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What does renaissance mean? Rebirth of Humankind in retrospect of the dark ages.
Greco-Roman = Anthropocentric. Middle Ages (Medieval) Theocentric (God-Centered) The rich bought art.
Duccio, Maesta Altarpiece
For the Cathedral of Sienna. Very gothic. Dedicated to The Virgin Mary. The people of Sienna thought that their city was protected by Mar. The top and bottom and describe the life of Mary. Back is the life of Christ. Illusion of 3D Designs. Chiardoscuro use of light-dark. Proportions inaccurate. The Eyeballing style of perspective is called Empirical*. Realism is sacrificed to show wealth. Sienna was wealthy due to cloth trade.
Gabriel the Angel comes down to Mary and tell her she is about to die. Proportions are all off.
Giotto, Annunciation to Anna.
Angel tells Anna she is pregnant.
The servant is eavesdropping on them.
Giotto creates a dollhouse like quality, creates more space than Duccio, has directional lighting. Introduces subtle emotion into faces and body language.
Giotto, Last Judgment.
Giotto comes from Florence, the rivals of Sienna. Giotto was the most famous artist in all of Italy during his lifetime. Painted in Fresco*, which is painted on wet plaster.
The last judgement always painted the same in medieval art. Right side is blessed good people. while left is sinners, damned. Nudity associated with sin. Christ always in the center. River of fire & blood.
International Style: 1400-1425
Toward the end of the 14th century pope moves to France
New style begins to emerge in France –Church is powerful institution (Lots of money, people like money)
Limbourg Bros, April (from the Very Rich Hours of the Duc de Berry)
This is an engagement scene. Is almost a return of realism, with perspective and a believable landscape. Whenever you see a walled garden it indicates chastity. Still a lack of bone structure. They desired high foreheads and a bump on their bellies. The robes are heavy patterned. Makes it look very lavish.
Limbourg Bros, February (from the Very Rich Hours of the Duc de Berry).
Very focused on the natural world. Peasant scene. Realism of Particulars*, which means some things are depicted in a realistic way, and some are not. Lifting their skirts to warm themselves. These types of scene are called Genre Scenes*, means themes of lower class, everyday activity.
Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi.
Great use of Foreshortening.
Commisioned by the richest man in Florence. Simple rounded arches represent gothic to a more classical type. Mary is holding Christ. Kings are kneeling toward the baby. Depicts journey of the Magi and the arrival. There is no real sense of space. The flatness of the people and the appearance of the naturalistic animals show a real International Style.
Overall realism depicted in this era. Dominated by the middle class.
**Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle), Merode Altarpiece (INFO)**
Hubert and Jan, brothers worked on this. Ghent is the name of the city that it is in. If open it is known as the Sunday state, and if closed, it would be called, the weekday state. Lamb in the photo symbolic for Christ. Gaping hole in the lamb is Christ, gushing blood, into a chalice!
Jewels are very detailed.
When closed, it has two tiers, one on top has the annunciation, and the other is the donors. (middle-top tier) John the Baptist on the left, John the evangelist on the right. Grisaille is meant to symbolize sculpture. Donor on the left is very detailed. Women on the left is also very detailed and not lavished.
Panels off to the side represent Adam and Eve, but why? Because they introduced sin into the world. Adam is very detailed.
- Interest in the art of classical antiquity.
- The Italian call their Cathedrals, domes.
- Church usually dominating everything.
- Most art during this time is still very religious.
- Buildings are very densely located.
- Doors were made under artistic competition.
- The competition led to the rivalry Lorenzo Ghiberti vs Filippo Bruneleschi.
Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Isaac.
Filippo shows a real brutal scene, how Abraham forces Isaac down. In order to remember, think Brunelleschi Brutal, and Ghiberti Graceful. In Filippos piece it is very realistic, even more naturalistic than Lorenzo’s. Let’s take a look at the Ram’s, in Filippo’s, the Ram has more movement, while Lorenzo’s is so graceful, nonchalant.
In Filippo’s work, the boy to the bottom left is referencing a Hellenistic piece called, “Boy pulling a thorn out of his foot.”
Overall, Lorenzo Ghiberti’s piece won. It is said the reason is because of cost, because Ghiberti was using less material using a hollow cast, and Fiippo is using a solid cast of bronze.
