructed, from above, w/ women in loge acting as observer, who also becomes the observed. Exploits psychological & social nuances. Seeing & being seen. Parallel forms fans and tutus and juxtaposition of forms: faces of spectator and foreground dancer are visual puns.
Edgar Degas, The Tub, 1886, Impressionism
Concerned primarily w/ traditional formal problems. 1880s&d 1890s he increasingly employed printmaking to explore commonplace subj. Goes beyond his predecessors in presenting the nude figure in environ in unconscious ease. Compact sculptural org but routine character of her pose. Bird’s eye view & cut off edges translate photo fragment into abstract arrgmt reminiscent of Jap prints. Crits complained not eroticize his subj.
Claude Monet, Les Nuages (Clouds), 1916—26
In final series pted at home in Giverny in French countryside, retired to an environ of his own creation: water garden, where he found a piece of the real world, a sheet of clear liquid afloat w/ lily pads & flowers & reflections from sky above at one with his conception of the canvas as a flat mirrorlike surface shimmering w/ dynamic materilization of light & atmos. Empirical interest in luminary phenomena, often expressed in monochrome blue & mauve.
William M. Harnett, The Old Violin, 1886, trompe l'oeil
Trompe l’oeil painter of late 19th century. Visual deception and classic simplicity – delighted the public but was condemned for being an old-fashioned illusionist unable to elevating moral content. His reputation wouldn’t be resurrected until the 1930s – examination of nature of visual perception.
John Singer Sargent, Madame X, 1883—84, Grand Manner Painted in grand manner. Sensed the coming of the new: spent most of career in Paris & London but received commissions from American families. His flashing liquid stroke made him 1 of most wealthy artists. In Madame X he abstracted qualities of pure line & flat silhouette. Scandal at Salon: décolleté dress & left hand strap off her shoulder. To placate an offended public he adjusted it. Prompted him to leave Paris and est a practice in London.
Paul Cezanne, Battle of Love, 1880, Post-Impression
Arrived at his mature position after struggle w/ medium. 1860s: expressed inner conflict in series of murder & rape scenes. After exposure to Impress he returned to violence of his prev wk: clsscl bacchnal. From somber tonality & sculptural modeling into approx of light blue, green & white. Diff from Impress in its subj & effect. Sexual ferocity diff from bacchnls of Titian & Rubens: explor w/ integrating figs into surrounding space. Broken contours dissolve solids.
Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Banjo Lesson, 1893, American Realism African American artist who had achieved intl distinction by end of 19th c, recognized during the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. This is his best-known work and was probably made on a trip to Philadelphia when he said he painted “mostly negro subjects,” which he felt had been stereotyped by white artists. He imbues the pair with spiritual stillness - using a light reserved for religious subjects that make up the bulk of his work.
Albert Pinkham Ryder, Moonlight Marine, c. 1890s, American Tonalist Overloaded his ptg w/ material substance, the result of trial & error process of wkg & rewkg. Claimed artist should fear becoming a slave to detail & should strive to express thought & not the surface. Wanted to depict a storm the sort of Richard Wagner. A solitary fig & experimented w/ techniques, applying wet on wet paint, causing his works to dry improperly. His nuances have become destroyed. What remains dramatizes the reductiveness.
Georges Seurat, Sunday on the Island of the Grand Jatte, 1884—86, Post-Imp/Pointilism Influenced by scientific treatises of Michel-Eugène Chevreul: theory of simultaneous color contrast: complementry colors next to one another: intensified. Sought to combine color expmts of Impress w/ clsscl structure of Ren: illus depth & disc in perception. In last of 8 Imp exh. Based his color system on Imp realization that all nature was color not neutral tone. Society at rest: static atoms, vignettes of social caricature.
Henry Peach Robinson, Carolling, 1886—87, Pictorialism
Used sketches to prepare his exhibition photographs, which he compiled from multiple negatives. Just as Realist spirit inspired some progressive painters to seek truth, it also enlightened photographers to purge their work of the aritifical devices employed by Rejlander and Robinson.
Paul Signac, Opus, 217. Against the Enamel of a Background Rhythmic with Beats and Angles. Portrait of M. Felix Feneon in 1890, 1890, Post-Imp/ Pointilism Viewed style as parallel to his radical political anarchism. Pointilism insists on relevance of each unit of color: harmony by maintaining integ of constituent pts. Post-Imp thought only through creativ frdom could art bring social chg. Chief propag of mvmt. Critic Félix Feneon 1st to use term “Neo-Imp”. Insp by Jap print, ref to crit’s ideas & Henry.
Paul Cezanne, The Card Players, 1890—92, Post-Impressionsim
Reminiscent of massive, closed architecture of quarry paintings. Balances composition – figures occupy space solidly, discards usual narratives such as Caravaggio’s card shark. Sitters were farmhands with whom he was long acquainted. No particularized portraiture.
Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Basket of Apples, c. 1893, Post-Impressionism Devoted himself to themes of lndscp, portrait and still life. Still life as subj controllable, he carefully arrgd fruit, bottle, tableclth setting up relationships. Obsessed w/ apple as a 3D form, difficult to control as a distinct obj & assimilate into lgr unity of canvas. Modulated circular forms w/ flat brushstrkes, distorted shapes, & broken contours to set up spatial tensions. Tilting wine bottle out of vert, flattens & distorts perspec, chging direc of table.
