Microorganisms exist in: water, in soil, and on body surfaces such as skin, intestinal tract, and other areas open to the outside ( e.g.. mouth, upper respiratory tract, vagina, and lower urinary tract).
What is the term that explains most microorganisms that are harmless, and beneficial and perform essential body functions?
What is Resident Flora?
normal microorganisms that are residents of a particular part of the body. An example, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal inhabitant of the large intestine but a common cause of infection of the urinary tracy.
What is an Infection?
an infection is an invasion of body tissue by microorganisms and their growth there.
What is an infectious agent?
Asymptomatic or subclinical
If the microorganism produces no clinical evidence of disease
A detectable alteration in normal tissue function
means the ability of a microorganism to produce disease. Also, they vary in severity. For example, a cold versus leprosy.
if the infectious agent can be transmitted to an individual by direct or indirect contact or as an airborne infection.
the ability to produce disease; thus a pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease.
causes disease only in a susceptible individual
Infections are the major cause of death worldwide
World Health Organization is the major regulatory agency at the international level
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the principal public health agency at the national level. (every state has one: in massachusetts the CDC is located in jamaica plain).
State and local agencies tracking epidemics, illnesses and outbreaks.
the freedom of disease-causing microorganisms. To decrease the possibility of transferring microorganisms from one place to another, aseptic technique is used. For example, hand washing.
What are the 2 basic types of asepsis?
Medical and Surgical asepsis.
includes all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth, and transmission of microorganisms.
refers to those practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganism; it includes practices that destroy all microorganisms and spores.
What is sepsis?
is the state of infection and can take many forms, including septic shock. (septic shock is when all of the bodies systems are infected with the microorganism.
What are the 4 major categories of microorganisms that can cause infections in humans?
bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites
infection-causing microorganism. they can live and be transported through air, food, water, soil, body tissues, and fluids, and inanimate objects (fomites).
consist of primarily nucleic acid and therefore must enter a living cell in order to reproduce. (common viruses: rhinovirus (common cold), hepatitis, herpes, and HIV.
include yeast and mold. (Candida albicans is a yeast that is normal flora in the human vagina.)
live on other living organisms. They include protozoa such as the one that causes malaria, helminths (worms), and anthropoids (mites, fleas and ticks).
a process in which strains where microorganisms become resident flora and grow and multiply but do not cause disease.
What are the types of infections?
Local and systemic infection AND acute and chronic infections.
an infection that is located in a specific part of the body.
Signs of localized infections
Localized swelling, redness, pain or tenderness with palpation or movement, palpable heat in infect area and loss of function of the body part affected.
the microorganism spreads and damages different parts of the body.
Signs of systemic infection
fever, increased pulse and respiratory rate, malaise and loss of energy, anorexia and nausea and vomiting, enlargement and tenderness of lymph nodes that drain the area of infection.
when a person's blood reveals microorganism are present.
when bacteremia rests in systemic infection. (sepsis)
generally appear suddenly or last a short time. (influenza or cold)
may occur slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years. (Clamydia or HIV)
classified as infections that are the source of delivery of health care services in a health care facility. They can either develop during the time of stay or after discharge. Catheter cause urinary tract infection or lack of aseptic techniques.
microorganisms nosocomial infections that are caused by the clients themselves. (e. coli, stamp. aureus)
caused by the hospital environment and hospital personnel. (lack of aseptic's).
direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. An example, an Iatrogenic infection bacteremia that results from intravascular line.
direct transmission involves immediate and direct transfer of microorganism from person to person through touching, biting, kissing, or sexual intercourse.
Droplet spread is also form of direct transmission but occur only of the source and the host are within 3ft of each other. Sneezing, coughing, spitting, singing, or talking can project droplet spray.
indirect transmission may be either vehicle-borne or vector-borne.
Indirect transmission: Vehicle-Borne
a vehicle is any substance that serves as an intermediate means to transport and introduce and infectious agent into a susceptible host through a suitable port of entry. Fomites, handkerchiefs, toys, soiled materials, cooking, eating, clothes etc.
