Glossary Mesopotamia “Land between rivers”, Tigris and Euphrates,, Modern day Iraq Fertile Crescent Area of fertile soil and important rivers stretching in an arc from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates Sumerian Period immediately following the Ubaid period; based on use of later historical documents which trace early kingship to this period Ziggurat Temple platform which is built to raise the temple above the level of the city’s structures Tell Hill or mound, a type of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology" archaeological site in the form of an HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthen_mound" earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erosion" erosion of material deposited by long HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human" human occupation. Bulla(e) Type of seal( metal or clay Cuneiform Sumer( Earliest form of writing Cataract Rapids, waterfalls, or other rocky areas in the Nile Passage by boat is impossible 1st cataract= southern boundary of Egypt Upper Egypt narrow strip of land that extends from the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cataracts_of_the_Nile" cataract section of Upper Egypt, between HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=El-Ayait&action=edit&redlink=1" El-Ayait and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asyut" Asyut is sometimes known as HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Egypt" Middle Egypt Lower Egypt northern-most section of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt" Egypt . It refers to the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertile_Crescent" fertile HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nile_Delta" Nile Delta region, which stretches from the area between HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=El-Aiyat&action=edit&redlink=1" El-Aiyat and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zawyet_Dahshur" Zawyet Dahshur , south of modern-day HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo" Cairo , and the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean_Sea" Mediterranean Sea . Nome Originally existed as HYPERLINK "http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomy" autonomous city-states, but later began to unify Egypt Narmer Palette some of the earliest HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_hieroglyphs" hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found. It is thought by some to depict the unification of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Egypt" Upper and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_Egypt" Lower Egypt by king HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narmer" Narmer Egyptian Chronology (Kingdoms, Dynasties, Intermediate Periods) Protodynastic period Dynasty 0 (3100-2920) Early Dynastic Period 1st Dynasty (2920-2770)( 2nd dynasty (2770-2650) Old Kingdom 3rd-8th dynasty 1st Intermediate Period 9th and 10th dynasty (2135-1986)( 11 Dynasty (2134-2040) Middle Kingdom (2040-1640) 11th-12th dynasty 2nd Intermediate Period 13th-14th dynasty( Hyksos 15th dynasty (1633-1525)( Sinai 16th dynasty( Thebes 17th dynasty (1606-1539) New Kingdom 18th- 20th dynasty 3rd intermediate Period Tanite 21st dynasty, Theban 21st dynasty- 25th dynasty( Early Kings of Sais Late Period 26th dynasty Mastaba kind of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt" Ancient Egyptian HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomb" tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with outward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypt's HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Egypt" ancient period . Mastabas were constructed out of mud-bricks or stone. Mummification (canopic jars, sarcophagus) Canopic jars( used to store and preserve for afterlife Sarcophagus( contained corpse Pyramid (step, true) Step( Large and made of several layers or steps of stone True( structure same as step just pack on more blocks to make it smooth instead of steps Sphinx z HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoomorphic" oomorphic mythological figure which is depicted as a recumbent lion with a human head Lapis Lazuli s HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-precious_stone" emi-precious stone that is prized since HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiquity" antiquity for its intense HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue" blue color( found in Afghanistan and Egypt Carnelian reddish-brown HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mineral" mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemstone" gemstone Seal/Seal Stamp Symbol used as means of authentication or signature Jade Ornamental Stone Taotie HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motif_(art)" motif (usually a zoolike mask) commonly found on ritual bronze vessels from the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shang_Dynasty" Shang and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhou_Dynasty" Zhou Dynast Hang tu - rammed earth architecture Process of compressing a damp mixture of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil" earth that has suitable proportions of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand" sand , gravel and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clay" clay (sometimes with an added stabilizer) into an externally supported frame that molds the shape of a wall section creating a solid wall of earth. Traditional stabilizers such as HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lime_(mineral)" lime or animal blood were used to stabilize the material Domestication/domesticate When animals become accustomed and dependent on humans Bronze (copper, tin, arsenic) Silk Road extensive interconnected network of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_route" trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, including North Africa and Europe. “Urban clusters” Medes Originally nomadic people from central Asia( settled in northwestern plateau Persians Nomadic people, arrived in Iran similarly to Medians( settled in southern Iran (Parsa) Satrap/Satrapies Name given to the governors of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces" provinces of ancient HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medes" Median and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Empire" Persian empires Obsidian a naturally occurring HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass" glass formed as an extrusive HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igneous_rock" igneous rock . It is produced when HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felsic" felsic HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lava" lava extruded from a HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcano" volcano cools without crystal growth Helladic to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece" ancient Greece during the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age" Bronze Age Cycladic HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greece" Greek HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Island" island group in the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aegean_Sea" Aegean Sea , south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefectures_of_Greece" prefecture of Greece Minoan HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age" Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crete" Crete Thalassocracy “Rule of the sea” interior artwork refleting that of marine life or life at sea Fresco HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painting" painting types, done on HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plaster" plaster on walls or ceilings Megaron Great hall in Mycenean culture in Greece used for worshiping of gods, feats, and poetry Tholos tombs burial structure characterised by its false HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dome" dome created by the superposition of successively smaller rings of mudbricks or, more often, stones Kora/Kore Persephone was the embodiment of the Earth's fertility at the same time that she was the Queen of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_Underworld" Underworld Polis a HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City" city , a HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City-state" city-state and also HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizenship" citizenship and body of citizens Acropolis a flat-topped rock which rises 150 m (490 ft) above sea level in the city of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athens" Athens Parthenon HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_temple" temple of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_gods" Greek goddess HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena" Athena , built on the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acropolis_of_Athens" Athenian Acropolis Agora an open " HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Place_of_assembly&action=edit&redlink=1" place of assembly " in ancient HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece" Greek city-states ( military duty/ hear statements) Ostraca (sing. ostracon) a piece of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pottery" pottery or ston broken off from a HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vase" vase or other HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthenware" earthenware vessel, with writing on it, usually of names of people others wanted to banish Elgin marbles collection of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_Greek" classical Greek HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marble_sculpture" marble sculptures , inscriptions and architectural members that originally belonged to the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon" Parthenon and other buildings on the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acropolis_of_Athens" Acropolis of Athens . HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elgin_marbles#cite_note-0" [ Attica Subdivision of Greece; HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athens_Prefecture" Athens , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piraeus_Prefecture" Piraeus , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Attica" East Attica and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Attica" West Attica . Peloponnese large HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsula" peninsula and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_Greece" region in southern HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greece" Greece , forming the part of the country south of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_of_Corinth" Gulf of Corinth Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic - Archaic( reek artists try to achieve realistic likeness in picturing the human figure, and the statues are a far cry from the extremely abstract figures of the geometric style which preceded. - Classic( characterized by a joyous freedom of movement and freedom of expression - Hellenistic( Artists expand their work with dramatic poses and emotions, sweeping lines, and high contrasts of light and shadow Republic a state in which executive power emanates from an impersonal entity, not from the private estate or property of a particular person or persons Concrete construction material composed of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cement" cement and other materials such as HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly_ash" fly ash and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_cement" slag cement , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_aggregate" aggregate such as HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravel" gravel , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limestone" limestone , or HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granite" granite , plus a fine aggregate such as HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand" sand , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_(molecule)" water , and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry" chemical admixtures Punic Wars a series of three wars fought between HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome" Rome and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthage" Carthage from 264 to 146 BC main cause of the Punic Wars was the clash of interests between the existing HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthaginian_Empire" Carthaginian Empire and the expanding HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic" Roman Republic Latium The cradle of Rome Byzantine the continuation of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire" Roman Empire during the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages" Middle Ages , centered on its capital of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople" Constantinople , and ruled by HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_emperors" Emperors in direct succession to the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Emperors" Roman Emperors ( Emperor Constantine Colosseum HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphitheatre" Amphitheatre