Paul Cezanne, Mont Saint-Victoire from Les Lauves, 1902—06, Post-Imp Never had desire to abandon nature, wanted to treat nature by means of cylinder, sphere, cone. After 1890 brushstrokes = lgr & more abstractly expressive, contours more broken, disslv, w color floating across canvas, sustaining its own identity indep of obj it defined. Each stroke subord to harmony of whole. Artist achieved integ of structure & color of nature and painting. Tradition of classical ldscp,but acculmulation of individual perceptions.
Paul Cezanne, The Large Bathers, 1906, Post-Imp
End of life, held to his dream of remaking Poussin after nature, struggling w/ prob of mkg clsscly or heroically nude figs in open ldscp. Wked in plein-air. Culmination of 30 yrs of experiment w/ female bthrs. Ptd yr of Cezanne’s death & unfinished. Fig formalizd to seem part of overall pictorial arch, their erotic potential chgs scene. Sensed in high vaulted trees & unifying flesh tones. Laid groundwork for Fauves & Cubists, particularly Demoiselles d’Avignon.
Odilon Redon, Roger and Angelica, c. 1910, Symbolism
Symb: in lit & arts a popular, radical mvmt in 19th c a descendant of intuitive ideas of romntcsm. Felt Imp lacked ambiguity that he sought. Began to work in color after 1890: capacity for exquisite, orig harmonis less macabre, more joyus. Rescue of Angelica by hero Roger, based on Ren poem. Roger on a winged horse-like hippogriff & Angelica, naked & chained to rock. Lost amid clouds amorphous color, nothing fixed in space, everything subsumed in overpwrng sensulty.
Henri Rousseau, The Dream, 1910, Naive Art Shared formal concerns w/ Post-Imp. Wked in isolation. Disc by ynger avant-garde artist. Rejects illusionism, searches for personal imgry. Interest in primitive, folk art untouched by Academic trad. Outsider status, was a cutoms agent. Drew imgs from natural hist museum & botanical garden. Clsscal trad of reclining nude: Polish mistress Yadwigha, mixes domestic & exotic. Exh Salon des Indep. Poem accompanied ptg.
Paul Gauguin, Be in Love and You Will be Happy, 1889, Synthetism Didn’t restrict himself to ptg. It is a feature of modern art, less constrained by boundaries btw disciplines. By 1880s he ventured into printmaking. Wooden panel in low relief w/ a cynical admonition of a title. Demon takes a woman by hand, faces forces of temptation symbolized by a small fig. Struggle btw knowledge & innocence, good & evil, life & death recurs in his Tahitian compositions. Artist himself in upper right.
Paul Gauguin, Where do we Come from? What are we? Where are we going?, 1897—98, Post-Imp, Synthetism Disappointed to see how westerners encroached on native life. Island filled w indigenous carvings of ancient gods, set about making his own, based on Asian models in photos. Seen here. Sum of his Polynesian imgry filled w Tahitians of all ages at ease w/in a terrestrial paradise devoid of Euro civ. Appearance is rough, in contrast to acad-style. Tied together by overall tonalities.
Vincent Van Gogh, Self-Portrait, 1888, Post-Imp
Lightened his palette after viewing the Impress’ wk in Paris. Subj & techniques took on a radically different character from them. Claimed to use color arbitrarily, but highly sensitive to emotional response. Wanted to carry on Netherlandish portrait trad. Made in Arles, dedicated to Gauguin. Said head resembled Buddhist monk. Torso silhouetted against field of linear rhythms pted in “pale malachite” akin to monochrome bkgrnds used by North Ren portaits.
Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night, 1889, Post-Imp
Ptd in sanitorium in St. Remy in S France. Lndscp from high perspec like Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Remembrance of a Dutch rather thn French town. Believed stars were man’s final destination. Not sky’s appearance, but communicates feelings about the vastness of univ. Church perhaps attempt to reconcile conflicted views on relig. Personal vision but doesn’t correspond to view frm window. Cypress: mournful (in cemeteries & mimics church steeple).
Paul Sérusier, The Talisman, 1888, Nabis 1 of artists influenced by Gauguin at Pont Aven, who taught him to assign color accdng to his imagination. Permitted him to paint a tiny wk on a cigar box cover, verged on pure abstraction, thought alive w/ supernatural power, & therefore named it talisman. Dubbed themselves Nabis, from Hebrew word for prophet. Eclectic group who took a synthesizing approach to masters of previous gen, such as Seurat, Cezanne, Redon, & Gauguin, particularly the last.
Emile Bernard, Buckwheat Harvesters, Pont-Aven, 1888, Cloisonnism, Synthetism Joined the School of Pont-Aven: influenced by its surroundings, artists’ colony that emerged 1850s. His Cloisonnism: after cloisonné enameling, technique in which thin bands of gold/ silver used to outline areas filled w/ brightly colored enamel pastes. Blends into Synthetism, synthesizing his feeling about the subject, the purity of aesthetic considerations. Intended as expressions of form & color of inner poetry.
Edouard Vuillard, Self-Portrait, 1892 , Nabis
Central figure of the Nabis. Group inspired by synthetism of Gauguin: believed art should synthesize external appearances w/ the artist’s subjective feelings through purely aesthetic considerations of line, form, & color. Shows a dramatic shift in his art in 1890s Experimented with abstraction & powerful color in a manner like Matisse & the Fauves. Practiced lithography.
