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§ “reigned” 1861-1908
§ Mother of the Tongzhi Emperor (1861-1875)
§ Aunt and regent of the Guangxu Emperor (1875-1908)
§ Known as the evil woman who led the Ching Dynasty into ruins
one of the three military leaders who raised the Xiang Army to fight effectively against the Taiping Rebellion and restored the stability of Qing Dynasty. He was known for his strategic perception, administrative skill and noble personality on Confucianism practice, but also sometimes for his ruthlessness on the execution of his policies. Zeng also exemplified loyalty in an era of chaos.
one of the three military leaders who raised the Xiang Army to fight effectively against the Taiping Rebellion and restored the stability of Qing Dynasty. He served with distinction during the Qing Empire's civil war against the Taiping Rebellion, in which it is estimated 20 million people died.
First Opium War (1839 - 1842)
Second Opium War (Arrow War) (1856 – 1860)
It was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China. It was fought over similar issues to the First Opium War.
It marked the end of the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing Dynasty of China. It was the first of what the Chinese called the unequal treaties because Britain had no obligations in return.
Treaty of Tianjin (June 1858)
It ended the first part of the Second Opium War (1856–1860). The Second French Empire, United Kingdom, Russian Empire, and the United States were the parties involved. These treaties opened more Chinese ports (see Treaty of Nanking) to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in the Chinese capital Beijing, allow Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of opium.
· Taiping Rebellion (1850 – 1864)
It was a religiously (Christian) inspired uprising against the Qing dynasty. It was one of the most destructive rebellions in world history. It seriously weakened the Qing dynasty and triggered several other rebellions.
It was founded by Juin Yen Jo. It was one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history. It was the last dynasty in China ruled by the Han Chinese.
· Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
It is also known as the Manchu Dynasty. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in modern northeast China (also known as Manchuria). Starting in 1644 it expanded into China proper and its surrounding territories, establishing the Empire of the Great Qing.
· Civil service examinations
It also known as the imperial examination in Imperial China. It was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree.
They lived in Manchuria, northeast of Beijing. They are the descendants of the Jurchen (Turk people) who had controlled the North of China from 1127 to 1234 (Jin Dynasty. They expanded their territory under Nurhachi and attacked the Ming in 1616. There was so much resistance against them because the loyal Ming Chinese saw them as barbarians.
It was created by the Manchu to organize their soldiers in Chinese military established by Nurhaci.
It is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. Extraterritoriality can also be applied to physical places, such as military bases of foreign countries, or offices of the United Nations.
· Taiping (1850 - 1864)
It was a widespread civil war in southern China, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history
This era occurred during 1860s to 1870s and also known as the Tongzi Restoration. The western ideas were useful and include the Chinese essence. There was establishment of arsenals, shipyards, and factories. There was an emphasis on education which included foreign instructors, schools, and study-abroad programs. There was also an establishment of foreign ministry.
· Muslim rebellions
There was the Nian rebellion (1853-1868) in northern China and the Muslim rebellions in the Northeast and Southwest (Yunnan).
· Battle of Sekigahara (Oct. 21, 1600)
It was a decisive battle which cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu. Though it would take three more years for Ieyasu to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the daimyo, Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa bakufu, the last shogunate to control Japan. Japan then had a long period of peace after that battle.
· Meiji Restoration (1868-1900)
It was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period.
· Opening of Japan, Arrival of “Black Ships” (1853)
It was the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry’s “black ships” in the Edo bay.
· Japanese-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Harris Treaty) (1858)
There were low tariffs on imports and exports. It included the opening of eight ports (including Edo, Yokohama, and Nagasaki). The U.S. had the privilege of extraterritoriality. They also had right to practice Christianity in the treaty ports. However, there was a ban on importing opium to Japan.
· Oda Nobunaga
was the initiator of the unification of Japan under the rule of the shogun in the late 16th century, a ruling that ended only with the opening of Japan to the Western world in 1868. He was also a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history.
was a daimyo warrior, general and politician of the Sengoku period. He unified the political factions of Japan. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. He is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms. Hideyoshi is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier"
· Tokugawa Ieyasu
was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan , which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616.
