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a sealed or closed box speaker enclosure. Also referred to as an infinite baffle. Acoustic suspension speaker systems are generally less efficient than Bass Reflex or Transmission Line designs.
the science or study of sound
Alternating (AC) Current
Currents that have a harmonic time dependence
the unit of measurement for electrical current in coulombs per second.
an electrical circuit designed to increase the current or voltage of an applied signal
the relative magnitude of a signal
the reduction of an electrical signal
the acoustic spectrum of human hearing, generally regarded to be between 20 Hz ans 20 kHz
a board or other planar surface used to mount a loudspeaker
the range if frequencies reproduced by an amplifier or transducer
type of enclosure used for subwoofers where the driver is completely inside the enclosure and all if the output emerges through a port. Usually designed for high output volume with the importance of accuracy/fidelity being less emphasized.
an electric circuit designed to pass only midrange frequencies. this filter acts as a high impedance to frequencies out if the pass band.
Bass (low frequencies)
The low end of the audio frequency spectrum between 0 Hz to about 200 Hz.
low and high frequency sections if the loudspeaker are separated electrically at the crossover. Each driver unit has its own filter section and connection terminals. Both sets if terminals are connected to one amplifier.
an extension if bi-wiring in that a separate amplifier is utilized for each of the two sets of connectors from the crossover.
A speaker design which generates equal amounts if sound both forward and backward, with the two sounds being "in phase".
a charge storage device made up if two metallic plates separated by a dielectric, with equal but opposite charges. The AC impedance of a Capacitor is (1/jWL) and acts as an open circuit in DC applications.
transistor amp conducts for the entire cycle of input signal, conduction angle 360 deg. Runs hot, as the transistors in the power amp are on all the time, but has high skind quality.
a complete path that allows electrical current from ibe terminal of a voltage source to the other terminal
positive and negative halves of the signal dealt with by different parts of the circuit, the output devices switching continually. Runs cooler, but the sound is not as pure.
biasing the transistor amp at a nonzero DC current much smaller than the peek current of the signal source. Second transistor conducts during negative half cycle of waveform and the currents from the 2 transistors are combined at the load. Compromise
a form of distortion caused by cutting off the peaks of audio signals. Usually occurs in the amplifier when it's input signal us too large or when the voltage rails of the power supply cannot deliver the necessary voltage to the power amp.
any change in the characteristics of sound that reduces naturalness, such as an overemphasis of certain tones.
the relative stiffness of a speaker suspension, specified as Vas.
the conical diaphragm of a speaker attached to the voice coil which produces pulsation of air that the ear detects as sound.
the frequency at which the driver roll off at, usually when response is down -3db.
Crossover Network (Filter)
an electric circuit or network that splita the audio frequencies into different bands for application to individual speakers.
the flow if electrical charge measured in amperes.
digital-to-analogue converter, turning on/off pulses into analogue sound. CD players have DACs built in. Separate DACs can upgrade a CD player or other digital player/recorder, or can be used with dedicated CD transports.
the reduction of movement of a speaker cone, due either to the electrochemical characteristics of the speaker driver and suspension, the effects of frictional losses inside a speaker enclosure, and/or by electrical means.
This is a quantity which defines how quickly the amplifier can stop a reproduced frequency such as a bass note. the higher the damping factor, the better the amp will control the woofer and help reduce overhang distortion.
any material adeed to the interior of a speaker enclosure to absorb sound and reduce out-of-phase reflection to the driver diaphragm (cone). Usually, acoustic fiberglasd, polyester batting, or polyfil is used in speaker enclosures,
a logarithmic scale used to denote a change in the relative strength of an electrical signal or acoustic wave.
The scattering if sound
a speaker design which generates equal amounts of sound both forward and backward, with the two sound being out of phase. Ripples are often used as surround speakers,
Direct Current (DC)
current in only one direction
a change in the direction of a wave that is caused by the wave moving past or hitting an obstacle
the spreading of sound waves as it leaves a speaker
any undesirable change or error in the reproduction of sound that alters the original signal.
a high frequency speaker driver with a dome-shaped diaphragm usually made of metal or silk
the part of a dynamic loudspeaker attached to the voice coil that moves and produces sound. It usually has the shape of a cone or dome
a loudspeaker unit, consisting of the electromagnetic components of a speaker, typically a magnet and voice coil.
the range if sound intensity a system can reproduce without compressing or distorting the signal
the loudspeaker parameter that shows the level of sound output when measured at a prescribed distance with a standard level of electrical energy fed into the speaker
uses active circuitry in addition to passive to filter unwanted signals for each driver. Usually active filters are employed as LPF (Low Pass Fliters) for subwoofers or for the sub out of a preamp/receiver.
Electronic device that acts as active filters used to boost or attenuate certain frequencies.
the basic unit if capacitance. A capacitor has a clue of one farad when it can store one coulomb if charge with ine volt across it
any electrical circuit or mechanical device that removes or attenuated energy at certain frequencies.
thr faithful reproduction of an audio signal; specifically, the variations in output level of less than 1 dB which is the threshold of human hearing sensitivity
Free Air Resonance
the natural resonant of a driver when operating outside an enclosure
the number of waves (or cycles) arriving at or passing a point in one second, expressed in hertz (Hz)
the freequency range to which a system, or any part of it, can respond.
the tone produced by the lowest frequency component of an audio signal.
a speaker designed to reproduce all or most of the sound spectrum within human hearing (20 Hz - 20 KHz)
refers to a point of zero voltage or potential
The negative first derivative of a filter's phase response
the multiple frequencies of a given sound, created by the interaction of signal waveforms.
harmonics artificially added by an electrical circuit or speaker, and are generally undesirable. It is expressed as a percentage of the original signal
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection. This is a specification developed by Intel to address digital rights management.