Pierre Bonnard, Promenade of the Nursemaids, Frieze of Fiacres, 1899, Nabis Important influences: Gauguin & Jap prints: evident in his japoniste approach: tilted perspecs & abbrev silhouetted forms. Love for paint texture, used high-keyed color & fragmtd brushstrks. Made of 4 lithos based on a similarly ptd screen. Mother & children, 3 heavily caped nurses, marching line of fiacres (carriages) reveal touch of satire. Nabis: believed in eliminating barriers btw pop dec & high art & everyday application on obj.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, “A Montrouge” ---Rosa La Rouge, 1886—1887, Post-Impr Hinge fig btw late 19th & early 20th c avant-gardes. Before devoting himself to graphic works he was portaitist of demi-monde, incl Carmen Gaudin. Drew her w/ unruly red hair, simple clothes: tough look to this wkg class woman. Averts her face as silhouetted agnst lit window. Simplified comp out of long strokes of color. Somber mood insp by song by cabaret singer Aristide Bruant about a prostitute who conspires to kill her clients.
Thomas Eakins, The Pole Vaulter, 1884—1885, Multiple exposure gelatin silver print
Supporter of Muybridge’s UPenn photog experiments in specially built outdoor studio, helped bring him to the University and worked with him. Eakins was an accomplished amateur photographer. Used Muybrdige’s photos in his teaching & art to show how humans & animals move. Revealed actions the unaided eye couldn’t perceive, undermined assoc of optical reality & truth.
Henri Rousseau, The Sleeping Gypsy, 1897, Post-Imp, Naïve Manner Wkd in isolation & admired acad ptrs. Rejected illus in search for poetic, highly persnlizd imagery, embracing concerns of Symbolists but demo'd interest in primitive. Mixture of naivety & innocence = sharp, & direct imgs from imagination w/ black silhouettes. Created mood using few elements, broadly conceived but meticulously rendered. Lost for many years but disc later by art critic Louis Vauxcelles, later years Rousseau became celebrity.
Edouard Vuillard, Woman in Blue with Child, 1899, Nabis Intimate world: corners of studios, living rm, & view from a window. In his early wks he used broken paint & small brushstroke of Seurat or Signac. Parisian apartment of Thadée Natanson, co-founder of La Revue Blanche, in the corner playing w/ her niece. Probably used his own photo of the apt as an aide-memoire: typical turn of c interior w/ sumpt dec flowered wallppr, Forms of woman & child flattened indistinguishable from patterns. Called intimitiste.
John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England 1815—23 Spread of indust & use of novel bldg materials, notably iron, glass & hollow ceramic tile in 19th c. Use of iron common in English indust bldg only after 1800. Improvements of Indust Rev permitted greater flexibility & experimentation in design & larger scale since it could span larger spaces. Exposed columns & decorative ironwork appeared, particularly in non-trad structures. Summer beach house for royal fam in GB. British sovereign = Empress of India (Victoria).
Gustave Eiffel, Truyere Bridge, Garabit, France 1880—1884, Victorian Structuralist Expressionist
During first half of the nineteenth century a concealed iron skeleton structure was used in buildings of all types and exposed columns and decorative ironwork appeared. Iron was used extensively in the many new railway bridges built throughout Europe as the railway system expanded.
Philip Webb & William Morris Red House, Bexleyheath, Kent, England, 1859—1860, Arts & Crafts
Skepticism about indust,: consumption of cheaply manuf prods, led to revivalism. Believed indust wrkr alienated from craft. Mid Ages nostalgia: basis for community & spirituality lacking in Vict Britain. Artist’s coop: the Firm, rise to A&C mvmt: simplicity, materials, wkmnship. Simplif, trad red-brick Tudor Gothic manor house. Queen Anne windows & oculi. intr dsgd in collab w/ PreRaphs Rossetti & Burne-J.
Charles F. Voysey, Forster House, Bedford Park, London, 1891, Arts & Crafts Modern arch’s more rev concepts undecorated & forms that follow function conceived of in modest indiv homes. Infl on progrssv European design through his wallpprs & textiles. Designed furniture w/ medievalizing simplistic form. Infl by Arthur Mackmurdo, style eliminating all reminisnces of Eng 18th c arch. Orig in rhythmic grps of windows & doors on broad white areas of unadorned walls. Voysey: prod of English Gothic Rev.
McKim, Meade, and White, William G. Low House, Bristol, R.I., 1886—87, Victorian McKim, Mead & White responsible for hold that acad classicism had on Amer public arch based less on Greek and Roman prototypes than colonial. In their domestic arch drew on quals of American colonial bldg & select hist or geo style best suited to site. “shingle style” colonial revival style assoc w/ firm. Evokes comparison w/ colonial arch of coastal New Eng.Revolutionary in contrast to revivalist mansions in Newport.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Library, Glasgow School of Art, 1907—09, Scottish Art Nouveau, The Four
Glasgow 1 of most remarkable ctrs of arch exp end of 19th c. Beg of his career. Essence: simplicity, clarity, monumentality, org of space: exprssv of function. Rectang studio windows in massive stone façade, = solids & voids. Heaviness softened by curved masonry, ironwork show a relationship to Art Nouv but derive forms from Scottish, Celtic art. Rectglr beams & columns = views become 3D, geo abstrctns.