in the center of the city of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome" Rome , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy" Italy , the largest ever built in the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire" Roman Empire . Gladiator an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic" Roman Republic and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire" Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals Name Identification Sargon of Akkad Founder of the Akkadian Empire Hammurabi 1st king of Old Babylonian empire; reunited Mesopotamia until his death Nebuchadnezzar Conquered lands from the border of Egypt to the Persian gulf and determined to restore Babylon as the preeminent city in Mesopotamia Narmer HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt" Egyptian HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh" Pharaoh who ruled in the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/31st_century_BC" 31st century BC . Thought to be the successor to the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predynastic_Egypt" predynastic HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Scorpion" Scorpion and/or HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ka_(Pharaoh)" Ka , he is considered by some to be the unifier of Egypt and founder of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_dynasty_of_Egypt" First dynasty , and therefore the first king of all Egypt Imhotep HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptians" Egyptian HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymath" polymath , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imhotep#cite_note-0"  who served under the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_dynasty_of_Egypt" Third Dynasty king, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djoser" Djoser , as HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chancellor" chancellor to the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh" pharaoh and high priest of the sun god HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ra" Ra at HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliopolis_(ancient)" Heliopolis . He is considered to be the first HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineer" engineer HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imhotep#cite_note-1"  , HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architect" architect and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physician" physician in history known by name Zoser (Djoser) Best known pharaoh of 3rd dynasty and commissioned Imhotep to build first pyramids Snefru 1st pharoh of the 4th dynasty( responsible for development of the true pyramid form Khufu Son and successor of Snefru( Responsible for building the great pyramid of Giza Khafre Egyptian pharaoh of 4th dynasty Menkaure HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh" pharaoh of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_dynasty_of_Egypt" Fourth dynasty of Egypt (c. 2620 BC–2480 BC) who ordered the construction of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menkaure%27s_Pyramid" the third and smallest of the Pyramids of Giza Hatshepsut Female ruler of Egypt, assumed the kingship as her own( sent expedition to the land of punt Thutmose III “Napoleon of ancient Egypt”( Brought the empire to its greatest extent Amenhotep III Pinnacle of Egyptian wealth Akhnaten was a HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh" Pharaoh of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteenth_dynasty_of_Egypt" Eighteenth dynasty of Egyp t ucceeded his father after Amenhotep III's death at the end of his 38-year reign, Ramses II “The Great”( started massive building projects throughout Egypt Re-conquered many of the lands that had once been part of Egyptian Empire Ramses III Fought the sea peoples in first recorded naval battle in history Recorded on Temple at Medinet Habu Ptolemy Alexander the Greats general who took over as Pharaoh of Egypt Cleopatra VII Last Egyptian pharaoh who committed suicide in 30 BC Qin Shihuangdi Leader of Qin Kingdom, conquered all other kingdoms in China Founded Qin dynasty, became 1st Chinese emperor Building projects( Roads, and Great wall of China Cyrus the Great Rebelled against Medians and untied Persia and Media in 550 BC Established new capital at Ecbatana Cambyses II Son of Cyrus the Great and conquered Babylon in 539 BC and took the reign when his father passed away Darius reigned from September 522 to October 486 BC as the third HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenian" Achaemenian King and called by some arguably "the greatest of the Achaemenid kings extended the empire founded by Cyrus the Great in all directions Xerxes Son of Darius the Great He succeeded his father in 486 BC with a very smooth transition of power challenged by no subject nation of the huge Achaemenid empire. Philip II Alexander III (the Great) Persian Ruler who took over Egypt in 332 BC Invades Persian empire from Greece and takes over whole empire Hannibal military commander and tactician who is popularly credited as one of the most talented commanders in history Marched soldiers and elephants during 2nd punic war Julius Caesar HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic" Roman HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military" military and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political" political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic" Roman Republic into the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire" Roman Empire . Conducted Roman invasions and military campaigns Augustus 1st HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Emperor" emperor of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire" Roman Empire , which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. The young Octavius came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. ( Julius Caesar was his great uncle Hadrian HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Emperor" Emperor of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire" Rome from AD 117 to 138 Constantine HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Emperor" Roman emperor from 306, and the holder of office from 324 until death in 337. Best known for being the first HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity" Christian Roman emperor Reversed the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocletianic_persecution" persecutions of his predecessor,and proclaimed HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_toleration" religious toleration throughout the empire.