High Definition Multimedia Interface. Allows high definition video.
a measurement of the frequency of sound vibration. One Hz is equal to one cycle per second. Named after H.R. Hertz, a German physicist.
an electric circuit that passes high frequencies but blocks low ones by acting as a large impedance to those frequencies.
background audio noise that sounds like a rattle snake.
an audio system designed to reproduce the theater sound experience while viewing movies in the home. Usually consists of a Dolby Prologic Decoder, 5 speakers, and a subwoofer.
a speaker design using its own funnel shaped conduit to amplify, disperas, or modify the sounds generated by the internal diaphragm of the speaker.
audio noise that has a steady low frequency pitch
it is the speakers ability to localize different instruments playing simultaneously.
dependent in frequency, the AC equivalent of resistance in a DC circuit.
the capability of a coil to store energy in a magnetic field surrounding it. Commonly used in audio as low pass crossovers. Produces an impedance to an AC current.
a flat surface that completely isolated the back wave of a driver from the front
Infrasonic (subsonic) Filter
a filter designed to remove extremely low frequency noise from the audio signal
Connection from signal source
enclosure where one woofer is butied in the enclosure and the second is mounted up against the first and wired in reverse polarity.
an electric circuit designed to pass only low frequencies and act as a high impedance to frequencies out if the filters pass band.
Maximum Power rating
a value which means almost nothing, the max wattage an audio component can deliver
a measurement of capacitance
the frequency range above bass but below treble that. arries most of the identifying tones of music or speech. Usually 200Hz to 4kHz
a measurement of inductance
the moving mass of a driver assembly
monophonic sound. a method for reproducing sound where the signals from all directions or sources are blended into a single channel
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transitors. Used in quality car audio amplifiers.
a range of tones where the highest tone occurs at twice the frequency of the lowest tone
a unit of electrical resistance or impedance
The current (I) in amperes in a circuit is equal to the voltage (V) in volts divided by the resistance (R)
used in DAC systems. Increases signal frequency, in making it easier for conversion circuitry and ancillary systems to filter out unwanted signals.
Out of Phase
When your speakers are kounted in reverse polarity
the sound level produced by loudspeaker
uses inductors (could) and capacitors to direct proper frequencies to appropriate drivers.
A device that looks just like an ordinary driver, except it has no magnet or voice coil.
the maximum amplitude of a voltage or current
refers to the timing relationship of two or more signals or sound waves. The drivers on the right and left speakers should be moving in and out at the same time (in phase)
the relationship and timing of sounds that come from different drivers mounted in different locations in the vehicle.
a type of audible distortion caused by time delay between various parts if the signal; can be caused by equalizers
peak music power, used in gear that needs to look more powerful than it is. (boom box, car stereo, ignore it)
the orientation of magnetic or electric field. determines the direction if movement of the speaker cone.
a type of speaker enclosure that uses a duct or port to improve efficiency at low frequencies
the time rate at which work is done it the rate at which energy is used
the tendency if an object to vibrate most at a particular frequency.
the frequency at which the speaker tends to vibrate most at a certain frequency
in electrical or electronic circuits, a characteristic of a material that opposes the flow of electrons.
Root mean square, used to help rate the continuous power output of an amplifier or input capability of speakers
the attenuation that occurs at the lowr or upper frequency range of a driver, network or system. the frequency where resonse is reduced by -3 dB.
high resolution digital audio format developed by Sony and Philips.
how fast a digital recorder or player samples a signal.
a small speaker with limited bass response, often designed to be used with a matching subwoofer.
air tight enclosure that completely isolated the back wave of the driver from the front.
the sound pressure level directly in front of the speaker at a given distance produced by a given amount of power
the ratio expressed in dB, between the signal and noise
the waveform if a pure alternating current or voltage. audio signals are sine waves or combinations of some waves
Single Reflex Band pass Enclosure
4th order bandpass. a design where the friver us completely "buried" in the enclosure, mounted in a sealed chamber and firing into 2nd ported chamber with sound emanating from one or more ports
term,used to describe how quickly the output of an amplifier can track its input
Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
the loudness of an acoustic wave stated in dB that us proportional to the logarithm of its intensity
the flexible material that supports the former, voice could, and inside portion of the cone within the speaker frame.
a buildup of sound level at a particular frequency that is dependent upon the dimensions of a resonant room, car intwrior2, or enclosure.
a loudspeaker designed to reproduce bass frequencies
the outer speaker of a cone; holds the diaphragm in place but allows it to move when activated.
the quality if sound related to its harmonic structure. (why a trumpet and a saxophone sound different when they play the same note)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
the RMS value of the harmonic components of the output signal, excluding the fundamental, expressed as a percentage of the RMS of the fundamental
the ability of a speaker to respond to any sudden change in the signal without blurring (smearing) the sound.
the upper end of the audio spectrum reproduced by tweeters.
a speaker designed to reproduce high or treble range if the sound spectrum
speakers that do this have a similar timbre or tonal quality
the wire wound around the speaker former, causes the cone to vibrate in response to the audio current in the voice coil.
a unit of measurement used to measure how much "pressure" is used to force electricity through a circuit
a unit if electrical power, a watt is the use of one joule of energy per second
the length of a sound wave j, air
a loudspeaker transducer designed to reproduce low-frequency sounds
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