Richard Morris Hunt; McKim, Mead & White; Burnham and Root, et al. Counteracts progrssv infl of Richardson & Chicago School. More Amer studied Ecole des Beaux Arts. 1893 Columbian Expo in Chicago, celeb of 400th anniv of Columbus’s voyage = ex of quasi-Roman city planning. Collab of architects, incl McKim, Mead & White, Chicago firm Burnham & Root, & Richard Morris Hunt. Assert Amer ascndcy in indust & visual arts. Europe looked to future, Amer lked to clsscl Euro. Fear Chicago arch = provincial.
William Morris, Detail of Pimpernel Wallpaper, 1876, Arts & Crafts
Wallpaper made by William Morris’s artists’ cooperative the Firm. Highest quality home furnishings. Put into practice admiration for the Middle Ages, producing works based on his and others’ organic patterns and organizing skilled laborers as if in a crafts guild
Aubrey Beardsley, Salome with the Head of John the Baptist, 1893, Aesthetics Mvmt : art shouldn't have to adhere to social purpose. Beardsley assoc w/ decdent lit of Oscar Wilde & othr fin de siècle writrs. Admired for their beauty & condemned for sexual content. Drawings elaborate b&w stylization & decorative richness. Like French Symbolists, haunted by Romantic visions of evil, erotic & decadent. Appeared in Europe & America in watered down versions in illus & posters. Based illus on Wilde’s 1894 play.
Gustave Klimt, Death and Life, 1908—11, Secession
Secession: broke from assoc of Viennese artists to form own exh society: help public appreciate new, modern art. Allegorical Grim Reaper, gazes at life w/ malicious grin. Life: all generations, never-ending circle of life. Death can swipe indiv but humaity eludes his grasp. Circle of life repeats itself in diverse circular ornaments, adorn life like a garland. Honored w/ 1st prize 1911 Intl Art Exh in Rome.
Antoni Gaudi, Detail of surrounding wall, Guell Park, Barcelona, Modernisme, 1900-14 Infl as a student by a Romantic and Symbolist concept of the Middle Ages as a golden age, which became for him and other Spanish artists a symbol for the rising nationalism of Catalonia. Designed the walls, benches, and other features for Park Guell. Fantasy and engineering ingenuity: combination of lansdscape and urban planning. The wall is sculptural: Gaudi’s vision. Romantic, gothic-style English gardens.
Gustave Klimt Detail of dining-room mural Palais Stoclet, Brussels, 1905—1908, Secession Broke from assoc of Viennese artists to form own exh society: help public apprec new, modern art. Est dec ptr & fasionable portraitist. Conscious of Symbolism, Pre-Raph, & Aestheticism. His style = study of Byzantine mosaics. Murals in Palais Stoclet (designed by Josef Hoffmann) in glass, enamel, metal, semi-precious stones. Created flat patterns, anatomical forms. Gilded spirals: flatten & essentially decorative in effect.
Victor Horta, Stairwell of Interior, Tassel House, 1892—93, Brussels, Belgian Art Nouveau Could claim to be founder of Art Nou. Trained as acadmican, insp by Baroque & Rococo concepts of linear mvmt. Studied plant growth & struct theories by Eiffel. Adv Viollet-le-Duc’s theories about metal construc. Stair hall integ harmony of linear rhythms, est in balustrades of ornam iron, whiplash curves on capitals, arabesqu on walls & floor & winding steps. Line triumphs over sculpted mass, fanciful tendril-like elements blend.
Victor Horta, À l’Innovation department store, Brussels, 1901 Many chief ex of Art Nouveau arch found in designs of dept stores & commercial bldgs. Lg scale dept store: chrctrstc dev of late 19th c, rplc older, smaller type, enclosing bazaar format. This form had no trads. Function emphasized spatial flow. Façade: display piece of glass, curvilinear metal supports: displays 3 floors w/ nave & flanking side aisles. Pop in Euro & America in 20th c. New in mass construc: glass, exposed metal struct & dec tracery.
Hector Guimard, Entrance to the Porte Dauphine Metropolitan Station, Paris 1901, Art Nouveau
Can be considered pure Art Nouveau perhaps b/c are not so much architectural structures as decorative signs or symbols. Constructed for the 1900 Universal Exposition out of prefabricated parts of cast iron and glass. At odds with prevailing taste for classicism – were a sensation in Paris, causing a critic to compare them to dragonfly wings. This is a rare example of a Guimard canopy still intact.
Louis Sullivan, detail of cast-iron ornament on the façade of the Carson Pirie Scott and Company Department store, Chicago, c. 1903—1904 Along w/ arch ornament of Louis Sullivan Guaranty Trust Bldg: principal Amer manifestation of Art Nouveau spirit was in arch ornament. Comparable spirit in early wk of disciple FLW. No single, unified Art Nouveau style. Imagntv invention, linear & spatial flow, non-traditsm inspired architects in America. Used metal, glass & reinforced concrete construction.
Edvard Munch, The Sick Child, 1885—1886, Norwegian Symbolism Pt of radical group of bohemian writers and painters in naturalist mode. Insp by Post-Imp & Germany when new and dynamic art was emerging. Intensely literary & mystical approach of his tortured psyche. Mother & sister died of tuberculosis when he was young, his younger brother succumbed in 1895, 5 yrs after death of their father, Relates to illness and death of his sister that haunted him for years. Wked it over many times.