Filippo Brunelleschi, The Hospital of the Innocents.
This proceeds into Rome. He wanted to revive the roman style. This building is an orphanage. This is a matter of humanitarianism, caring for your fellow human. Not to be mistaken for a Church Institution, it is a civic one, it’s made for the city. The rounded arches are very archaic and classical. He did not want to impress, he just wanted to bring back classical antiquity.
An important commission for Filippo, a church for San Lorenzo, or Saint Laurence. He was going to finish the exterior, but never did, but he finished the Interior. It was commissioned by the Medici Family, who were bankers, and important, very interesting in humanism. Brunelleschi made just another typical latin cross ground plan. Nothing extraordinary. The roof isn’t very tall like most cathedrals.
Donatello, St. Mark
Innovator of a new style. Over 7 feet tall. Donatello is dedicated to giving us a powerful figure as well as natural. Contrappasto is very apparent. The drapery well done, see the same strong physique under his clothing. With this pose, it really suggests Donatello’s look at classical antiquity. Drilled and defined pupils, was usually painted. Very deep carving in the beard.
The first monumental, free standing nude, since antiquity.* David as the Shepard who fights Goliath. Civic symbol for Florence. Private commission, for Medici. It was Private nudity. Portrays an Adolescence. Suggests homoerotic tones. Looking down at the head of Goliath & admiring own body. Goliath is wearing a helmet from Mallon. The wing from Goliaths helmet creeps up David’s thigh.
Verrocchio = like Pinocchio. He was the teacher of Leonardo Da Vinci. Depicts General Colleoni, outside of a church in Venice. Commissioned by the General, made of Bronze. A ton of detail, seemingly outdoing Donatello. The horse seems more animated vs Donatello’s static horse sculpture. Helmet has a design with two testicles that are disembodied, because his name is close to the Italian word for testicles.
Masaccio, The Tribute Money.
Private family chapel. It’s from the story of the life of St. Peter and a couple of scenes depicting Adam and Eve. The evidence of Brunelleschi is in the details. The subject is tribute money, it’s a story from the New Testament, Christ is with his band of followers and are preaching.
Masaccio, The Trinity.
Representation of an abstract theological concept. It suggests that the Diety is consisted of three figures, God, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Combined is all one. Massacio has made this persepective to show like a chapel is built within the portrait. Accurate. **Massaccio has made the vanishing point from YOUR space, at your head level & The sarcophagus He borrows from Bernaleski, who seemed to have taught him about architecture.
Botticelli, Birth of Venus.
A mythical subject matter from Mythology. For the Medici family. On canvas painting. Zeus cut off his Father’s testicles, and throws them into the sea, the Sea then becomes inseminated and thus born, Venus.Signifying a revival of this classic style.
Mantegna, Camera degli Sposi.
Camera Degli Sposi was the “room of the spouses”. So famous it was considered just, “The painted room.” These are portraits, the first secular group portraits of the renaissance. The duke is consulting. Pictures a court dwarf. They would have oddities.
Mantegna, Dead Christ.
Gives your perception that you are the third mourner in this piece. Suggesting that the barrier is broken down and that you are really there.
All the artists have learned all the rules and excel dramatically.
Leonardo da Vinci, Anatomical drawing of a Fetus in the Womb.
This shows that Leonardo is still very scientific yet still very Artistic at the same time. By understanding anatomy and humans themselves he could make his art more lifelike.
This artwork shifts direction toward more high renaissance. Vitruvius, an ancient roman architect, wrote a piece on architecture, the only one from classical antiquity. This illustration is shown abstractly to concept Vitruvius’ idea of proportion. This figure is sought out to show that humans can conform to geometric form. The circle represents the deity, or perfection. (never-ending) The square represents a less perfect human manner.
**The early renaissance is based on the observation of the natural world, where the high renaissance is reshaping the natural world to perfection.
This piece took him three years. This would be as though the monks sitting near the painting is almost like they are eating with Christ. Leonardo didn’t paint in fresco, so his painting is brittle. The amount of loss (detail) is great. This picture depicts Christ telling them that one of them will betray him. Introduction of the euphonious. Uses perspective, Christ in the middle vanishing point. Judas’ face in shadow, and also smaller, making him the culprit.
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