· Commodore Perry
was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
was daimyo of Hikone (1850–1860) and also Tairō of Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan, a position he held from April 23, 1858 until his death on March 24, 1860. He is most famous for signing the Harris Treaty with the United States, granting access to ports for trade to American merchants and seamen and extraterritoriality to American citizens.
was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867) occupying the whole of modern day Yamaguchi Prefecture. It was coterminous with Nagato Province: in fact, Chōshū was simply shorthand for the province. The domain played a major role in the Late Tokugawa shogunate.
· Tokugawa Yoshinobu (the “last shogun”)
was the 15th and last shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He was part of a movement which aimed to reform the aging shogunate, but was ultimately unsuccessful. After resigning in late 1867, he went into retirement, and largely avoided the public eye for the rest of his life.
· System of Alternate Attendance
It was one of the (usually) hereditary military dictators of Japan from 1192 to 1867.
It is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords in premodern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
· Seclusion policy
It was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which no foreigner could enter nor could any Japanese leave the country on penalty of death. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39 and remained in effect until 1853 with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry and the opening of Japan. It was still illegal to leave Japan until the Meiji Restoration (1868).
· Loyalist Samurai
They were low ranking and frustrated. They became enraged by the foreign presence. They wanted immediate action and created terrorism. They did succeed in influencing policy of some domains.
· “revere the emperor, expel the barbarians”
This is a Loyalist Samurai slogan. (ancient Japan as the Golden Age)
Saigo Takamori leads army of former samurai against central government; defeated by imperial forces.
· Saigō Takamori
Last samurai, commits suicide
· Itagaki Taisuke
Forced to leave the government after the return of Iwakura mission along with Takamori
· Meiji Oligarchs
§ Former members of the Restoration movement
§ Origins: Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa, Hizen, court aristocracy
§ Controlled the Council of State (1871-1885)
§ Controlled the cabinet after 1885
· “Rich Country, Strong Army”
§ Improve the Japanese military
§ Strengthen Japan economically and preserve independence
§ Abolish the unequal treaties
· Iwakura Mission
§ Major government leaders studied abroad
§ Grand tour of Europe, Russia, US
§ Visited factories, schools, and etc.
§ Goal to learn from foreign countries and discuss unfair trade
· Movement for Freedom and People’s Rights
§ 1874, Itagaki Taisuke and other former samurai organize the Patriotic Public Party
§ 1881/82, founding of Japan’s first political parties
§ 1881, Emperor promises constitution (promulgated in 1889)
§ 1884, Decline/Repression of Movement for FPR
· “Civilization and Enlightenment”
§ Emergence of newspapers
§ Translation of Western books, import of Western political ideas
§ Reforms of Japanese customs: solar calendar, eradication of “uncivilized” customs
§ Attempted eradicate Buddhism, but failed
Loose domination of an otherwise self-governing state
In the 1860s, Ch’oe Cheu experienced a vision in which he believed Hanunim (Lord of Heaven) entrusted him to spread a new faith called Tonghak. The followers were mainly commoners and slaves. It is also known “Eastern Learning” as a spiritual path towards self-improvement to combat the foreign threat and social disorder.
· Kabo Reforms
§ Establishment of a pro-Japanese reform cabinet under Japanese pressure
§ Suppression of Queen Min and her faction
§ Abolition of civil service examinations
§ Abolition of slavery and other social restrictions
§ Other modern institutions (police, military, education, railroad, telegraph, etc; promotion of hangul)
· 1876 Kanghwa Treaty
§ Concluded between Japan and Korea after Japanese military provocation
§ An unequal treaty; extraterritoriality, opening of treaty ports, economic concessions
§ Similar treaties with other foreign powers follow
§ Chinese suzerainty over Korea continues
· 1884 Kapsin Coup
Attempt by radical reformer (Kim Okkyun) backed by Japanese ambassador; China intervenes.