Christian Krohg, The Sick Girl 1880—81, Norweigian Naturalism
Munch’s mentor – explored a similar theme to Munch’s The Sick Child, and a theme common in art and literature of the period. Confronts viewer head-on, her pale skin and white gown stark against the white pillow. Krohg watched his sister die of tuberculosis and avoided the sentimentality or latent eroticism that pervaded contemporary treatments of such subjects.
Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893, Norwegian Symbolism His symbolic content most explicit at turn of c: chrctrzd by sinuous, moving, curving lines of art nouveau: dark in hue but brilliant in intensity. Infl by Nabis & Gauguin. Anxieties general, ambig & frightening. Agonized shriek translated into bands of color that echo like sound waves. Source in Munch’s personal ex. As he walked across a bridge w/ friends at sunset, was seized w/ despair & “felt a great, infinite scream pass through nature.”
Edvard Munch, The Dance of Life, 1900, Norwegian Symbolism Emerging as ptr when Freud was dev theories of psychoanalysis. Provided clssic examples of Freud’s explorations in his obsessions with sex, death & woman as a destructive force. In this wk transformed moon & its long reflection on water into a phallic symbol. Belongs to a lg series Munch called The Frieze of Life, w/ Scream, addressing central themes of love, sexual anxiety, death. Based on troubled personal history of love and rejection.
Edvard Munch, Vampire, 1902, Norwegian Symbolism
Mjr graphic artist of 20th c and took experimental approach to printmaking, contributed to revival of woodcut. Used media to restudy subj he previously ptd, modifying it. Bypasses color registration: inking separate areas of wdblock & aligning sheet for every pass. Sawed block into sections, inked each separtely & assembled like puzzle. Combo print w/ litho. Grphc effects, ambiguous. Could be embracing lover, ominous shadow looms, title implies smthg sinister.
Ferdinand Hodler, Night, 1889—90, Secession Grp Correspondent/Swiss Symbolist Knew ravages of sickness, death, underwent relig commitmnt. Sought frozen stillness, spareness, purity. Surface in exctng detail, controlled concern for abstrct pattern: balnced, frieze-like org he called “parallelism.” Expression of his own obsessive fears (like Munch). Ctrl fig awkns to find shrouded phantom: self-portrait like as well as man in upper right. Women: his wife & mistress. Banned from exh in Geneva, better reception in Paris.
Max Klinger, The Abduction, from the portfolio, A Glove, 1881, German Symbolism
Portfolio of 10 prints: traces journey of single white glove through film-like sequence, beginning in reality, morphing into dreamscape. Begins in roller skating rink in Berlin, woman loses glove. Klinger retrieves it. Intimate obj triggers series of elaborate visions of longing, obsession, loss. End: monster steals glove, love is unrequited. Anticipates Freudian psychoanalysis.
James Ensor, The Entry of Christ into Brussels in 1889, 1888—89, Belgian Exp Mmbr of Les XX: Belg intstd in est national identity, lineage to Rubens & Brueghel. Late 1880s relig subj: torments of Christ. Not in relig sense but revulsion. Passion of Christ as ctr of Flemish kermis (carnival) symptmtc of indiff of modern world. Tumult: dissonant color claustrophbic space. Christ prob artist, as persected martyr: promoted by Symblsts. Indictmnt of mid class: refers to citizns of Ostend who didn’t understand his work.
Arnold Bocklin, Island of the Dead, 1880, German Symbolism Fell prey to clsscl dream, prompted him to paint almost grotesque acad Realism: mythcl beings. Depicts no known reality but appeals to late Romantic & Symbolist imag. Uncanny stillness & ghostly white cowled fig, eerie moonlight illum rocks & entrances to tombs agnst deep mysteriously resonant blues & greens of sky, water & tall, melanchly cypresses providd insp for subsquent ptrs like de Chirico, poets, composers like Wagner.
Edgar Degas, Little Fourteen-Year-Old-Dancer, 1878—81, Impressionist Sculpture His sculpture little known to sculptors of 1st modern gen b/c never publicly exh during his lifetime. Concerned w/ trad formal problems of sculpture: experiments in space & mvmt. Pigmented wax, built up over armature, layer by layer to richly articulated surface in which touch of hand recorded. Quality of sketches: fully realized ine 1881 Impress exh. Adding a tutu & satin hair ribbon w/ trad media, foreshdwd mixed-media sculpt.
Andre Derain, London Bridge, 1906, Fauvism
Unlike Vlaminck: student of art of museums despite enthusiasm for color of Fauvism, sought ordered & trad concepts of ptg. Ptd during trip commissioned by dealer Ambroise Vollard, wanted Derain to make ptgs that would capture atmos of London. Demos transformation art underwent since early Impr. Studied Turner, Rembrandt & African sculpture. Synthetic bkgrnd agnst complementary green & blue. Delimits depth by reiterating lg areas & tiltd perspec.
André Derain, Turning Road, L’Estaque, 1906, Fauvism
He spent time at L’Estaque, famous site o fpaintings by Cezanne. His grand panorama of a bend in the raod takes its brilliant palette and idealized realm far from the urban bustle of London’s waterways. He travels to new extremes of intensity and anti-naturalism in his color – a world in which hues of a single tree can shift dramatically.
