Lecture 1 Wednesday, January 20, 2010 6:22 PM TA: Jessica Breland email@example.com Atypical Child and Adolescent Behavior Introduction to normal and abnormal behavior in children and adolescents Office hours by appointment but can only be on Monday and Wednesdays Historical Views and Breakthroughs Child psychology didn't really exist until the 70's and 80's where it became a more rounded topic Prior to the 18th century, children were not really respected as individuals Not thought of in medical literature Considered property of parent Parents responsibility to control behavior of children Early on people thought children would be possessed by the devil when they have behavioral issues Children with ADHD act like they have a motor in them, so in the 13th century it's easy to see how they can be seen as possessed Nobody questioned how children are dealt with Obviously they did not fair well (live long lives) Massachusett's stubborn Child Act of 1654 Parents were allowed to keep a child who exhibited uncontrollable behaviors caged or kept in cellars Parents were allowed to kill their children!! John Locke - English Philosopher First to see a connection between how children were treated and their behavior and well being He believed all children should be educated Believed they had rights (had a right to a safe home) Leta Hollingworth (1886-1939) First to identify between mental illness and mental retardation Worked with and studied with children She came up with moral insanity - defect in character Not MR but would act up Possibly acting up by acting out sexually Back when children could be treated in any way - sexual abuse was up there leading to children who were aggressive and overly sexually aware Benjamin Rush - pioneer in psychiatry Said children were incapable of insanity because of an underdeveloped brain Although now we know children CAN have a lot of the same problems as adults Jean Mark Itard Found Victor of Aveyron (Faral Child) Found when Victor was 12 Itard tried to teach Victor language - didn't work too well Emergence of Social Conscience Moral insanity replaced by organic disease model Due to rise of medical knowledge Growing influence of more humane philosophies Dorothy Dix - advocated for: Humane hospitals for the treatment of youth with emotional / behavioral problems Moral education and support Custodial care was primary at one point Mentally retarded were blames for crime and social ills Eugenics movement - sterilization and segregation in institutions Occurred in many countries (England, Mexico, Brazil, etc) Segregate and sterilize people who were considered burdens on the state and parents to create a population that is healthy Psychoanalytic theory - early 20th century Sigmund Freud Saw children as distressed Id - aggressive, sexual impulses (parents teach us how to suppress these urges) Superego - family and societal rules for behavior Ego - mediator between id and superego Anna Freud - worked and developed child psychoanalytic therapy Melanie Klein - object relations - mother / child relationship. Play therapy Behaviorism John Watson Followed Pavlov Reinforcements Contingencies Wanted to see if they could instill fear in an 11 month baby (Little Albert) Did not like children, did not respect women Thought that raising children should be cold, treating them like adults 1945-1965 - rapid decline in institutionalization of children Rise of foster homes and group homes What is Abnormal? Easier to see abnormal symptoms in adults rather than children Age is very important to factor into analysis of a child Psychological disorder - pervasive pattern of behavioral, cognitive, emotional or physical symptoms shown by an individual that causes impairment People cannot function at 100% all the time but this means enough that it effects your functioning at home, school, in relationships Significant degree of distress Behavior] - disability or impairment in one or more areas of functioning Impairment - further damage will most likely occur if not addressed (possibly to become suicidal) Children with abnormal symptoms can often be spotted when they are not meeting milestones like typical weight for someone their age They see the world in a negative way They lose interest in a lot of things Children lack coping mechanisms that adults have learned which leads to frustration Developmental tasks - see pg 13 Multiple variables to the development of dysfunctional behaviors and thought patterns Risk factors Dangerous neighborhood Always tense walking home Unable to learn from mistakes (taking a dfrnt route home) Afraid to be beat up or robbed Low intellectual ability Inadequate educational opportunities If a student is unmotivated, doesn?t see a point in going to school, nothing there for him, they lose direction Abusive home environment - authoritarian Best parenting style is authoritative Lack of interested adults outside home Easy going disposition Something that you are born with Low economic status Don't have the opportunities that you might have if you were in a more moderate environment Protective or resiliency factors: Good intellectual level of functioning Understand what is expected of you Can cope with what is expected of you Can see what is dangerous Can problem solve Supportive home life Good self esteem
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