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provide a protective framework for internal organ
spongy tissue of the axial skeleton
The axial skeleton also houses sensory organs
contains hemopoietic tissue responsible for the production of blood.
The axial skeleton consists of the following bones:
•8 cranial bones
•14 facial bones
•7 Cervical vertebrae
•12 Thoracic vertebrae
•5 Lumbar vertebrae
•12 pairs of ribs
Greek word “Kranion”
22 paired bones (8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones).
Forming a protective cavity for the brain
•Providing cavities to house sensory organs
•Providing openings for food and air passages
•The process of mastication
Latin word Frons meaning brow or forehead
The squamous part forms the forehead
The orbital part forms the superior portion of the orbit of the eye
medial 1/3 of the supraorbital margin and transmits nerves and blood vessels to the forehead.
Latin word Parietalis which means “pertaining to walls”
2 bones that constitute the sides of the cranium.
Latin word Tempus meaning “time”
paired, irregular shaped bones that comprise the lateral aspects of the cranium inferior to the parietal bones.
EXTERNAL ACOUSTIC MEATUS
a large canal through the temporal bone which houses the middle and inner ear.
from the Greek word Mastos meaning breast
a large process which projects inferiorly and serves as the point of insertion for the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
formed by the temporal and zygomatic bones
made up of zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone.
slender projection of bone extending from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone.
Latin word petrous meaning “rocky”
located within the cranial cavity and houses the middle and inner ear
Greek words “shen” meaning wedge and “oides” meaning shape
located between the cranial and facial bones
cubital in shape and situated medially
Greater Wing & Lesser Wing
a broad expansion of bone located within the middle cranial fossa.
divides the anterior and middle cranial fossa.
located on the superior aspect of the body of the sphenoid. It presents with a fossa in which the pituitary gland is located.
extend inferiorly from the junction of the greater wing and the body of the sphenoid bone.
Consist of medial and lateral pterygoid plates that serve as points of attachment for muscles of mastication (the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles).
Greek work “ethmos” which means sieve
irregularly shaped bone located within the anterior cranial fossa between the frontal bone.
A horizontal plate of bone that possesses many foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerves
a superior projection of the ethmoid bone that protrudes into the anterior cranial fossa.
forms the superior 2/3rds of the nasal septum.
Latin word “occipia” which means to begin or commence
located on the posterior, inferior aspect of the cranium.
a large eminence on the posterior aspect of the occipital bone along the median plane.
CLIVUS or BASILAR
portion of the occipital bone is located inferiorly and anteriorly and articulates with the sphenoid bone.
2 oval projections located on the lateral sides of the foramen magnum that articulate with the first cervical vertebrae, the “atlas"
large hole located at the inferior aspect of the occipital bone. It transmits the spinal cord.
forms the upper jaw in which the upper teeth are anchored
two holes located inferior to the bony orbit of the eye.
an irregular bone which constitutes the posterior 1/3 of the “hard palate”.
Latin word which means “tear”
thin, irregular bones located on the medial-anterior portion of the bony orbit of the eye.
The lacrimal bones are positioned near the tear ducts
Latin word “zygoma” which means yolk or bar
forms the bony aspect of the cheeks.
Each zygomatic bone forms 3 “bridges” between the frontal, maxillary and temporal bones.
temporal process of the zygomatic bone articulates with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
two irregularly shaped bones which constitute the superior aspect of the bridge of the nose.
articulates with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and constitutes the inferior 1/3
of the nasal septum
Greek word “mando” which means to chew
superior projections which articulate with the temporal bone to form the TMJ.
superior projection on the mandible that serves at the insertion point for the temporalis muscle
Temporal-Mandibular Joint (TMJ)
formed as the condyloid process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
hinge movements and planar movements
protraction, retraction and lateral movements
Superior Orbital Fissure
long, teardrop shaped depression under the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone which leads to the bony orbit of the eye.
takes a torturous path through the petrous portion of the temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery.
Circle of Willis
The internal carotid artery emerges from the carotid canal within the middle cranial fossa and goes on to form this,
which supplies the internal cranial tissues.
project laterally from the junction of the pedicles and lamina.
SUPERIOR and INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES
Greek word “Atlao” meaning to endure or sustain
possesses concave superior articular processes that articulate with the occipital condyles of the skull.
has no body
The lamina and spinous process are replaced by this
DENS (ODONTOID) PROCESS
due to a protrusion of the nucleus pulposis through the anulus fibrosus
of 5 vertebral segments which become fused together.
4 fused vertebral segments.
PRIMARY CURVATURE in adulthood
The vertebrae of the thoracic and sacral region maintain
SECONDARY CURVATURE in adulthood
The vertebrae of the cervical and lumbar region
(also known as hunchback) is an increase in the primary curvature of the thoracic spine.
an increase in the secondary curvature of the lumbar (or cervical) spine.
increase in lateral deviation of the spine.
BASE of sacrum
found along the superior border
located at the inferior end of the sacrum and articulates with the coccyx.
faces anteriorly and presents the PROMONTORY
a anterior projection at the site of articulation with the 5th lumbar vertebrae
which are 4 sets of openings for the passage of the ventral rami of spinal nerves S1-S4.
DORSAL SURFACE of sacrum
SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES AND FACETS
superior projections which articulate with the inferior articular processes of the 5th lumbar vertebrae
POSTERIOR (DORSAL) SACRAL FORAMINA
4 sets of openings for the passage of the dorsal rami of spinal nerves S1-S4.
a posterior opening due to the absence of lamina on the 5th sacral segment
MEDIAN SACRAL CREST
the remnant of the spinous processes.
occurs when the 1st sacral vertebrae is incompletely fused with the remainder of the sacrum
Greek word Sternon which means “the breast of man”
a flat bone located at the anterior aspect of the thorax along the median plane.
The sternum is divided into three parts:
Latin word Manus meaning “hand”
resemble the handle of a sword
a notch on the superior border of the manubrium.
manubrium articulates with what?
the clavicles and first two pairs of costal cartilages
BODY of the sternum
long, narrow and thinner than the manubrium.
the costal cartilages of ribs 2-7
junction between the manubrium and the body and is an important, palpable landmark for counting ribs.
Greek words for XIPHOID PROCESS
Xiphon and Oeides which means “sword shaped”,
smallest, most variable and inferior portion of the sternum.
(pit of the stomach) is a depression on the anterior aspect of the xiphoid process.
joint between the xiphoid process and the body at the superior aspect of the epigastric fossa.
Attach to sternum
cervical or rudimentary first ribs.
accessory ribs may result in compression of the ventral rami that comprise the brachial plexus
13th pair of ribs can occur at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae.
Congenital deformities of the costal cartilage of ribs
articulates with the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae.
NECK of Rib
constricted portion lateral to the head
the posterior projection lateral to the neck which articulates with the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae.
BODY of the rib
ANGLE of the rib
the point where the curve (or angle) of the rib is the sharpest
ANTERIOR END of the rib
the end of the rib which articulates with the COSTAL CARTILAGE.
the groove which courses along the internal inferior surface of the rib
formed by the articulation of the head of the rib with the body of the vertebrae.
The 24 ribs each articulate with the 12 thoracic vertebrae at 2 locations
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