Auguste Rodin, The Age of Bronze, 1876, Modern Sculpture Intro'd modern ideas into trad-bound form of figrl public sculpt, revealing thoughts & emotions. Began w/ reaction agnst sentimental idealism like Courbet. Re-examined Donatello & Michelangelo. In possession of full range of historical sculpt forms & techniques by time he returned from Italy, 1875. Accepted in Salon of 1877, its scrupulous realism led to suspicion it was cast from living model, not legitimate technique at time. Exp of a tragic theme
Auguste Rodin, The Gates of Hell, 1880—1917, Modern Sculpture Portal proposd to Museum of Decor Arts in Paris. Free interp of scenes from Dante’s Inferno, design scheme based on Ghiberti’s 15th c gilt-bronze portals for Flor Baptistery: Gates of Paradise. Isolated figs, grps, episodes, experimenting more than 30 yrs. Ctrl fig of Dante, brooding nude: The Thinker. Turblnce of subj: human figs bent & twisted to limits of endurance. Melancholy meditation on tragdy of human condition. Forerunner to Exprs distortions.
Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, 1886, Modern Sculpture Explores Realist themes. Indiv figs bound by common sacrifice. Not recognzbl hist event.Indirct memorial for Franco-Prussan War: Eustache de St-Pierre, offered self & 5 prominent citzns 1347 during 100 Yrs’ War as hostgs to Eng to raising siege of city. Barefoot in sackcloth, w/ robes around necks & keys to city. Eye-level w/ viewer, no pedestal. Attacks trad of closed, balancd grpings, arrgmt informal. Sculpted plaster & wax allowed gesture of hand.
Aristide Maillol, The Mediterranean, 1902—1905, Modernism, Rappel à l'ordre While Matisse wrestled w/ legacy of classicism in his wk, Maillol found a reassuring source in classical antiquity. Developed mature style in clay modeling, summarized here. Massive female nude integrated as a set of curving volumes in space: simplified body into idealized geomtrc forms & imparted a quality of psychological withdrawal & composed reserve. Shown at infamous Salon d’Automne of 1905.
Antoine Bourdelle, Hercules the Archer, 1909, Modern Sculpture Student & assistant of Rodin. Sought to revitalize classical trad like Maillol. Eclectic, archaeological approach drew on archaic & early 5th c. BCE Greek sculpture & Gothic. Shows his indebtedness to Rodin scarred modeling like the Thinker. Translated into violent action. Braced agnst rocks: profile, 2-D alternation of lg areas of solid & void, perhaps insp by Discobolus.
Medardo Rosso, The Concierge (La Portinata), 1883, Modern Sculpture From Turin. Dismissed from Accademia di Brera in Milan in 1883. Met Rodin & active in Paris, assoc w/ more French sculpt than Ital, always a ptr. Extended exper of Rodin, dissolves sculpt forms. Favorite medium: wax = impercept transitions, amorphous shape. Said “nothing is material in space.” Sfumato envelops door-keeper, once owned by Zola. Led some to label him an Impr. New dimension to sculpture, intimiste, anti-heroic.
Henri Matisse, The Open Window, 1905, Fauvism
Exh at Salon d’Automne, 1905. 1st fully dev example of favored theme: fragment of wall of room, filled principally w/ window to outside world. Mediterr port where Matisse & Derain produced 1st Fauve ptgs. Wall & casements composed of broad strokes & range of colors. Diversity of paint handling w/in 1 frame: typical of early Fauve comps. Bare patches, brshstrkes freed of trad role of describing form. Moved beyond any Neo-Impressionist abstraction.
Henri Matisse, Portrait of Mme Matisse/ The Green Line, 1905, Fauvism More audacious than Woman w a Hat, less sketch-like, more tightly drawn & structured. Sitter’s face dominated by brilliant pea-green band of shadow dividing from hairline to chin. Fauves were building thesis constructed by Gauguin, Symbolists, and Nabis that artist should choose color independently of natural appearance. His img perhaps more shocking because his subject was so simple and familiar not exotic like Gauguin.
Henri Matisse, Harmony in Red (The Dessert), 1908, Fauvism World less empirical & more abstract than envisioned by Gauguin. Space defined by single unmodulated area of red, flatness reinforced by arabesques of plant forms flow across walls & table surface. Derive from piece of decor fabric he owned meandering forms confound sense of volumetric space in ptg & create pictorial ambiguities common flower baskets on wallppr & “real” fruit in still life on table. Ext abstracted forms & framed as if a pic itself.
Henri Matisse, The Dance, 1909—10, Fauvism Boldly outlined large-scale figures, isolated them against a ground of intense color. Inspiration traced to Greek vase painting/peasant dances. Same motif used in Bonheur de vivre. Colors limited to intense green for earth, and blue for sky, w/ red-brick for figures, sealed into foreground by color areas and proximity to framing edge. Dance extatically in airy space created by contrasting juxtaposed hues and modeled contours. Explained fauvism as “purity of means.”
Henri Matisse, The Red Studio, 1911, Fauvism
Returned to principle of single unifying color as in Harmony in Red. Described uniform area of red covering floor and walls. Space given volumetric definition by a single white line and paintings and furniture lining the wall. Furnishings are dematerializedj, ghostlike objects outlined in white lines – tangible accents are painintgs of the artist hanging or stacked against the walls and in foreground.
