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According to LivingIssues in Philosophy to what school of thought does Kant belong?
Within Living Issues in Philosophy Kant belongsto the school known as Formalism; Formalism - adherence to prescribed forms -in ethics it means certain types of acts follow mixed moral principles apartfrom consideration of any particular situation or probable consequences
For Kant one ought act onlyaccording to a principle of action that is universalized - every time a personacts
For Kant the will isequivalent to practical reason
For Kant one ought to treat all rational beingsas ends in themselves and never merely as means
For Kant autonomy isthe sole principle of ethics
For Kant knowledgeof an orderly world is made possible through the complementary activities ofthe mind (through innate ideas – a priori), reason, and the senses (viaempirical data collection – a posteriori)
For Kant the onlything good without qualification is a good will
For Kant everyone mustadmit that a law, if it is to hold morally, i.e. as a ground of obligation,must imply absolute necessity
According to Epicurus of what does the good and virtuous life consist?
For Epicurus the good and virtuous life consists in (1) thepursuit of pleasure, (2) the avoidance of pain
According to Epicurus the universe is made of what elements?
For Epicurus the universe is made of (1) matter, (2) void - for the universe iswholly material
For Epicurus the criteria of knowledge is (1) clear view- true open-mindedness, (2) non-contradiction
For Epicurus true pleasure isfound in imperturbability - where no physical pleasure or pain will be ofconsequence or have an affectation on the mind
According to Epicuruswhat is created from nothing?
For Epicurus nothing is created out of nothing, and nothingis destroyed in its totality for the universe is neither increasing nordecreasing but is in a homeostasis
For Epicurus justice as it arises from nature is a pledgeof mutual advantage to restrain men from harming one another and save them frombeing harmed
For Epicurus theprinciples of the good life are at least (1) knowledge of God, (2) beingblessed, (3) knowing the God(s) immortality, (4) knowing death is nothing, (5)attaining the highest pleasure possible - imperturbability
For Bentham justicerequires equality but is subordinate to utility
For Bentham we havethe duty to promote the pleasure of every individual equally
For Bentham themorality of our actions is determined by their utility
For Bentham humanbehavior is controlled by imposition of sanctionsFor Bentham humanbehavior is controlled by imposition of sanctions
According to Bentham “human beings are motivated solely by the desire to[what]?”
For Bentham human beings are motivated solely by desire to gain pleasure and avoid pain
According to LivingIssues in Philosophy what are “immunities from governmental interference?”
Within Living Issues in Philosophy civilliberties are immunities from governmental interference
According to LivingIssues in Philosophy what are “often understood as the universal moralrights belonging equally and absolutely to all human beings?”
Within Living Issues in Philosophy human rightsare often understood as the universal moral rights belonging equally andabsolutely to all human beings
For Locke (as well asthe Rationalists whom he is in opposition) innate ideas are considered asactual knowledge of metaphysical truths such as mathematical truths,universals, and the laws of nature - LOCKE REJECTS MAN HAVING INNATE IDEAS andstates we attain knowledge through the world and our interaction with it viaour senses and mind
For Locke man is in a“state of nature” (similar to Rousseau) in which they have perfect freedom toorder their actions
For Locke our ideasare of two types PRIMARY QUALITIES of which they are (1) solidity, (2)extension, (3) figure, (4) movement, (5) number --- these are inseparable fromthe object; SECONDARY QUALITIES of which they are (1) colors, (2) sounds, (3)taste, (4) touch --- these are not in the things themselves but are caused bythe primary qualities and observer dependent
According to Lockewhat are the “Dispositional Qualities?”
For Locke the Dispositional Qualities are very similar toAristotle’s Efficient Cause (as an agent of change of properties) and are toinclude (1) solubility, (2) fragility, (3) flammability
For Locke the three main reasons for rejecting innateideas are (1) there is no good deductive argument establishing the existence ofsuch entities, (2) children and idiots do not seem to possess them, (3) anempirical way of knowing - which seems far more reasonable - has no place forsuch entities
For Locke the chief reason for establishing governments is the preservationof private property
According to Lockewhich theory processes the external world and transforms it into mental events?
For Locke the Causal Theory of Perception processes theexternal world and transforms it into mental events
For Locke the stateof nature has at least the qualities of (1) reason, (2) power is reciprocal,(3) equality, (4) no one having more than another
For Gandhi violenceis the function of the body - but should be turned away from in order torealize the loving kindness of the cosmic consciousness which is within allcreatures (Brahman - Truth; The nameoften given to the One Supreme Reality; God; “Truth is One; the sages call itby different names such as Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, Yama, Garutman, orMatarishvan.” (Rig-Veda: 1-164.46))
untouchables (thepeople in Indiawithout caste and are outside the caste system - called untouchables, outsidersor harijan) are the children of God - in the same way the other castes arechildren -
CASTE SYSTEM AND SOCIAL ORDER (ORIGINATING FROM PURUSHA)
(1) Brahmin/Brahman/Brahmana/Brahmanas - The first caste - A member of the highest caste in the Varna social order - formed of the group having as the chief duty the study and teaching of the Vedas and the performance of religious ceremonies.
(2) Kshatriya -The second caste - the second highest in the Varnasocial order - formed chiefly of a twice-born Hindus and belonging to thegoverning or military occupations
(3) Vaisyas -The Third caste - the second lowest in the Varnasocial order - formed chiefly of a twice-born Hindu and belonging to theagricultural or commercial occupations.
(4) Shudra -The fourth caste - the lowest in the Varnasocial order - formed chiefly of Non-Aryans assigned to menial occupationsincluding manual labor.
(5) Harijan -A member of the Outcaste group in India; The Untouchables; They holdoccupations dealing with animal by-products, death, and the like.
For Gandhi man is atleast (1) has service to himself through self-realization, (2) man has serviceto others, (3) man has an interrelation of self-realization and God, (4) manmust realize the absolute oneness of God and humanity
Within Living Issues in Philosophy “In the United Statespeople cannot be arrested on mere suspicion, but only for probable cause”
For King“non-violence is the answer to the crucial political and moral question of ourtime” --- as utilizing the model of ahimsapracticed by his civil disobedience predecessor Gandhi
For King “sooner orlater all the people of the world will have to discover a way to live togetherin peace… the foundation of such a method is love” following the Christiantradition of loving all children of God as yourself
For J.S. Mill if God isomnipotent he is not all good - therefore he is malevolent or all evil
For J.S. Mill(1) existence that is rich in enjoyments, (2) self-consciousness, (3) existencethat is exempt from pain, (4) self-observation is representative of the end of human action
For J.S. Millpleasure alone is intrinsically good
For J.S. Mill if God exists he is either (1) all powerfulwith an evil temperament, or (2) of limited power with a loving temperament -but he cannot be the (A) omnipotent - all powerful, (B) omniscient - allknowing, (C) omnipresent - ever present, (D) omnibenevolent - all good Godwestern society claims
According to J.S.Mill when can society interferewith the liberty of action of an individual?
For J.S. Mill the only justification society has ininterfering with the liberty of action of any individual is self-protection
For J.S. Millmatter can be defined as the permanent possibility of sensation - the externalor physical world for all knowledge is derived originally from senseperception
For J.S. Mill if God is morally good he is not omnipotent- therefore he is limited in power
For J.S. Mill pain alone is intrinsically bad or evil
For J.S. Mill pleasuresdiffer from each other qualitatively (good… better… best…) as well asquantitatively (1…2…3…) - a higher pleasure (mental) being intrinsically betterthan a lower pleasure (physical)
For J.S. Mill thereshould be perfect freedom, legal and social, to do the action and stand theconsequences
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