The primary source of energy for the earth's atmosphere is:
The most abundant gases in the earth's atmosphere by volume are:
nitrogen and oxygen
The most abundant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere is:
Water vapor (H2O)
The greenhouse gas that has been increasing in concentration, at least partly due to deforestation, is:
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The most abundant gas emitted from volcanoes is:
The four most abundant gases in our atmosphere are:
Water vapor (0-4%)
On the basis of temperature, list the four layers of the atmosphere
Weather in the middle latitudes tends to move in what direction?
West to east
What is the average or standard temperature lapse rate in the troposphere?
6 degrees C/km
If you were suddenly placed at an altitude of 100 km (62 miles) above the earth, would you expect your stomach to expand or contract? Why?
Your stomach would expand due to the lack of density in the air. The low air pressure would not be able to keep your body intact.
The sun emits a maximum amount of radiation at wavelengths near _______, while the earth emits maximum radiation near wavelengths of ____________.
.5 micrometers, 10 micrometers
If the absolute temperature of an object doubles, the maximum energy emitted goes up by a factor of _____.
Clouds never form by:
Sublimation and evaporation
If the earth's ave surface temp were to inc, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface would __, and the wavelengths of peak emission would shift toward ___ wavelengths.
A football field is about _____ micrometers long
Based on your experience, would a temperature of 250K be considered warm or cold?
Considering that O degrees C= 273 K, 250 K would be extremely cold. (-23 degrees C, -9 degrees F)
What processes contribute to the earth's albedo being 30%?
Reflection and scattering of solar radiation by the atmosphere, clouds, and surface
If water vapor were no longer present in the atmosphere, how would the earth's energy budget be affected?
Without water vapor present in the atmosphere the earth would lose more heat because water vapor is a good absorber of infrared radiation.
Why does the surface temperature often increase on a clear, calm night as low clouds move overhead?
Clouds absorb and/or reflect infrared radiation from the earth and that warms up the surface
Which would have the greatest effect on the earth's greenhouse effect: removing all CO2the from the atmosphere or removing all of the water vapor?
Water vapor is a strong absorber of infrared radiation and the concentrations of water is higher than carbon dioxide
During the course of a year, the sun will disappear from view near the North Pole on what date?
Where are the days and nights of equal length all year long?
at the Equator
The main reason(s) for warm summers in middle latitudes is that:
the sun in higher in the sky and we receive more direct solar radiation and the days are longer
Earth is tilted at 23.5 deg, w/ respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. The amt of tilt were inc'd to 40 deg, expected in middle latitudes:
hotter summers and colder winters that at present
Assuming the night will remain clear, calm, and unsaturated, the predicted min temp is 32 deg F. Suddenly the wind speed inc and remains, min temp:
higher than predicted due to mixing
Why does the daily temperature range decrease as you increase in altitude?*
Due to the angle the sun radiates on the earth's surface' as you increase in altitude, the radiation wavelengths become scattered by the atmosphere.
How would the lag (max-min) in daily temp experienced over land compare to the daily temp lag over water?
Water has a high specific heat capacity, which means that a lot of energy is needed to heat it up. The lag in daily temperature over water would be cooler than over land
Where would you expect to experience the smallest variation in temp from year to year and from month to month? Why?*
In rural cities near large bodies of water, because water takes a lot of energy to heat up. Also find small variations near the earth's equator, because it is less effected by the tilt of the earth
Each day past the winter solstice the noon sun is a little higher above the southern horizon. Determine how much change takes place each day at your latitude.
4 degree daily change
the 23 1/2 N latitude line
+ the 23 1/2 S latitude line
and divide by the days in between the solstices
If the poles have 24 hrs of sunlight during the summer, why is the average summer temp still below 0 degrees F?
Its because the sun doesn't directly hit the earth's surface. It is defractured by the atmosphere and the surface area is larger that at the equator, distributing the radiation
If a glass of water was surrounded by saturated air
the level of the water in the glass would not change
The density of water vapor in a given parcel of air is expressed by the:
When the air temperature increases, the saturation vapor pressure will:
A baseball hit several hundred feet on a hot, humid, day will travel ____ the distance in would have traveled on a hot, dry day
Which of the following will increase the RH in a home during the winter?
taking a shower and letting the air circulate through the home
The main reason why vegetables take longer to cook in boiling water at high altitudes is because:
the temperature of the boiling water decreases with increasing altitude
The percentage of water vapor present in the air compared to that required fro saturation is the:
At what time of day is the RH normally at a min?
when the air temp is highest
What conditions would you expect wet laundry hanging outdoors on a clothesline to dry quickly?