Paula Modersohn-Becker, Self-Portrait with Camellia Branch, 1907, Expressionism Settled in artists’ colony at Worpswede, not assoc w/ any grp outside provincl school. In touch w/ new dev through Rainer Maria Rilke & visits to Paris. After last trip, a highly innov pd, distilled simplfid forms while heightening expr of color. Desired for art to have direct emotion of poetic exp, simplicity, sensitivity to nature. Worried about implications of marriage & motherhd on profes life. Studied Egyptian & early classical at Louvre.
Emil Nolde, The Last Supper, 1909, Expressionism
Son of farmer from NW Germany, reactionary, rural values, had effect on his art & attitude toward nature. Ties to lndscp & yearning for völkisch or nationalist trad. Accepted mmbrshp to Die Brücke in 1906, left after a yr sought more personal form. Mood for Last Supper diff from Old Masters. Figs in non-existent space. Fiery color, skull-like faces derive from carnvl processions of Ensor. Intense personalities, not masked & inscrutable, but indiv passionately invlvd.
Max Pechstein, Somali Dancers, 1910, Expressionism
Woodcut print: revival of mjr form of art, principal contrib of German Exp: long hist in German art. Mmbr of Die Brücke, sought bridge to “rev & fermenting elements.” Apprec art from Africa & South Pacific in Dresden ethnographic museum. Chose dance as subj perhaps insp after seeing Somali dance group in Berlin that yr. Resembles hangings Die Brücke artists decorated studios. Crude exec: schematically hewn figs and surface: w irreg smudges of ink.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Berlin, 1913, Expressionism Founder of Die Brücke (formed in Dresden of Jugenstil arch. grads). Sought to bridge acad style with new mode. Inspired by Dürer, Gruenwald, Cranach the Elder. Employed crude techniques to express modern life socially agitated & sexually charged. Preceded WWI rise of materialism & impending war. Female fig: streetwalker as symbol of modernity primitive, new & dangerous. Objectified & stand-in for artist himself, who feels alienated.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Market Place with Red Tower, 1915, Expressionism Founder of Die Brücke (formed in Dresden of Jugenstil arch. grads). Sought to bridge academic style with new mode. Inspired by Dürer, Gruenwald, Cranach the Elder. Explicitly expressive. Shows knowledge of Cubism, but uses geometry w/ caution. Combines it w/ defined perspective distorted in manner of van Gogh; creates caustrophobic effect of compression, what Kirchner calls “melancholy of big city streets.”
Max Pechstein, Indian and Woman, 1910, Expressionism Die Brücke. Studied in academy, saw collection of wood carvings from Palau in ethnog museum had formative influence. Traveled to Pacific to study first hand. Was most eclectic of grp capable of paintings that shifted style. This early painting shows him at dramatic best in exotic subject, modeling figures, and Fauve-inspired color. His sculptural/curvilinear drawing contrasts to Müller or Heckel & not tinged by anxiety of Kirchner.
Erich Heckel, Standing Child, 1910, Expressionism
Die Brücke. In contrast to Kirchner’s linear wood-cuts w/ v-shaped gouges, Heckel creates a spare composition – adolescent named Fränzi – favorite model of the group along w/ her sister Marcella. Reserved color of paper for model’s skin & employed 3 woodblocks for black, green, & red inks: puzzle technique invented by Munch for landscape background. Forthright design & frank, precocious sexuality of sitter.
Otto Muller, Bathing Women, 1912, Expressionism
Die Brücke. Uses most delicate & muted colors of grp. Created wks that suggest Oriental elegance. Nudes are attenuated, awkwardly graceful softly outlined yellow-ocher bodies blend harmoniously w/ setting. Impressed by ancient Egyptian wall pts & emulated muted tonalities. Unidealized, candid depiction of nudes in nature amng grp’s fave subj; saw as release from 19th c. prudery & plunge into primal exp.
Vasily Kandinsky, Blue Mountain, No. 84, 1908—1909, Expressionism Der Blaue Reiter: Munich. More far-reaching than Die Brücke, but not first. Attracted to Theosophy: inner creative force, product of spirit rather than ext vision or manual skill. Harmony of color & form based on contact w/ human soul. Partly figrtive this stage. Horse-and-rider motif symbolized his crusade agnst conventional aesthetic values & his dream of a better, more spiritual future through transformative powers of art
Käthe Kollwitz, Death Seizing a Woman, 1934, from series Death, 1934—36 (lithograph), Expressionism
Devoted to printmaking & sculpture as form of social protest. 1st of German Social Realists to develop out of Expr post WWI. Essentially a Realist, concerned w/ suffering of underpriveldged. Printmaking for ability to reach wide audience. Elaborate cycles on ctrl theme. From last great series. Witnessed theme of loss among her (dr) husband’s patients. Death of her yngest son in WWI transf into personal tragedy.
Vasily Kandinsky, Composition VII, 1913, Expressionism Der Blaue Reiter: Name from book & ptg by Kandinsky. Began to use titles from music assoc free art form. Expresses “inner necessity” or intuitive, emotional response to world. Generally his comps revolve around themes of cosmic conflict & renewal, Deluge from bk of Genesis & Apocalypse from bk of Rev. Believed rebirth could emerge. In midst of symphonic arrngmnt of abstract forms, motifs: glyph of boat w/ 3 oars, sign of biblical floods.
