?Is your kitchen really trying to kill you?? Social psychology The study of how the presence of others affects individual thoughts, feelings, and behavior Presence of others We are social animals Presence can be actual, imagined, or implied The psychology of the individual as a social being Some topic areas Attitudes and persuasion Stereotypes and prejudice Social perception Social influence And many, many more... What is an attitude? A positive or negative evaluation of an object Object can be person, thing, event, etc. Early research - tricomponent theory Attitudes made up of 3 things... Behavior (toward the object) Affect (feelings toward the object) Cognition (beliefs about the object) What is an attitude? A positive or negative evaluation of an object Object can be person, thing, event, etc. Modern research - evaluation only Possible to develop evaluation without all three Advertised products People you haven?t met Imagined activities, outcomes There are two types of attitude: Explicit Reportable, consciously held attitude Uses rules and logic Sensitive to new information, changeable Influences deliberate behavior Implicit Automatic, unconscious attitude Uses network of associations Hard to change, accumulation of information Influences automatic, non-verbal behavior Dual attitudes Implicit & explicit independent Can hold 2 different general attitudes about the same object These attitudes can contradict each other Verbal & non-verbal behaviors differ - ?mixed messages? How can we tell what our attitude is? Explicit is easy - just ask. Implicit? Not quite as easy - IAT, AMP Do attitudes predict behavior? Yes. Mostly. Sometimes. Kind of. Cognitive Consistency Early theory of attitudes We expect and prefer consistency in our world Thoughts and actions make sense together If they aren?t, we?ll make them consistent Lead to the theory of cognitive dissonance Do attitudes predict behavior? Yes. Mostly. Sometimes. Kind of. Cognitive Dissonance A feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action inconsistent with our attitudes One source of rationalizations and irrational behavior We are motivated to reduce discomfort by reducing dissonance Reduce dissonance by... ...changing attitudes ...changing behavior What is persuasion? A conscious attempt to change attitudes through the transmission of a message Many ways to transmit a message Not just what?s being said... How it?s being said Properties of the message Who?s saying it Characteristics of the source How much we?re able to think about it Cognitive factors Factors in persuasion Four classes of variable... Source What kind of person/group is doing the persuading Message The content of the persuasive message Medium (or channel) How persuasive message is communicated Target What kind of person/group is being persuaded Factors in persuasion Source variables Who delivers the message Especially important when perceiver isn?t motivated Factors that make a source more or less persuasive: Credibility Expertise Trustworthiness Attractiveness Physical attractiveness Likability Similarity Factors in persuasion Source variables Physical attractiveness Factors in persuasion Message variables What the message contains Evidence-based appeals are persuasive... ...but not all evidence is Vividness Graphic or vivid imagery sometimes more persuasive Fear appeals Using threatening information to get attention Humor Attracts more attention Each of these can also be distracting Factors in persuasion Message variables What makes the message itself persuasive? Evidence-based appeals are persuasive... ...but not all evidence is Message content can increase or decrease persuasion Factors in persuasion Message variables Vivid appeals Messages using graphic or vivid imagery sometimes more persuasive Imagery gets attention... ...primes relevant information... ...makes it easier to process the message. Doesn?t work every time Graphic images can be distracting Spend more time processing imagery than message Doesn?t help if you aren?t paying full attention Factors in persuasion Message variables Fear appeals Using threatening information to get attention Persuasive when... Danger perceived to be serious Danger perceived to be probable Recommendations perceived to be effective Target feels they can take action Factors in persuasion Fear appeals ?Worst Burglar Ever Theater? Factors in persuasion Humor appeals ?Un-pimp My Ride? Factors in persuasion Channel variables How the message is transmitted Rapid speech Suggests credibility Works best when target is opposed to message Takes advantage of low cognitive resources Powerful speech Clear, unhesitant, few questions Conveys competence & credibility Gender differences Factors in persuasion Target (audience) variables Who is being persuaded Mood People are easier to persuade in a good mood than a bad mood Less likely to process effortfully Involvement The more invested you are in the issue, the harder you are to persuade More likely to process effortfully
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