Also known as "Feudal Japan." Used a military style Bafuku (tent government) with the Emperor as a powerless figurehead.
1199: Minamoto Yoritomo dies and Shogunate comes under regency administered by Hojo clan.
1221: Emperor Go-Toba attempts rebellion against Shogun but is defeated.
Sect of Buddhism introduced in Japan with an emphasis placed on meditation and individual experience over subornation to learned doctrine and instruction. Popular among the samurai for its austerity and search for clarity.
Traditional form of Japanese musical theatre. Noh Theatre is highly ritualized with plays and performance unchanged since beginning. Only male performers allowed, all wearing masks. Consist of five dramas interspersed by shorter farcical plays, traditionally.
Mongol Invasions of Japan
Mongols attack Japan landing men on the southern island of Kyushu with 800 ships and 23,000 men. Japanese ferocity prevents Mongols from landing their entire force, though outnumbered and the Mongols were equipped with gunpowder weapons. A large typhoon scatters the Mongol fleet in 1274. In a second invasion in 1280, a second typhoon destroys the Mongol fleet, killing about 120,000. Samurai gain stature as the Hojo authority is undermined.
Meaning is "one who serves," warriors accepted by Daimyo. They originally were specialist in mounted archery, would become infantry by Mongol invasions. They were the only individuals authorized to carry two swords. They would eventually gain authority of summary capital judgement. Traditionally paid a koku (180 liters) of rice or granted land.
Also known as "wave men." These were warriors not bound in service. They often survived through banditry or as mercenaries. Enemies of the Samurai.
Single-minded, loosely organized mobs of disaffected peasants, priests, and Ronin. Seized control of Kaga and Mikawa provinces in 15th century.
Warrior monks of Pure Land sect. Warred against other temples and Bafuku.
Sengoku (Warring States)
Period of civil and political unrest brought on by increase of trade and decline of Shogun power. Conflicts between Daimyo for land, wealth and prestige. Starts with Onin War (1467-1477) as factions struggle for control of Shogunal heir. One-on-one Samurai duels give way to large scale battles. First use of professionally trained peasant infantry (Ashigaru).
Modern day term given to legendary spies and assassins. Most likely based on Daimyo employment of covert agents during 1400-1600s. Most "knowledge" of ninjas comes from pop culture. Very little historical evidence.
Battles for Kwanakajima
Series of five battles fought between Daimyo Shingen and Kenshin for control of Kwanakajima River. Fourth battle known for one-on-one duel between the lords. Struggle ultimately resulted in a draw, yet remains legendary in Japanese history.
Began as Samurai who overthrew his lord. Defeats rivals by equipping Ashigaru with western muskets. In 1571, he defeated the Ikko-ichi and Sohei in separate campaigns. Eventually exercised control over 1/3 of Japan. He encouraged development of manufacture and trade as well as patronized tea ceremony and Kabuki theater. In 1582, he was betrayed by lieutenant and forced to commit seppuku.
Peasant-born, began career as Nobunaga's sandal carrier. Eventually he became a general. He reunited Oda clan after death of Nobunaga. He completed his conquest of Japan and ended Segoku Period in 1590. Hideoyoshi was named Kampaku (regent). He ordered a "sword hunt" of all swords held by non-Samurai. Divides Japanese society into Noble, Samurai, Peasant and Merchant classes. He Patronizes the tea ceremony. Finally, in 1592 assumes title of Taiko (retired-regent).
Seved Nobunaga and was the son of Daimyo. He was an ally of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Named one of the Five Regents to watch over Toyotomi's son. Instead, power struggle ensues after Hideyoshi's death. Would win Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, and formally named Shogun in 1603.
Famous swordsman and duelist, he supposedly won 60 duels beginning at age 13. Mastered a variety of weapons and became notorious for the use of tricks in gaining the advantage. Twice fought against Tokugawa forces and lost. Studied and incorporated Zen Buddhism into his fighting style. He writes Go Rin No Sho (Book of Five Rings) on weapons, strategy and philosophy in 1643. Regarded as quintessential samurai though he spent most his life not in service.
Japanese Tea Ceremony (Chan no Ryu)
Highly ritualized form of preparing and serving tea. Practiced in 6th century first, reachest highest form during 1500's. Equipment often made specifically for tea ceremony. Often associated with Zen Buddhism and prized for its philosophical and aesthetic qualities.
Classical Japanese musical theater intended for "popular" audiences. All male cast. Considered ribald and suggestive art-forms suitable for working-class audiences. Officially discouraged by Tokugawa Shoguns but still popular.
Tale of 47 Ronin
Damiyo Asano tricked into committing Seppuku by Rival Lord Kira. Asano's samurai become masterless ronin. They posed as drunks, gamblers and beggers to avoid suspicion. They soon would assault Kira's castle and force a confession before killing him. Ronin commit seppuku and become honored as true examples of samurai.
Central Asian Muslim people descended from Turks and Mongols. Centered in Afghanistan. Mughal King Babur fails to conquer Samarkand and then invades northern India. They defeat much larger army at Panipat consisting of 130,000 men and 2000 elephants. Muhgal army armed with 15,000 well-trained soldiers armed with muskets and 24 cannons.
Mined in 1200's
Worlds largest diamond. Current size is 105 carrots. Owned by various Hindu, Persian, Afghan, Sikh and Mughal rulers. Currently part of the Englished Crown Jewels. Supposedly has curse of owning the world and all the worlds misfortunes. Name means "fountain of light" in Persian.
Akbar the Great
Third ruler of Mughal Empire. Expanded ruler throughout northern and central India. Patronized Moslem, Hindu and Christian arts and literature. Practiced a policy of religious and cultural tolerance. Ordered construction of capitol city Fatepur Skiri, but difficulty in bringing water and border insecurity forced its abandonment. Died in 1605 and succeeded by Shah Jahan.
Construction begins on orders of Shah Jahan. Designed as mausoleum and memorial for Jahan's 3rd wife who died in childbirth. Combines Persian, Islamic, and Indian architectural styles. Central tomb flanked by four minarets. Surrounded by gardens and secondary mausoleums. Later Jahan deposed by his son and imprisoned in Agra Fort, but after death was entombed in the Taj.
Built by Shan Jahan near city of Lahore. Measures 658m (N/S) by 258m (E/W). Made up of three descending terraces and inspired by Persian, Indian, and Central Asian environments. Waters provided by 161 km canal. Feeds 410 fountains and 500 fruit trees.
Hindu Imperial state controlling much of central India. Founded by Shivaji Maharaji in 1674. Fought Muslim Mughal Empire in 1681-1707. Countered larger numbers with guerilla tactics. Confined English to western coast. In 1761, Maratha would abandon Imperial rule in favor of military Confederacy, where power would be shared between 5 large states and many small states.
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