Franz Marc, The Large Blue Horses, 1911, Expressionism Mmbr of Der Blaue Reiter closest to spirit of German Romntcm & lyrical naturalism. Subj of animals as source of spiritual harmony & purity. Symbol of primitive & arcadian life. W/ friend August Macke, dev enthusiasms for color: richness & beauty expressive of harmonies. Mstrpce of mature style. Fleshed out sculpturally from equally vivid colors. Fill canvas. No spatial differentiation. Color: symblic not descriptive function. Blue: masc, yellow: fem.
Henri Matisse, from left to right: Back I, 1909, Back II, 1913, Back III, 1916—17, Back IV, c. 1930, Fauvist Sculpture Said he sculpted like a ptr & set up dialogue btw the 2 media. Most ambitious sculptural project, monumental reliefs more than 6 ft high. Development of theme of Two Women, figs embracing, 1 front, 1 back view, translated into single feature in bas relief. Resorted to upright vertical surface like ptg. Increased simplification, abstraction, reflects interest in Cubism.
Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Seated Youth, 1917, Expressionist (German) Acquainted w/ modernists in Paris. Few surviving wks. Last monumental wk, used extreme elongation, suggests figs in Byzantine mosaics/ Romanesque sculpt: sense of contempl/ withdrawal. Departure from 19th c trad. Penetrated by space, exploits exprssv ends, abstract org of solid & voids. Mood of dejec & loss, expresses Lehnbruck’s trauma & sadness in Germany in WWI, led to suicide.
Ernst Barlach, The Avenger, 1914, Expressionist (German) Visited Paris. Early wk had curving forms of Jugenstil & medieval German sculpture. Traveled to Russia, impressed by peasant population. Later sculptures depict beggars/laborers. Targeted as degenerate artist by Nazis & monuments dismantled. Integrated humor, pathos & primitive tragedy into single image such as this. Storytelling art, socially conscious Expressionism used outer forms of contemp experiment for narrative purposes.
Edward Weston, Shells, 1927, Straight photography
Shared Brancusi’s quest for essence of things, created imgs of remarkable purity & elegance. Achieves goal of subj revealed in “deepest moment of perception.” Controlled form through selection of motif, exposure time, & use of ground-glass, focus screen of lg-format camera. Could previsualize his prints & eliminate random effects of light, atmos & moment. Created timeless image, leaving behind Pictorialism of early aesthetic photography.
Constantin Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1925 (marble, stone, and wood), Modern Sculpture Most influential sculptor of 20th century; style isolated & universal, wked w/ themes, never deserted the fig. Touched, affected, influenced most mjr strains of sculpture. Obsessed w/ birds & essence of flight. Streamlined form of 1912 Maiastra (master bird) until he achieved this. Less about bird’s shape than traject through air. Base integral fit into stone cylinder on cruciform stone; trans btw mundan world & spirit realm of bird.
Constantin Brancusi, Endless Column, 1937—38, Modern Sculpture Most influential sculptor of 20th century; style is isolated & universal, wked w/ themes, but never deserted the fig. Strove for same finish in wood sculpt. Ensemble installed late 30s in Tirjiu-Jiu Romania. Recalls ancient obelisks, draws upon Romanian folk art. Thomboid shapes began as socle (pedestal) designs devd as freestanding sculptures. Most radically abstract; reliance on modules became important to minimalists.
Pablo Picasso, La Vie, 1903, Blue Period From early career. Affected by suicide of friend Carlos Casagemas. Portrayed human misery: hunger, hardships, cold, reminiscent of El Greco. Depicted Casagemas & his lover: male was orig a self-portrait. Stern gaze from woman holding baby, emerged from studies of inmates at women’s prison (many prostitts w/ venereal disease). Timeless apprance of madonna. Polarized view of women: Madonnas/whores. Lovers: Adam & Eve. Blue turns flesh cold, stony.
Pablo Picasso, Gertrude Stein, 1906, Rose Period
Pt of circle of critics, dealers, collectors that showed/ admired him. Foremost collector (w/ brothers Leo & Michael). Intro'd him to Matisse. Sat for him 90 times. Ample frame, loose-fitting dress, unconvntnal pose for female sitter, conveys self-assured nature of woman who proclaims her own artistic genius. Fills space like massive sculpt. Abandoned portrait over summer in Spain & repted face from memory. Mask-like appearance anticipates distortions.
Pablo Picasso, Les demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907, Pre-Cubist Shatterd pictorial/iconographical conventions. Confrontational imgry. Prostitutes from Aviño st in Barcelona’s Red Lt district. Prostitution= prominentin avant-garde of 19th c. Never w/ such vehemence. Crudely flattened/ simplif. Draperies hardened into shards. Contradictory POV. 2 ctrl figs assume classic venus pose. L: Egyptian statue. On L: Iberian (almond shapd eyes); R: tribal masks. Theatrical. Threat of VD.
Georges Braque, Houses at L’Estaque, August 1908, Early Cubism Est syntax of Cubism, credited single-handedly w/ arriving at this point. Showed wks at Salon d’Automne & Matisse coined mvmt’s name (“little cubes”). Contact w/ Picasso 1907, regularly visited each other’s studios. Demos transf in style in Autumn. Suppression of details: houses simplified. Rather than receding, forms come forward, sense of low-relief. Cézanne built org. of surface & depth from color, Braque focuses on pict structure.