§ Father of King Kojong
§ Rule of Taewongun (1860s-1870s)
§ Xenophobic: foreign advances are rejected
§ Goal: strengthen the power of the royal court against the yangban aristocracy
§ Religious persecutions: Catholics, Tonghak
· Queen Min
· 1894-95 Sino-Japanese War
§ Triggered by the Tonghak Rebellion (Tonghak resurface; gain popularity among dissatisfied peasants)
§ China and Japan dispatch troops to help Korean king suppress the rebellion
§ Japan victorious on land and on water (Battle of the Yalu River)
· 1899-1901 Boxer Rebellion
§ Triggered by floods and droughts in Shandong
§ Started by anti-foreign “boxer” rebels (relying on religious practices and martial arts)
§ Spread to Tianjin and Beijing
§ Foreign legations under siege; murder of German ambassador
§ Empress Dowager allies with boxers against foreign powers, mobilizes army
· 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War
§ a struggle over control of Korea and Manchuria
§ made possible by Japanese military build-up and Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902
§ short but expensive
§ Treaty of Portsmouth 1905: Japan gains Liaodong Peninsula; Russian railroads in Manchuria
· Treaty of Shimonoseki
Grants Japan over Taiwan and Liaodong Peninsula after Sino-Japanese War
· 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake
After earthquake of 1923, many people died because during lunch time when people were cooking meals leading to fast spreading fires. It was believed that the Koreans had started the fires, and massacres against prominent socialists, anarchists, and Koreans.
· 1912-1926 Taisho period
o Named after the Taishō era (imperial period of reign following Meiji, preceding Shōwa)
o Democratization of government
o Development of an urban mass society
· Hara Kei
Founding of Seiyūkai (“Association of the Friends of Constitutional Government”)
era of compromise
Two-party system (Seiyūkai, Kenseikai/Minseitō)
· Middle class
§ Educated in the new institutions of secondary education
§ Salaried employees of companies or the government; office work, teaching
§ Preference for modern lifestyle
§ Departure from traditional family arrangements
· Revolution of 1911 (demise of the Qing dynasty)
§ Triggered by small anti-Qing rebellion in the Yongzi region
§ Sun Yat-sen returns to Shanghai
§ Qing court mobilizes general Yuan Shikai
Compromise between Yuan Shikai and the Revolutionaries:
*China becomes a republic
*Yuan Shikai becomes president
· May Fourth Movement (1919)
§ Versailles, 1919: Japan is granted former German colony on Shandong
§ May 4, 1919: more than 3,000 students gather on Tiananmen Square (Beijing) to protest the Versailles Treaty
§ Country wide protests; upsurge of nationalism
§ Chinese delegation refuses to sign the treaty
· Kang Youwei
He was pro Qing Dynasty, pro institutional changes, pro constitutional monarchy, and pro Confucianism. He was responsible for the 100 Days Reform but it later failed. He escaped to Japan.
· Yuan Shikai
· Sun Yat-sen
§ Native of Guangdong, educated in Hong Kong
§ Organizes revolutionary movement in exile
§ Strong ties to Japan (especially, Panasianists)
§ “Three People’s Principles”
§ Kang Youwei and the Guangxu emperor issue dozens of innovative decrees (on exams, constitution, military, …)
§ Provokes intervention by Cixi and other conservatives
> Execution of reformers (Kang Youwei escapes); imprisonment of Guangxu Emperor for over ten years
· “New Government” Reform
§ 1900s (aftermath of Boxer Rebellion)
§ Led by Cixi and her faction
§ 1905 Abolition of civil service exams
§ Establishment of modern school system
§ Hiring of Japanese advisors
§ Preparations for a constitutional monarchy
>radical and effective, but too late for the Qing
· Three People’s Principles
Sun Yatsen set up the Revive China society in Hawaii and Hong Kong. He did not get far. In 1905, he received help from Japan and created the Revolutionary Alliance. The Three People’s Principles consisted of nationalism, democracy, and the “people’s livelihood”.
1928, National Government was established with the Guomindang as ruling party. All other parties were banned. The Guomindang was ousted in 1949.
§ China under the Warlord rule 1916-1928
§ Political fragmentation, lack of central control
§ Sun Yatsen entrenched in South China
§ Yuan Shikai’s followers compete for power in the north
§ Cental government in Beijing controlled by various warlords
§ Tibet and Mongolia move away from Chinese overlordship
§ Looting, taxing, and economic disruption
· Twenty-One Demands
§ Context: WWI
§ Japan seizes German colony on Shandong
§ 1915: Japan presents Yuan Shikai with Twenty-One Demands
>(Economic privileges, German colony, etc; demand to install Japanese advisors dropped after heavy protests)
§ Yuan Shikai forced to accept
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