Angular Resolution-maximum angular resolution derived from geometric consideration of single slit diffraction effects Atmospheric turbulence limits actual resolving capability of telescopes-scintillation of stars (the twinkle) Average atmospheric ?seeing? =.25 -seeing also a function of wavelength better at longer wavelengths Angular resolution-smallest angular separation detectable depends on wavelength at which you are observing -depends on atmospheric turbulence Diffraction limit: angular resolution that a telescope could achieve if it were limited only by properties of light Hubble Space Telescope: ang. resolution that a telescope could achieve if it were limited only by properties of light Why: Atmospheric Seeing: gamma and uv rays can only be seen from space -ca n only achieve diffraction limit if no seeing space -in space, there is no atmosphere -one of the scientific advantages for telescopes in space Image Motion/Blurring Connection on Telescopes -with fast computers, ?rubber? mirrors, special electronics, and sensors a modern telescope can actually compensate for atmospheric turbulence -nice, sharp image Deciphering light information-spectra -using dispersion properties of materials we can obtain information about the source of radiation Radiation and Matter Interact -atoms and molecules absorb and emit light Energy-of photons are discrete Conservation of energy 3 basic types of spectra: -Emission ?Continuous ?Absorption Note: Each atom has its own unique fingerprint -there are many energy levels for a given atom -wavelength that is either emitted or absorbed is proportional Continuous Spectra -First Law: spectrum of a hot dense gas or solid, produces a spectrum of discrete emission lines at isolated wavelengths Emission Spectra: Second Law: A hot rarefied gas (few particles) produces a spectrum of discrete emission lines at isolated wavelengths Absorption Spectra: Third Law: A cool gas in front of a continuous source produces a spectrum of dark (absorption) lines. Wien?s Displacement Law -peak intensity of emission from a blackbody shifts to shorter wavelengths, as its temperature increases Temp=large peaks in red Temp=small peaks in blue Stefan Boltzman Law: Radiated energy increases with increasing temperature -is the power per unit area radiated by an object Terrestrial planets-four planets of the inner solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars -earth-like -few moons, none have rings Jovian planets-four large planets- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Hydrogen compounds-compounds containing hydrogen, such as water, ammonia, and methane Asteroids-rocky bodies that orbit the sun much like planets but are much smaller than planets Asteroid belt-between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter Kuiper Belt-donut shaped region beyond the orbit of Neptune Oort Cloud-the second cometary region is much farther from the sun and roughly spherical in shape Jovian plants are gas giants -Sun?s surface is a roiling sea of hydrogen and helium -the sun loses 4 trillion tons of mass each second and will continue to shine for another 5 billion years -charged particles flowing outward from the sun, help shape planetary atomospheres The Coriolis effect diverts the paths of missiles. Earth?s rotation produces it and causes the circulation patterns by diverting north or south flowing air. Each of the four jovian planet systems includes numerous moons and a set of rings -The total mass of all the moons and rings together is miniscule compared to any of the jovian planets , but the remarkable diversity of the satellites makes up for their lack of size
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