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Astronomy Test 3
Astronomy Test 3
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rotation where a body rotates faster or slower at its equator than it does at its poles
Why do jovian planets bulge around the equator, that is, have a "squashed" appearance?
Their rapid rotation flings the mass near the equator outward.
How do astronomers think Jupiter generates its internal heat?
How does Jupiter's core compare to Earth's?
It is about the same size but is 10 times more massive.
Why is Jupiter denser than Saturn?
The extra mass of Jupiter compresses its interior to a greater extent than that of Saturn.
How do astronomers think Saturn generates its internal heat?
by raining dense helium droplets from higher to lower altitudes, resembling the process of differentiation
of Jupiter are
alternating bands of rising and falling air at different latitudes.
What is the most important reason why an icy moon is more likely to be geologically active than a rocky moon of the same size?
Ice has a lower melting point than rock.
Why do astronomers think Miranda has such an unusual surface?
It underwent an episode of tidal heating in the past.
Planetary rings are
all of the above
Which of the following statements about the rings of the four jovian planets is
Which of the jovian planets have rings?
all of the above
Which of the following planets
be seen with the naked eye?
probe took numerous pictures as it descended to Titan's surface in 2005. What did the pictures show?
features or erosion, including what appeared to be dry river valleys and lakebeds
Suppose you could float in space just a few meters above Saturn's rings. What would you see as you looked down on the rings?
countless icy particles, ranging in size from dust grains to large boulders
Which of the following statements about comets and asteroids is
Comets are balls of ice and dust.
A rocky leftover planetesimal orbiting the Sun is
How does the largest asteroid, Ceres, compare in size to other solar system worlds?
It is about half the size of Pluto.
We know that there are large gaps in the average distances of asteroids from the Sun (within the asteroid belt) because we
have plotted distributions of the orbital radii of the asteroids.
If we know the size of an asteroid, we can determine its density by
determining its mass from its gravitational pull on a spacecraft, satellite, or planet.
What is a
a fragment of an asteroid from the solar system that has fallen to Earth's surface
Processed meteorites with high metal content probably are
chunks of a larger asteroid that was shattered by a collision.
Halley's comet is named after the English scientist Edmund Halley because he
calculated its orbit and predicted that it would return in 1758.
Where did comets that are now in the Kuiper belt originally form?
near the radius at which they orbit today
The number of comets in the Oort cloud is probably about
When was Pluto discovered?
about 80 years ago
What is Charon?
In the asteroid impact theory of the extinction of the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the dinosaurs (and over half of all the other species on Earth at that time) died off largely because
dust injected into the stratosphere from the impact absorbed visible light from the Sun, causing global temperatures to plummet.
Why was the Shoemaker
Levy 9 impact so important to astronomers?
It dredged up material that gave us our first direct look at Jupiter's interior composition
Which of the following Pluto observations did not help convince scientists to change Pluto's status from that of a planet?
discovery of Pluto's 3 moons
The first planets around other Sun-like stars were discovered
about a decade ago.
Which of the following methods has led to the most discoveries of massive planets orbiting near their parent stars
detecting the gravitational effect of an orbiting planet by looking for the Doppler shifts in the star's spectrum
measuring the positions of stars on the sky
Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly
Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits.
The size and shape of a planet's orbit can be determined by
the Doppler technique.
Which planet can we see occasionally transit across the face of the Sun?
Which planet search technique is currently best suited to finding Earth-like planets?
A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. The velocity change of the star is a measure of
the planet's mass and orbital distance.
A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. The repeating pattern of the stellar motion tells us
the orbital period of the planet.
A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. The
of the periodic velocity pattern tells us
the orbital eccentricity of the planet.
The depth of the dip in star's brightness due to the transit of a planet depends most directly on
the planet's size
How do we think the "hot Jupiters" around other stars were formed?
They formed as gas beyond the frost line and then migrated inwards
What would happen to the planets in a solar system where the central star did not have a strong wind?
The gas in the solar nebula would create a drag on the planets and their orbits would migrate inwards.
Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for understanding our own Solar System?
It shows that we do not fully understand the formation of our Solar System.
What observations are needed to tell whether an Earth-like planet is geologically alive or dead?
images and spectra of the planet
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