Air temp RH Wind Speed
60 50% 20mph
If the air temp in a room is 70dF, the saturation vapor pressure is 25 mb, dew pt is 45dF, and actual vapor pressure is 10mb. The RH must be near:
As the difference between the air temp and the dew point increases, the RH:
As the air temp increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will:
remain the same
Dew is most likely to form on:
clear, calm nights
The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of:
On a humid day, the ______ causes salty potato chips left outside in an uncovered bowl to turn soggy.
attraction of water by hygroscopic condensation nuclei
At midnight in a shallow layer of air near the ground, the air temp is 44dF and the dew pt is 36dF. If the air cools at a rate of 2dF per hour until the dew pt is reached, and at a rate of 1dF per hour thereafter, then at 6:00a.m.
the temp will be 34dF and only dew will be present
Wet haze can form when the RH is as low as:
On cold, winter morning, the most likely place for radiation for to form is:
in a valley
Which for does not necessarily form in air that is cooling?
evaporation (mixing) fog
Which association below is not correct?
cumulus-cloud of vertical motion
Which cloud is least likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?
in middle latitudes, which cloud will have the highest base?
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with
if a ceiling balloon rises at 120 m (about 400 ft) each minute, what is the ceiling of an overcast deck of stratus clouds 1500 m (about 5000 ft) thick if the balloon disappears into the clouds in 5 min?
5 X 400 ft= 2000 ft
If the atmosphere is conditionally unstable, what condition is necessary to bring on instability?
Explain why rain shadows from on the leeward side of mountains?
because the clouds and precipitation occur on the upwind side of the mountain
Are the bases of convective clouds generally higher during the:
If the height of a cumulus cloud is 1000m above the surface and the dew point at the earth's surface beneath the cloud is 20C, determine the air temperature at the earth's surface beneath the cloud.
28 degrees C
Suppose the air pressure outside, a conventional jet airliner flying at an altitude of 10km (33,000 ft) is 250 mb. Further, suppose the air inside the aircraft is pressurized to 1000 mb. If the outside air temp is -50C (-58F), what would be the temp if this air brought inside the aircraft
and compressed at the dry adiabatic rate to a pressure of 1000mb? (Assume that a pressure of 1000mb is equivalent to an altitude of 0m)
60 degrees C
Which of the following would increase the environmental lapse rate?
cold advection at higher altitudes
daytime solar heating
surface radiational cooling
both cold advection at higher altitudes and daytime solar heating
both cold advection at higher altitudes and daytime solar heating
at the earth's surface, a rising saturated air parcel would cool most rapidly when its temp is:
10 degrees F
The most latent heat would be released in a ____ parcel of ____ saturated air.
If the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic rate, the atmosphere is:
Which condition below could make a layer of air more unstable?
mixing the air in the layer
lift the entire air layer
cool the upper part of the layer
Which below describes the best solute effect?
keep H20 droplets from freezing at temps below 32F
remove of pollutants from the atmo by cloud droplets
H2O droplets dissolve hygroscopic nuclei&condensation can occur at RH < 100%
evaporation of cloud droplets and grow of ice crystals in cold clouds
water droplets dissolve hygroscopic nuclei and condensation can occur at RH less than 100%
The temp at which you would expect a cloud to become completely glaciated is:
-40 degrees C (-40 F)
Supercooled cloud droplets are:
liquid droplets observed at temps below 0 degrees C (32F)
The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is:
Cloud seeding using silver iodide only works in:
cold clouds composed of ice crystals and supercooled droplets
Rain which falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the ground is referred to as:
Why does a fluffy covering of snow able to protect sensitive plants and their root systems from damaging low temps?
Snow acts as a good insulator
The largest snowflake would probably be observed in ____ air whose temp is ______ freezing.
A raindrop or partially melted snowflake that freezes into a pellet of ice in a deep subfreezing layer of air near the surface is called:
Precipiation with the greatest size (diameter) is:
Net convergence of air would cause surface pressure to ____ and net divergence would cause surface pressure to ____
The surface pressures at the bases of warm and cold columns of air are equal. Air pressure in the warm column of air will ____ with increasing height _____ than in the cold column
decrease, more slowly
pressure is proportional to density times temperature
The unit of pressure most commonly found on a surface weather man is:
millibars or hectopascals
An aneroid barometer carried from sea level to the top of a 300 m (1,000 ft) hill would indicate:
The surface weather map is a sea level chart. Thus, a surface weather map is called:
a constant height chart
According to the gas law, when temp remains constant:
P= T rho C
rho 8 rho
Low ____ on a constant height chart corresponds to low____ on a constant pressure chart
A surface low pressure center is generally associated with __ on an upper level isobaric chart.
