Substance that blocks the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. Example: Anticholinergic=dicycloverine : Atropine
Anticholinergics "How does it work
Anticholinergics are a class of medication that inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor sight in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movements of the smooth muscles in the GI Track, Urinary Tract and Lungs. Three Categories = antimuscarinic - ganglionic blockers - neuromuscular blockers.
Antihistamines "How do they work"
When you are exposed to an allergen -- like ragweed pollen -- it triggers your immune system to go into action. Immune system cells known as "mast cells" release a substance called histamine, which attaches to receptors in blood vessels causing them to enlarge. Histamine also binds to other receptors causing redness, swelling, itching, and changes in secretions. By blocking histamine receptors, antihistamines prevent these symptoms.
Dopaminergics "What are they"
Dopaminergic means related to the neurotransmitter dopamine. For example, certain proteins such as the dopamine transporter (DAT), vesicular monamine transport and dopamine receptors can be classified as dopaminergic, and neurons which synthesize or contain dopamine and synapses with dopamine receptors in them may also be labeled as dopaminergic.
Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurologic disorder characterized by trwmors, shuffling gait, rigid muscles, and weakness. It is associated with the destruction of the neurons that produce dopamine in the brain.
Are used to increase dopamine or reduce acetylcholine in the brain.
Antiparkinsonian Drugs Treat
Parkinson's disease Extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics
Is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. It is called 'extrapyramidal' to distinguish it from the tracts of the motor cortex that reach their targets by traveling through the 'pyramids' of the medulla.
Extrapyramidal System 'How it works'
Extrapyramidal system centers around the modulation and regulation (indirect control) of anterior (ventral) horn cells. They are chiefly found in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, and target neurons in the spinal cord involved in reflexes, locomotion, complex movements, and postural control.
To understand the use of Antiparkinsonians we must understand that
Parkinson's disease is caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the basal ganglia of the brain. The area of the brain responsible for coordination of movement.
Antiparkinsonians - Patients with Parkinson's disease develop
Muscle weakness and rigidity Resting tremors Shuffling gait