Indirect transmission: Vector-Borne
A vector is an animal or flying or crawling insect that serves as a intermediate means of transporting the infectious agent. An example, mosquitos can transfer EEE or West Nile virus by their bites and saliva.
Indirect transmission: Airborne
droplets or dust. droplet nuclei like someone with tuberculosis can remain in the air for long periods. dust particles that contains infectious agent can be airborne. An example, C. difficult spores from soil can be transmitted by air currents.
consist of fluid that escaped from the blood vessels, dead phagocytic cells, and dead tissue cells and products they release. the major types are: purulent, serous, and hemorrhagic (sanguineous).
foreign substance in the body
bodies defense against antigen's
process that destroys all microorganisms including spores and viruses. common methods: heat, gas, boiling water, and radiation.
stages of infection
incubation period, prodromal stage, full stage of illness and convalescent period.
interval between pathogen invasion and appearance of infection; time varies.
person most infectious; signs and symptoms present, but vague (fatigue, malaise, LGF); hours to days; person unaware he/she is contagious.
full stage of illness
specific signs and symptoms; type of infection determines length of illness and severity; symptoms may be localized or systemic.
recovery from illness; depends on severity of illness and co-morbidties
Anatomic & Physiologic barriers defend against infection
Intact skin and mucous membranes, moist mucus membranes and cilia of the nasal passages, alveolar macrophages, tears, high acidity of the stomach, resident flora, peristalsis, low pH of the vagina and urine flow
host produces antibodies in response to natural antigens or artificial antigens
Natural active immunity
antibodies are formed in presence of active infection in the body. duration lifelong.
Artificial active immunity
Antigens administered to stimulate antibody. last for many years. reinforced by booster.
host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced from another source.
Natural passive immunity
antibodies transferred naturally from an immune mother to baby through the placenta or in colostrums. last 6 months to 1 year.
Artificial passive immunity
Occurs when immune serum (antibody) from an animal or another human is injected. last 2 to 3 weeks.
Breaking the chain of infection: etiologic agent
using aseptic techniques, educating clients and support persons about appropriate meths to clean, disinfect, and sterilize article
Breaking the chain of infection: reservoir
changing dressings when soiled or wet, appropriate skin and oral hygiene, disposing of damp, soiled linens appropriately, disposing of damp, soiled linens, disposing of feces and urine, ensuring all fluid containers are covered or capped etc.
Breaking the chain of infection: portal of exit
avoiding talking, coughing, or sneezing over open wounds or sterile fields, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
Breaking the chain of infection: method of transmission
proper hand hygiene, instructing clients and support persons to perform hand hygiene before handling food or eating, after eliminating and after touching infectious material. wearing gloves when handling secretions and excretions. wearing gowns, mask
Breaking the chain of infection: portal of entry
using sterile techniques for invasive procedures, when exposing wounds or handling dressings, placing used disposable needles and syringes in puncture-resistent containers,providing clients with own personal care items.
breaking the chain of infection:susceptible host
maintaining the integrity of the clients skin and mucous membranes, ensuring the client receives a balanced diet, educating the public about the importance of immunizations
practices for control of specific disease. use of private rooms with special ventilation, cohorting clients infected with the same organism. owning to prevent gross soilage of clothes.
used with all clients, decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens, obstruct dread of bloodborne pathogens (hepatitis B and C and HIV), used in conjuction with disease-specific or category specific precautions.
What order is PPE put on?
1. gown, 2. mask, 3. eyewear, 4. gloves
What order is PPE Removed?
1. gloves, 2. eyewear, 3. gown, 4. mask
protect individual against all microorganisms regardless of prior exposure. defenses include: intact skin, dry skin, acidic skin, resident flora, mucus membrane, saliva, tears, acidity i stomach, urine, low pH in vagina, inflammatory response
(immune) are directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses,fungi or other infectious agents.
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