The hydrostatic EQ describes the equilibrium between the:
vertical pressure gradient force and gravity
Why is there a minus sign in the hydrostatic EQ? (Delta p= -rho g delta z)
as pressure decreases, height increases
Which of the following produces the strongest CF?
fast winds, high latitude
The smallest scale of atmospheric motion is the:
The wind's speed generally increases with height above the earth's surface because:
friction with the earth's surface slows the air near the ground
Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) can occur:
near a jet stream
in areas of mountain waves
where strong wind shear exists
all of these
Pedaling a bicycle into a 20kt wind will require about ___ as much effort as pedaling into a 10 kt wind
The size and shape of a turbulent eddy depends on:
the size and shape of the obstacle
the speed of the wind
all of these
A wind rose indicates:
the percentage of time that the wind blows from different directions
An offshore wind:
blows from land to water
A wind reported as 45 degrees would be a wind blowing from the:
Which is not a characteristic of a thermal low?
forms in a region of warm air
forms in response to variations in surface air temp
becomes stronger with inc height
lowest pressure is at the center
becomes stronger with increasing height
During the summer in humid climates, nighttime clouds tend to form over water during:
In south Florida the prevailing winds are northeasterly. Because of this, the strongest sea breeze is usually observed on FL's ______coast, and the strongest land breeze on FL's _____coast.
During the summer along the coast, a sea breeze is usually strongest and best developed:
in the afternoon
Air moving eastward more slowly than the earth rotates, would appear to be wind to an observer on the earth.
The majority of the US lies within which wind belt?
In terms of three-cell general circulation model, the driest regions of the earth should be near:
30 degree latitude and the polar regions
On a surface weather map during the month of July, one would expect to find what type of pressure system over the desert southwest on the US?
A thermally direct cell is one that:
is driven by energy from the sun
In the Northern Hemisphere, the polar jet stream is strongest when:
air north of the polar front is much colder than air south of the polar front
Average winter temperatures in Great Britain and Norway would probably be much colder if it were not for the:
North Atlantic Drift
The cold water observed along the northern California coast in summer is due mainly to:
The California current
The name given to the current of warm water that replaces cold surface water along the coast of Peru and Ecuador during December is:
The turning of water with depth is:
the Ekman sprial
During a major El Nino event,
extensive ocean warming occurs over the tropical Pacific
The ultimate cause of jet stream is:
the energy imbalance between high and low latitudes
A good source region for an air mass would be:
generally flat areas of uniform composition with light surface winds
The greatest contrast on both temp and moisture will occur along the boundary separating which air masses?
cA and mT in winter
A TX norther (or blue norther) is most often associated with which air mass?
Lake-effect snows are best developed around the Great Lakes during:
late fall and early winter when cold, dry polar air moves over the relatively warm water
What type of air mass would be responsible for hot, muggy summer weather in the eastern half of the US?
The word "frontogenesis" on a weather map would mean that:
a front is regenerating or strengthening
The development or strengthening of a middle latitude storm system is called:
For cyclogenesis to occur along a frontal wave, the winds aloft directly above the wave should be:
A surface low pressure area with a deep upper-level trough to the west will tend to move toward the:
When upper-level divergence of air above a surface low pressure area is stronger than the convergence of surface air, the surface pressure will ____ and the storm itself will ____.
Atmospheric shortwaves usually move ____ at a speed that is _____ than longwaves.
west to east; faster
Vorticity refers to:
the spin of air parcels
All thunderstorms require:
A lightning stroke's peak temperature is _____ times hotter than the surface of the sun
Lightning may occur:
within a cloud
from cloud to ground
from one cloud to another
from a cloud to the ionosphere
all of these
In cloud-to-ground lightning, the stepped leader travels ____ and the return stroke travels ____
If you see a lightning stroke and then, 15 seconds later, hear thunder, the lightning is about ____ miles away.
Which of the following is not true concerning an easterly wave?
moves east to west
has converging winds on its western side
showers&thunderstorms may be found on its eastern side
indicates a region of lower-than-average pressure
has converging winds on its western side
In a hurricane, the eye wall represents:
a zone of intense thunderstorms around the center
Hurricanes do not form:
along the ITZC
along the equator
with an easterly wave
when the trade wind inversion is weak
when the surface water temp exceeds 25C
along the equator
Hurricanes dissipate when:
they move over colder water
they move over land
surface inflow of air exceeds upper-level outflow or air
all of these
Beams of light that shine downward through breaks or holes in clouds are:
The blue color of the sky is due to:
selective scattering of visible light by air molecules
A ring of light encircling the sun or moon could be either:
a halo or a corona
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